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The aim of this study was to investigate the health and nutritional status of older people living in sheltered accommodation. The objectives were to determine if health was poorer in rented rather than owned accommodation or in more deprived areas.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Table of Contents Acknowledgements 2 Abstract 3 1 Introduction 4 2 Method 12 2.1 Questionnaire 12 2.2 Anthropometry 13 2.2.1 Body Mass Index (BMI) 13 2.2.2 Waist Circumference 14 2.2.3 Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) 14 2.3 Index of Multiple Deprivation 15 2.4 Analysis 19 3 Results 20 3.1 Housing Tenure 21 3.2 Neighbourhood 27 3.3 Neighbourhood and Housing Tenure 32 3.4 Renters in different Areas 34 3.5 Owners in different Neighbourhoods 35 3.6 Age and Dietary Habits 36 3.7 Age and Lifestyle 37 3.8 Age and Anthropometry 37 4 Discussion 42 4.1 Smoking 42 4.2 Alcohol 43 4.3 Food Consumption 43 4.4 Meal preparation 46 4.5 Anthropometry 47 4.6 Limitations 50 5 Conclusion 51 5.1 Recommendations 51 6 Appendices 52 Appendix A - Questionnaire 52 Appendix B - Consent Form 55 Appendix C - Participant Information Sheet 56 Appendix D - Glossary 58 7 References 59 Acknowledgements I would like to thank the following: Dr. Ian Davies, my supervisor and Dr. Leo Stevenson for their encouragement, patience and expert advice. I am most grateful to the wardens who allowed me access to the individuals necessary to complete this research, without whom this paper could not have been written. Abstract Increasing life expectancy has contributed to an increased population of people aged over 60. This rise will potentially increase the number of people living in sheltered accommodation, which removes the need to maintain a house and garden whilst enabling them to continue to live independently in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the health and nutritional status of older people living in sheltered accommodation. The objectives were to determine if health was poorer in rented rather than owned accommodation or in more deprived areas. Purposive sampling was used to investigate the health of older people living in different housing tenures and areas of Liverpool. In total, 43 participants completed a quantitative questionnaire which was used to compare dietary patterns, lifestyle factors (alcohol use, smoking status) ...read more.

Middle

The mean waist circumference in area 2 was 85.1 cm (range 71.12-106.68, � 11.1) compared to 97.2 cm (range 81.28-106.68, � 9.5) in area 4 (Table 3.4). A Mann-Whitney test revealed a significant difference in the waist circumference (p 0.037) between areas 2 (median = 81.3 cm, n = 9) and 4 (median = 101.6 cm, n = 8). A Chi-square test was carried out to see if participants in more deprived areas had more health risks. No significant association was found for BMI risk (p 0.106) or MUAC risk (p 0.690). Areas 1 and 2 had the highest percentage of participants in the obese BMI category (Figure 3.14), whilst area 4 had more participants in the overweight BMI category (Table 3.5). Table 3.5: Health risks between neighbourhood Percentage (%) Area 1 (n = 10) Area 2 (n = 9) Area 3 (n = 16) Area 4 (n = 8) BMI (kg/m2) Underweight (<20) 0 22.2 12.5 0 Normal (20-25) 50 22.2 31.3 37.5 Overweight (25-30) 10 11.1 37.5 62.5 Obese (>30) 40 44.4 18.8 0 Waist Circumference (cm) Low Risk (women < 80, men < 94) 20 66.7 37.5 0 Medium Risk (women ? 80 and < 88, men ? 94 and < 102) 20 11.1 43.8 50 High Risk (women ? 88, men ? 102) 60 22.2 18.8 50 MUAC (cm) At Risk (< 23.5) 10 22.2 6.3 12.5 Normal 90 77.8 93.8 87.5 A significant association was found between the area where participants lived and waist circumference (p 0.036). Area 2 had the highest percentage of participants with a low-risk waist circumference (66.7%) and areas 1 and 4 had the highest percentage of participants with a high-risk waist circumference (60% and 50%) (Figure 3.15). Figure 3.14: BMI risk of participants according to neighbourhood Figure 3.15: Waist risk of participants according to neighbourhood A Chi-square test was carried out to compare participants who lived in more deprived areas with those living in less deprived areas. ...read more.

Conclusion

_______________________ ____________ ___________________ Note: When completed 1 copy for participant and 1 copy for researcher Appendix C - Participant Information Sheet A study of the health and nutritional status of people living in sheltered accommodation in Liverpool. Student name The School of Outdoors Leisure and Food Faculty of Education Community and Leisure "You are being invited to take part in a research study. Before you decide if you want to take part it is important that you understand why the research is being done and what it involves. Please take time to read the following information. Ask me if there is anything that is not clear or if you would like more information. Take time to decide if you want to take part or not." 1) What is the purpose of the study? This is a student led research project investigating the health and nutritional status of residents living in sheltered accommodation in Liverpool. This will be done by asking individuals in different sheltered housing schemes around Liverpool to complete a short questionnaire. 2) Do I have to take part? No. It is up to you to decide whether or not to take part. If you do want to take part you will be given this information sheet and asked to complete a short questionnaire. You are still free to withdraw at any time and without giving a reason. 3) What will happen to me if I take part? You will be asked to complete a short questionnaire which does not contain any personal information. 4) Are there any risks / benefits involved? No risks. Benefits include helping to determine the health and nutritional status of individuals living in sheltered accommodation throughout Liverpool. 5) Will my taking part in the study be kept confidential? Your confidentiality will be safeguarded during and after the study. All information collected during the study will be made and will remain confidential - this includes the names of the sheltered accommodation residences. Contact Details Researcher Student details Contact Details of Project Leader Dr Ian Davies IM Marsh Campus Barkhill Road Liverpool L17 6BD I.G.Davies@ljmu.ac. ...read more.

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