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This essay is about accident prevention in the older adult at home. Relevant health promotion theories and model shall be used, sociological and psychological determinants affecting health will be discussed

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Introduction

This essay is about accident prevention in the older adult at home. Relevant health promotion theories and model shall be used, sociological and psychological determinants affecting health will be discussed. Relevant policies, documents, and government reports shall be included. The role of the nurse will be explained in relation to health promotion. Epidemiological, statistical evidence to accidents in the home will be included and why illness is a major life event. Dr Manish (2007) explains that "health" is an elusive word. Most people who consider themselves healthy are not. And many people, who are suffering from some known disease, may be relatively healthy. Health is a concept which does not merely relate to the absence of disease, of healthy working organs, or having good thoughts. Health is a holistic concept. It relates to a person as a whole. Not just the person you see, but also the person you feel. Health is a tri-une of three parts: emotional health, mental health and physical health." According to Heinrich (1931), who developed the domino theory, "88% of all accidents are caused by unsafe acts of people, 10% by unsafe actions, and 2% by "acts of God." He proposed a "five-factor accident sequence" in which each factor would actuate the next step in the manner of toppling dominoes lined up in a row. The sequence of accident factors are: ancestry and social environment, worker fault, unsafe act together with mechanical and physical hazard, accident, and damage or injury. In the health of the nation white paper published in July 1992 the government said that the National Health Service management executive would commission handbooks on possible local approaches to each of the five key areas identified in the white paper: Coronary heart disease and stroke, cancers, mental illness, accidents and HIV/Aids and sexual health. The Department of health, social services, and public safety (2004) explains that "their strategy aims is to reduce the number of accidental deaths and injuries in the home." ...read more.

Middle

produces and distributes leaflets to help prevent accidents and hazards. They explain that publicity is needed because stress, illness, social deprivation, ignorance of danger, and carelessness all contribute to home accidents, it doesn't matter how well products are made, or how safe the environment is, accidents still happen. Appendix 3 shows A&E attendances by time of day and age group, also by month and age group. The Health Education Authority (1996) states that the UK population aged seventy five and over has five times the rate of accidental deaths as the total population. Those aged seventy five and over have a death rate of 114 per 100,000 caused by accidents compared with a death rate of 21 per 100,000 in all age groups. 40% of injuries happen in the home, which is the most common accident location for older people. Ashton (1998) explains that an accident can change the life of an older person, leading to loss of confidence, resulting in having an affect on their emotional and physical well-being, and can contribute to poor mental health. The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents and Age Concern (1996) say that accidental injuries can have a long term effect on normal daily activities, particularly among older women. The Royal Society for the prevention of Accidents (1996) estimates that 135,000 falls occur each year among people aged seventy five years and over. Falls are more likely to happen to older people with a disability or longstanding illness and are more serious than falls by younger people. The majority of accidents for people aged sixty five to seventy four who are still active are mostly in the garden, living room, kitchen, and stairs. Later in life 75+ people are less active and more serious accidents occur on the stairs, bedroom, or living room. Most accidents happen in the daytime. They occur when getting out the bath, out of bed or up from a chair. ...read more.

Conclusion

Nursing Knowledge and Practice: foundations for decision making. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Balliere. Tindall, 2004, p436. BUENO-CANVILLAS, et al., 2006; Vu, et al., 2006. International journal of older people. 2(2), p6. CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS AND AUDIT STRATEGY, 2003-06. Consultation document on a five year home accident prevention. www.sheffield.nhs.uk/southeastpct/resources (Accessed on 05.05.07) CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION, 2005. www.cpsc.gov/library/2005fwreport.pdf (Accessed on 12.05.07) DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, SOCIAL SERVICES AND PUBLIC SAFETY, 2004. Statistics and research. www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/index/stats/research/stats-pubs-htm-25k (Accessed on 12.05.07) DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH., 1992. Health Survey. www.esds.ac.uk/finding data/sndescriptionasp (Accessed on 19.05.07) DIRECTORATE OF INFORMATION AND CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS., 2002. www.sheffield.nhs.uk/southeastpct/resources (Accessed on 12.05.07) FULLER, 2000. International Journal of Older People. 2(2) p7. GAGNON, et al., 1995; Ray et al., 2006. International journal of older people. 2(2) p6. HEALTH EDUCATION AUTHORITY, 1996. Accident prevention among older people. 161.112.232.203: 4128/rest/xst-senda/keyword/author/health%education%20 authority. (Accessed on 20/05/07) HEALTH PROMOTION AUDIT, 2005. www.rpsgb.org.uk/pdfs/leaflet.pdf (Accessed on 15.05.07) HEALTH OF THE NATION WHITE PAPER, 1992. Government Reports. www.ismu.ac.uk/lea/82385.htm-39k. (Accessed on 16.05.07) HEINRICH, W, H., 1931. Safety and public health service information. www.topblogging.com/health/blogdetails-373him-21k (Accessed on 16.05.07) INVESTING FOR HEALTH STRATEGY., 2002. Consultation document on a five year home accident prevention. www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/haconsult.pdf (Accessed on 17.05.07) MANISH, B., 2007. Annual Report. www.tiss.edu/research-projects-0607.pdf (Accessed on 22.05.07) NHS SCOTLAND., 2002/03. Adding life to years annual report. www.scotland.gov.uk/publications/2003/12/18661/30643-17k (Accessed on 20.05.07) OAKLEY, A. et al., 1996. Health Scotland. www.hebs.scot.nhs.uk/healthservice/hospitals/pub-section-cem? (Accessed on 17.05.07) OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS., 1998. www.performance.doh.gov.uk/nhsperformance indicators/hipi2002/ha-source -html (Accessed on 10.05.07) PERTH AND KINROSS COUNCIL., 2006 Standards and scrutiny committee. www.pkc.gov.uk/.../0/Housing and Communitycare six monthlyperformance report2006-pdf (Accessed on 15.05.07) ROYAL PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS., 2003. Home safety. www.sheffield.nhs.uk/southeastpct/resources (Accessed on 16.05.07) ROYAL PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS.,2000. Home safety. www.rospa.com/homesafety/index.htm (Accessed 17.05.07) ROYAL SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS, 1998. HOME SAFETY CONGRESS. www.dti.gov.uk/ministers/archived/howells/061100 (Accessed on 15.05.07) ROYAL SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS AND AGE CONCERN., 1996. Falls how to avoid them and how to cope. www.tiss.edu/research-projects. (Accessed on 15.05.07) SHEAHAN, L,S., and COONS, S, J., 1995. Nursing survey. www.aihw .gov.au/publications/phe/qdcmma98/ (Accessed on 15.05.07) SOCIAL SERVICES., 2007. A guide to services for elderly people. www.swansea.gov.uk/index.cem?articleid=11168-34k (Accessed on 14.05.07) YARROW, R., 1998. Major accident hazards: environmental or health risk. www.aea.ac.uk/menu/admin/com/broadview/files/septoo.pdf (Accessed on 20.05.07) 1 ...read more.

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