• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21
  22. 22
  23. 23
  24. 24
  25. 25
  26. 26
  27. 27
  28. 28
  29. 29
  30. 30
  31. 31
  32. 32
  33. 33
  34. 34
  35. 35

The aim of this assignment is to critically evaluate the biopsychosocial perspectives and influences on the health and well being of a patient, a 38 year old gentleman who is dependent on alcohol.

Extracts from this document...


The aim of this assignment is to critically evaluate the biopsychosocial perspectives and influences on the health and well being of a patient, a 38 year old gentleman who is dependent on alcohol. This is in order to gain an insight into the pathophysiological effects of alcohol and the psychology and social influences on his drinking. To comply with the NMC The Code (2008) on confidentiality I have called my patient Jack. The World Health Organisation (WHO) (1948) defines health as 'a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease', (World Health Organisation, WHO, 1946, pg 100). This definition which was believed to be forward for its time is recognised as being an achievement with the 'absence of disease' (Taylor 2006), however the definition has also been criticised for being unrealistic as Godlee (2011) states, this definition explains health to be flawless, which would be impossible to achieve for the majority of the population, making us all unhealthy with Huber (2011) agreeing stating that giving the rise of chronic diseases the word 'complete' would leave most people unhealthy'. Canguilhem (1991) believed the definition from the WHO was considered to be an idealistic goal rather than a realistic one as he states that health could not be defined as a state, but seen as a process of continuous adjustment to the changing demands of living and of the changing meanings we give to life. This definition appears to be more holistic and realistic towards an individual's lifestyle taking into account their psychological and social aspects of life. The Department of Health, (DoH, 2007, pg 41) defined health as "a subjective state of being healthy, happy, contended, comfortable and satisfied with one's quality of life." These definitions are more holistic to an individual and appear to support the biopsychosocial model, whereas The WHO, (1946), definition appears to use the biomedical model as a framework as it defined health as the 'absence of disease' which has a less holistic approach but this could be because the biopsychosocial model had not been developed until 1977. ...read more.


Jack started drinking at the age of 15 when his mother died in a car crash, his relationship with his father broke down as soon as he started drinking and was often referred to as a failure. NICE 2011 guidelines on alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse state that adverse life events can trigger excessive drinking and may predispose to the development of alcohol dependence, this is particularly apparent following a bereavement or job loss. Thompson et al (2008) suggested that there are two distinct types of alcoholism. Type 1 alcoholism affects both men and women and requires the presence of a genetic as well as an environmental predisposition and can start later on in life and can take on either a mild or severe form. Type II alcoholism, affects mainly sons of male alcoholics, is influenced only weakly by environmental factors, often begins during adolescence or early adulthood, is characterized by moderate severity, and usually is associated with criminal behaviour and that additional studies have demonstrated that type I and type II alcoholics also differ in characteristic personality traits (e.g., harm avoidance and novelty seeking respectively. Jack's drinking would correspond with Type 1 alcoholism as he mainly drank as a coping mechanism, although started at an early age but am unsure of any genetic connection with alcoholism and would not like to assume otherwise. Khantzian (1997) states that individuals become addicted as the result of their attempts to adapt their heightened reactions to stress and alleviate their feelings, while attempting to block out negative emotions or use avoidance as their sole coping strategies. Folkman and Lazarus have defined coping as 'the person's cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage the internal and external demands of the person-environment transaction that is appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person' (Folkman et al., 1986), this could mean that the stressfulness of a situation is dependent on the person and how they cope with the environment and resources around them. ...read more.


