Current scholarship generally acknowledges that art does not exist

Current scholarship generally acknowledges that art does not exist in a vacuum. Rather, art is an expression of the culture which creates it, revealing common beliefs, aspirations, and feelings. Within the vein of "cultural art history" the true nature of ancient Egypt has become the focus of much questioning. Much has been said regarding this ancient civilization within the context of the continent of Africa. The focus has not been merely geographic-although some scholars contend that the physical location of Egypt has been all but overlooked. At the core of this controversy is the issue of ethnicity and culture. What was the identity of the people who built and populated ancient Egypt?1 Many scholars decry the separation of Egyptology from the study of sub-Saharan, so-called "black" Africa. Others continue to uphold a view of Egypt as an essentially "white" society and thus the basis of Western culture. No matter the outcome, this dialogue has led to a fruitful re-examination of the past, as well as a greater understanding of the art and culture of Egypt. While we cannot be certain of the ancient Egyptian skin tone, we have come to recognize the fundamental nature of a people who perceived their world as consisting of more than a physical reality. In order to understand Egypt, we must recognize that Egyptian art is primarily conceptual and symbolic in nature, serving to

  • Word count: 2498
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Art & Design
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What Makes A Portrait

Sarah Way What is a Portrait? ________________ List of Illustrations . Ruud Van Empel- World #1 http://web.ruudvanempel.nl/works/116-world-1.html . Nathan Gallagher, Gucci Guilty http://stylefrizz.com/201008/evan-rachel-wood-is-gucci-guilty-perfume-ad-campaign-girl/ . Robert Mapplethorpe- Apollo http://www.mutualart.com/Artwork/APOLLO--1988/547FD8F8B6661267 . William Eggleston- ‘’untitled’’ from Los Alamos http://www.egglestontrust.com/ . Arnold Newman- Alfried Krupp http://michaelgrubb.blogspot.com/2010/08/arnold-newman-father-of-environmental.html . Frankenstein- Unknown http://www.doctormacro.com/movie%20star%20pages/Karloff,%20Boris-Annex.htm . ________________ As the most technologically advanced era to date, the world has the ever present ability to capture, publish and view portraits at an astonishing rate. Whether they be for passports, profile pictures or social publications, the portrait is everywhere in our day to day life. For me, this effortless capability poses the question; do we take portraits for granted? Do we ever stop to think why we’re capturing a portrait? Or, the question I am most interested in; what makes a portrait? David Bate summarises in his publication ‘The Key Concepts: Photography’ that a portrait comprises of four main components; the face, the pose, the clothing and location in which the photograph is

  • Word count: 2488
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Art & Design
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Consider the interplay of identities-national, racial, gender or otherwise- in the works of at least one artist and one film director studied this semester.

Consider the interplay of identities-national, racial, gender or otherwise- in the works of at least one artist and one film director studied this semester. The identities I have chosen to consider are gender and national identity. I feel these are two of the major issues of Latin Americans, especially during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries when feminist movements began and movements occurred such as indigenismo (A Latin American movement urging for a dominant social and political role for Indians in countries where they make up the majority). To consider the topic of identities I must first understand the context of the period of time that the artists were working and what sort of feminist or national occurrences were going on at that time. Then having considered this I will have to consider why and where these identities are evident in the work of the artists I will be looking at. Since the 1970's, new, modern forms of feminism have begun to take shape in Latin America. This feminism has been influenced by events and tendencies as diverse as the debates over the Cuban Family Code (mid-1970's); the experience of Latin American women in exile in Mexico, the United States, and Europe (1970's and 80's); the international feminist movement; the Nicaraguan revolution and guerrilla movements in Central America; and the rise of strong women's movements in response to

  • Word count: 2454
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Art & Design
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Was Joan Eardley a social realist, a neo-romantic or an abstract expressionist?

