AS Business Studies – Unit 1 investigating business                Matthew Hampson

AS Business studies

Unit 1 - Investigating Business

A portfolio investigating and researching the supermarket chain Tesco


By Matthew Hampson


About the business: Tesco is a UK based international food and general retail chain. It is the UK’s largest retailer by sales and market share, with profits exceeding £3 billion. On a worldwide scale it is the world’s third largest retailer falling only behind Wal-Mart and Carrefour.

Tesco was founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen when he started selling groceries on a market stall in east London. The brand “Tesco” first appeared five years later in 1924. The brand was formed when Cohen took the initials of T.E Stockwell and added the first to letters of his sir name (C.O) and hence the name TESCO was formed.

The first Tesco store opened in 1929 in Middlesex. By 1947 the company was already on the London stock exchange. Tesco grew through the 1950s and 60s until it had more than 800 stores acquired, in the most part through the purchase of other retail chains.

Tesco pioneered the “pile it high, sell it cheap” ethos, this was in the most part due to Jack Cohen’s belief that this was the best way for the business to succeed. In 1964 Tesco signed up with ‘Green Shield Stamps’ to further entice customers, to the modern day family this revolutionised shopping. However Lord Sainsbury disagreed with Cohen’s new idea and market ploy saying it “did not have the best interests of the consumer in mind”. Disregarding Sainsbury’s comments Tesco continued with the stamps which became a huge winner for the business leading to better trade and higher levels of customers.

Following Cohen’s resignation in 1973, Cohen’s son in law Leslie Porter took over as chairman. This was in part due to advice from banks and financial assessors who Tesco had employed to help them recover from their falling level of customers. In 1977 Tesco started the “operation checkout” to help them recover from their increasingly poor image amongst council’s and the people. Operation Checkout involved scrapping green shield stamps and using the money they saved on gifts for the customers they vastly cut prices. The result in 4% market share increase in just two months.

In 1995 Tesco introduced the club card and later on an internet shopping service which in 2006 was the only food retailer to make a profit from the service. The logo was changed in 1996 and on the 21st of February 1997 Terry Leahy took over as Chief executive.

In the last decade Tesco has continued to develop and has looked into branching out in the United States and other world markets looking to exploit countries that do not have similar convenience supermarkets. In the 2000’s Tesco have also branched out in to other areas of retail and services setting up mobile networks internet services and even banking.

What I aim to find out: I aim to find out about the strategy’s that Tesco use in their sales to maximise profitability. I shall analyse their aims and objectives throughout the business and aim to find out the reasons behind them.

I also hope to find out how they carry out the daily operations of the business and how certain factors contribute to the overall effectiveness of the business as a whole. I shall try my best to analyse the business from as many aspects and perspectives as possible to gain as best understanding of the business as I can.  

Aims and objectives:

A large scale company like Tesco will set a variety of aims and objectives for the company to try and meet. These will be in a variety of areas for a variety of reasons. These reasons may be for business gain (i.e. profit), to increase customer satisfaction (i.e. products) or to look good in the public light (i.e. charitable fundraisers or trying to become more environmentally friendly.) Ultimately however, nearly all of the areas Tesco, or any other business for that matter, the main reason for nearly all objectives set out, will be driven by profit. For example achieving greater customer satisfaction should lead to more shoppers (increased profits), making charitable donations should mean more customers will be willing to support their cause (more shoppers, more profit.) Below is a list of Tesco’s aims and objectives in a variety of different areas.

Increasing profit: To any company the most important thing to them is their level of profit. Tesco will be no different they will always be looking to create a greater level of profit and try to become a more dominant force in the world market trying to compete with the likes of wall-mart. They will try and do this by trying in a variety of ways to increase their profit levels. This is very hard to influence directly but they will try and maximise their profit in the following ways.

Maximising sales: The aspect most closely linked to increasing profit will be the level of sales that go through a business, it is therefore imperative to maximise sales to become more profitable. In a company the size of Tesco increasing level of sales could literally make millions of pounds of difference in revenue.