British Journal of Psychiatry; 191, p375-377 SMITH, C., 2002. The biopsychosocial revolution: Interviewing and provider-patient relationships becoming key issues for primary care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17, p309-310. STRECHER, V.J. and ROSENSTOCK, I.M. 1997 The Health Belief Model: In Health Behaviour and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice 2: pp. 41-59. SNOOKS, M., 2009. Health Psychology: biological, psychological and sociocultural perspectives. London: Jones and Bartlett publishers SWAINE, J., 2009 'Deaths from alcohol abuse more than double in 16 years, ONS figures show', The Telegraph, 17 January 2009. Available from: www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/4359775 Accessed 19th February 2012 THE BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY & THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PSYCHIATRIST, 2011. Alcohol Use Disorders: the NICE guideline on assessment and management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence. London; Stanley L Hunt Printers Available from: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/files/samplechapter/NICEalchoholSC.pdf Accessed 11 April 2012 WADE, T. and HAILIGAN, W., 2004. Do biomedical models of illness make for good health care systems? British Medical Journal; 329, 1398-1401 WALDRAM, J.B., HERRING, A, and YOUNG, K., 2005. Dealing with alcohol, historical, cultural and epidemiology perspectives. Cambridge, Cambridge university press WALKER, J.G, JACKSON, H.J. and LITTLEJOHN, G.O., 2004. Models of Adjustment to Chronic Illness: Using example of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Clinical Psychology Review, 24(4): p461-488. WALKER, J., PAYNE, S., SMITH, P., and JARRETT, N., 2007. Psychology for Nurses and the caring profession, 3rd edition. Berkshire: McGraw Hill Education WESTON, W., 2005. Patient-centered medicine: A guide to the biopsychosocial model. Families, Systems, & Health Vol. 23(4); p387-405 WHITE, A., 2003. What happened; Alcohol, memory blackouts, and the brain; Alcohol research and health, 27:(2), p186-196 WHITE, Y. and GREYNER, S., 1999. The biopsychosocial impact of end- stage renal disease: the experience of dialysis patients and their partners. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 30(6); p1312-1320 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION., 1946. The constitution of the World Health Organization. Geneva: World Health Organization. WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION., 2004. Global Status Report on Alcohol. 2nd edition. Geneva: World Health Organisation WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION., 1994. International Classification of Diseases. 4th edition. Geneva: World Health Organization. WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION., 2005. Preventing chronic diseases: a vital investment: Geneva: World Health Organisation ?? ?? ?? ?? 09BNB2062 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Healthcare essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The purpose of this assignment is to complete a health needs assessment within a ...

    4 star(s)

    General health Within the ward there are 1693 people who report themselves to be in not so good health (15.09%), within England this figure is 9.06% a difference of 6.03% almost a third higher. The percentage of those with limiting long tern illnesses is 29.01%, 11.08% higher than in national average.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The purpose of this essay is to carry out an assessment of a patient ...

    3 star(s)

    twice a day and care was continued to be monitored and assessed, this mostly happened via handovers. I saw this as an opportunity to continue assessment of both physical and mental health of my patient. All care was documented, signed and Jane's assessment/care plan file was kept at the foot of the bed.

  1. This assignment will look at COPD and its associated problems as well as smoking ...

    (Ash, 2003) The introduction of Smoke free legislation in the UK was complete by July 1 2007. This involved many charities and professional organisations as well as the government in educating the public on the dangers of smoking, in particular targeting the more socioeconomically deprived groups who have the highest smoking rates.

  2. Outline and evaluate the evidence of variations in health and illness by class, gender, ...

    In general they are more marked the start of life and in early adulthood. Average life expectancy provides a useful summary of the cumulative impact of these advantages and disadvantages throughout life. A child born to professional parents, if he or she is not socially mobile, can expect to spend

  1. How is illness socially constructed?

    The medical model's positive aspects include the recognition of explanation for illness i.e. can create a link between illness and causes and preventative methods i.e. not smoking to reduce the risk of lung cancer, although this theory is not applicable to all illnesses.

  2. Compare the Biopsychosocial model with the Health Belief model

    psychological systems like behaviour and then affect our social systems like our family and ecological systems such as other human beings. As shown by Baynard 5 (1996) the three main systems of the Biopsychosocial model (social, psychological and biological factors)

  1. ReflectiveEssay to Discuss the Nursing Process and how it was Applied in the ClinicalArea ...

    All care was documented and signed and Mary's assessment/care plan file was kept at the foot of the bed. All of the contents are legal documents and can be referred to by health professionals who participate in the care being given but can also be viewed by Mary and her family.

  2. What does it mean to say that illness is socially constructed? Focus your discussion ...

    as they were more organised and influential than their competitors.6 Illness was created, or socially constructed according to an elite group's assumptions of what is 'normal'. What constitutes as illness has changed over time. Groups in society that had previously not been considered ill had been condemned, and others that had been considered ill had been freed of the label.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work