Scottish Art in the New Age 1945-2000 Was Joan Eardley a social realist, a neo-romantic or an abstract expressionist? I have been back and forth across this question numerous times, and it continues to vex me as my opinion varies each time. In asking a few informed others1 on their opinions the initial answer was usually the same; that generally Eardley's works are concocted in a realist style. Though, each of my sources, after some thought and discussion, changed their minds during the course of the debate. However, I will attempt to define Eardley's work through personal opinion and analysis in the following essay and will hopefully finish with a fuller understanding and a more sound opinion of her work. There are very few published works on Eardley and therefore, limited ideas in print. This has proved a great advantage in the answering of this question since my primary inspiration (evidently this should always be the case) has been solely the works themselves. In addressing the definitions of the terms in question, I came to the conclusion that Eardley did in fact employ a little of each genre in her paintings. Social Realism aims for the, "...truthful, historically concrete portrayal of reality in its revolutionary development..." It also shows "idealised representations of heroic workers and soldiers, in a naturalistic style."2 In considering the latter part of this

  • Word count: 2433
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Art & Design
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Examine the Term "Modernism" with reference to two or three works of Art

Anna Harmsen Corcuera Examine the Term "Modernism" with reference to two or three works of Art The terms "modern", "modernity" and "modernism" are commonly used to specify a break in history, marking a definition between the present and the past, between the fashionable and the out of date, and carry as part of their meaning an almost criticism of tradition. By calling himself a "modernist", the artist is instantly free to work on a clean plate, without the limitations of tradition with its set of rules or its fixed criteria. It is commonly thought that the Modernist movement was only properly established during the late nineteenth Century, being triggered by ground breaking developments in the areas of science, technology and the economic market. Art was suddenly discovered to be an increasingly useful tool in science, whilst technology was developing new means of reproducing graphic images that widened and spread the use and influence of art. At the same time, the growth in market and social consumption was turning art into a product to be sold, rather than commissioned. These three factors created a need for a new form of art, which like capitalism was in a constant state of change. Other factors that triggered the development of modernism include a "major cultural shift from a time-honored aesthetics of permanence, based on a belief in an unchanging and

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  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Art & Design
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In his series of Biblical scenes in the Vatican Logge, what narrative methods did Raphael employ and how does his approach differ from that of his contemporaries?

In his series of Biblical scenes in the Vatican Logge, what narrative methods did Raphael employ and how does his approach differ from that of his contemporaries? In the following essay, I aim to summarise a select few of the narrative methods employed by Raphael in the Vatican Logge. I will firstly discuss the method of organisation in the Logge as a whole and the relationships between the individual narrative scenes. I will then go on to analyse some of the narrative techniques used within the individual scenes. Within the latter, I will compare Raphael's techniques primarily with contemporary Michelangelo's works and his scenes from the Sistine Chapel ceiling. The Vatican Logge consists of 13 arches forming a gallery 65 metres long and 4 metres wide. The construction was started by Bramante in 1512, under Pope Julius II and was completed by Raphael under the reign of Leo X.1 The pictorial work was initiated in 1517. The 52 scenes on the ceilings of the loggia are commonly known as "Raphael's Bible". Lack of words and space prevent me from presenting all 52 compositions here so I will concentrate on a select few. Scenes from the Old and New Testament were the subject for Raphael's work and undoubtedly made completion of the Logge scenes a demanding task. Reconstructing the most well known stories of all time proved challenging and in doing this he aimed to show the

  • Word count: 2406
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Art & Design
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A Portrait of the Artist As a Young Man.