Aim – To maximise level of sales: This is pretty obvious that Tesco will spend a lot of time trying to maximise their sales.

What this means: This essentially means that Tesco will be looking for ways to increase the level of sales and revenue that they generate. There is a number of ways that this can be achieved. Products on sale is pretty obvious, you don’t want to stock things people never buy. Also product placement is key to increasing sales. Tesco will invest a lot of time and resources into studying this.

How they are going about achieving this aim: Tesco go about achieving this aim in variety of ways. The two mentioned earlier are probably the ones they take in the highest regard though. They research a lot into what people are and are not buying and what people will want to buy. This involves introducing new product ranges as well as seasonal items (i.e. Christmas based products). They also spend a lot of time researching product placement. They will analyse the optimum place for products. Generally the ones bought more frequently will be in eye line. These two things should give customers more things to see and hopefully buy.                 Are they achieving it: On the right is a chart showing Tesco’s sales for the five years up to 2005. As you can quite clearly see, they increase. Obviously some of this will be due to inflation, but it will largely down to the volume of their sales. It is quite clear, that over those years at least that they are meeting this aim and the ways they are going abou6 achieving it is evidently working. Right up to 2008 there international and UK sales have been steadily improving to nearly £52 billion worth of sales worldwide.

Growth: Growth is one of the most important factors to any business because it is one of the things that directly links to profit and loss; the bigger the company, in theory the bigger the levels of profit. Any business will be looking to grow into a more powerful and bigger one each year to become a more dominant and profitable company. Growth can be done in a variety of ways, it may be expanding/increasing the number of outlets and customers, buying other business to do the same, or simply expanding into new markets and countries. Below is an example of one of Tesco’s aims with regards to growth.

Aim – To be a successful international retailer:  Tesco are looking to expand in the international market by introducing new outlets in new countries. They say that they expect growth outside the UK will take a long time and they hope that they will complete this objective by sticking by these rules:

  • To be flexible – They say that “each market is unique and requires a different approach” and because of this they should investigate each market thoroughly beforehand.
  • To act local – They say that “local customers, local cultures, local supply chains and local regulations require a tailored offer delivered by local staff.” This means that they should offer each market a unique, tailored service that suites each place’s needs.
  • Maintain focus – They say that they “understand that customers want great service, great choice and great value. To become established as the leading local brand is a long term effort and is not about planting flags in map.”
  • Use multi-formats - They say that “no single format can reach the whole of the market. A whole spectrum from convenience to hypermarkets is essential and you need to take a discounter approach throughout.” This is the same idea that is put into practice in the UK. We have different sized shops selling different things to meet our demands.
  • Develop capability – They say “it’s not about scale; it's about skill - so we make sure we have capability through people, processes and systems.” This is essentially trying to develop in a sensible and a way they are capable of achieving.
  • Build brands – They say “brands enable the building of important lasting relationships with customers.” This means that they will try to build a new brand in each country to make it recognised there, much like the branding we have over here, we all recognise it; it is familiar.

What it means: What this means is that Tesco feel that a good way to succeed in the future is by developing their brand in new markets. They hope that this will bring in more profits. They intend to try and expand in a healthy and ultimately successful way to become more of a global power.

How they are going about achieving this aim: Tesco have aimed to achieve this goal over a long period of time already. They have been investing in new markets since the mid-90s. Last year they announced their entry into the Indian market. Today over half of Tesco’s selling space is overseas which shows their commitment to this long-term plan. Overseas they are generating £17.9 billion in sales and over £700 million in profit.                         Are they achieving it: On the right is a map showing all of the countries that Tesco currently operate in (dark green.) It is actually quite a lot in fact in Europe, America and Asia. It definitely shows Tesco’s development around the globe but not only that it clearly shows how much they are developing in the UK. It says that they now have over 2,650 stores in the UK in a variety of different formats to help exploit every area and grow into it offering customers shopping for ever eventuality. To see the map in full visit:   It also tells you that they now have 125 stores operating in the USA after only starting up in 2007. It really does document the speed of growth of their world trading.