JAMES JOYCE A Portrait of the Artist As a Young Man The story, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, was a portrait that explored the progression through life that Stephan Dedaelus and James Joyce both took. This book was written as a third person autobiography, and it explored Joyce's life. He used different names, but he kept most of the main details the same. His search for the role that artist played in his life was an ongoing struggle for Stephan throughout the novel. His alienation from family, friends and society was a problem that Stephan had because of his views on life and art. He struggled greatly with his dilemma between religion and art for most of his life, because society and family wanted him to take up religion, while he wanted to express himself freely in the world that he was in and therefore he chose art. His desire for this independence from other people's standards plagued him for most of the novel and he needed to go through all of these experiences in order to find himself these were all a part of his journey that he needed to take to discover himself, and develop his own individual consciousness. Therefore, Stephan Dedaelus' pursuit for his own self-discovery was compromised by many struggles with his role as the artist, his alienation from society, his conflict between religion and art, and his desire for personal independence and freedom as an

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  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Art & Design
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Primitive Art’s Influence on Modern Art

Primitive Art's Influence on Modern Art "Primitivism" can be defined as the "interest of modern artists in tribal art and culture, as revealed through their thought and work" (Rubin 1). The term refers not to the art itself, but to the Western interest and reaction to the art (5). Over and over again, modern artists have drawn on the powers of tribal and primitive art because they are attracted to it authentic, timeless, magical, and innocent ideas -- values most artists felt were fading in the West. Relationships often exist between twentieth-century art and primitive art, whether it is an affinity or a literal borrowing from the past (Stevens 92). Some influences are absorbed, invisible, spiritual, and cannot be exhibited; others can be seen clearly in the artist's work (93). Losing faith in Western art traditions, many artists searched for something pure and real, something to redefine the true nature of art. Many, such as Pablo Picasso, Henry Moore, and Frank Lloyd Wright found this in the ancient art of the primitives. "In no other artist's career has primitivism played so pivotal and historically consequential a role as in Pablo Picasso's" (Rubin 241). With a continuous presence of tribal objects in his studio and his work from 1907 until his death, Picasso is described as the "key protagonist" of 20th century primitivism. Picasso's childhood was bourgeois and

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  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Art & Design
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The Baroque and the Renaissance Eras: Two of the few portals of open thought

The Baroque and the Renaissance Eras: Two of the few portals of open thought. Baroque and Renaissance art were different and similar in many ways. Art, during these specific time periods had been affected by the refortified Christian faith and the upper class. The Renaissance eras were seen as a revival or a rebirth of cultural awareness, religious reawakening and discovery that took place in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, particularly in Italy. This artistic revolution was seen in Spain, the many German areas and other European countries. Theologian Martin Luther brought forth the Protestant Reformation in 1517, igniting religious passion across Europe and the birth of Protestantism. The Church remained a formidable political, social and economic force during the era, and also became the primary patron of the arts. The period blossomed with the artistic, literary and scientific achievements of Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, William Shakespeare, and Galileo Galilei. An emerging middle class began questioning the ideas and assumptions of the past, as the invention of the printing press made literature and other writings widely available. Individual achievement, scientific inquiry and new wealth set the stage for the European Renaissance to rival the triumphs of classical Greece and Rome. This era was unique due to its resurrected interest in ancient Greek

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  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Art & Design
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In What Ways Did Art Become More Widely Accessible in England in the Eighteenth Century?

In What Ways Did Art Become More Widely Accessible in England in the Eighteenth Century? In this day and age we take public art displays for granted; every town has its own small gallery and each city has at least one building for the presentation of art works. However, there were no real public art exhibitions until more modern times, with the exception, perhaps, of in Ancient times when the Greeks and Romans would display artefacts and paintings looted from other countries, and decorated the exterior of their buildings with statues. In Europe they were more forthcoming in presenting exhibitions. From the sixteenth century an annual public exhibition of art was held in the Pantheon and in other churches in Italy, although this was designed more to honour the saints than to display art. "In France, Napoleon's plunder of works of art was parade through the streets of Paris in a revival of ancient roman triumph"1. Also in France the French Academy2, exhibited artists' work in order to familiarise French people with French art as a way of allowing the state to manipulate public taste. In Britain however public art display is a more recent idea. In the Medieval period art tended to be commissioned and therefore was rarely displayed, it was also only the wealthy who could afford to buy paintings. After the reformation in the 1500s when England became a protestant country,

  • Word count: 2351
  • Level: AS and A Level
  • Subject: Art & Design
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