Market share: A market share is the percentage of customers a business has in a particular market area. In Tesco’s case this will be food sales but they will probably be looking closely on their market share against the other superstore chains. A market share is important to any business because it is a good indicator as to how you are doing against your competitors.

Aim – Maintain and improve market share:  Any business will probably have the same aim with regards to market share. It is important that a business resists competition to maintain profits and levels of success.

What it means: What increasing market share means is that Tesco will look to try and take trade from their rivals so that they will have more customers than their rivals and hopefully drive competition out. It will mean that Tesco will try and introduce measures to acquire more customers.

How they are going about achieving this aim: Tesco believe that the best way to improve their market share is by opening more stores. They have done this in recent years by opening up new types of stores to provide the service in more convenient places i.e. in town centres with the introduction of Tesco express. As you can see from the chart on the right Tesco are clearly dominant in the supermarket market. They are the biggest power buy quite some distance keeping clearly ahead of their rivals. They will want to keep their market share high by following the ideas they thought of that would improve their market share.

Quality, range and value of products: Products are at the centre of any business, and Tesco will be no exception. They will want to make sure that there is a reason for shopping there, and products will be the main influence on most people.

Aim – Providing customers with products they want: Tesco hold customers’ views on products in high regard. They try to provide products that customers want and are more importantly happy buy. This means that they have to provide a sufficient and interesting range of products. The products they produce have to meet the quality that the customers want to ensure that they buy them in the first place. Furthermore Tesco must ensure that the products are not out of the financial reaches of their customers.

What this means: This means that Tesco needs to provide a wide range of good quality and value products. This means that they have to try and evaluate factors that may lead to people wanting to buy new things. For instance a few years ago organic products were introduced following an explosion of people wanting to buy them. Tesco had to meet this demand and provide organic products that were widely available to the general public at a reasonable price.

How they are going about achieving this aim: Tesco go about introducing new product lines in a variety of ways. They assess each section separately and every product must meet the criteria.

  • Quality – Tesco set out rigorous standards for every product to meet, these guidelines are set out upon customer opinion. “Quality and life of products are monitored constantly all the way through the supply chain from grower to store assistant.” Tesco also employ “90 dedicated Quality Control Inspectors” to assess the quality of the products.
  • Range – Tesco look to provide a wide range of products throughout all of their outlets from fruit and vegetables to electronic equipment. They try to stock a wide variety of products right across the board, even in their small, high street stores which stock over 2,000 products. They also take advice from their customers as to what they want and they try, where possible to stock them. Last year they added over 8,000 products. They also offer a variety of different types of product including: ‘Healthy Living’ products; ‘Free From’ products (free from food allergens); Special healthy Kids snack; Organic product lines and the widest Fair-trade range in the UK. These were all added through customer requests.
  • Value – One of the biggest ways of attracting the modern day campaign is to reduce costs of products. Tesco have enforced this idea home through constant cost reductions. As you have probably seen the adverts on TV comparing prices against their rivals trying to win customers. However this reduction in costs can have a side effect such as the little money going to suppliers, most notably milk suppliers which was a huge news headline a couple of years ago.

Through these three areas Tesco has aimed to provide better products for all its customers and at the moment seem to be succeeding with the sheer volume of trade they get.

Charities and fundraising: Charities and fundraising works on the same principle as the environmental issues. It works, not by getting direct sales but by persuading people to shop there because the business supports worthwhile causes.

Aim – Giving at least one percent of pre-tax profits to charity: We aim to give at least 1% of pre-tax profits to charity and in 2008 our contribution was £57 million or 1.9%”.

What it means: This means that Tesco will vastly contribute towards charitable causes in the future. This should make them look good in the public light. By helping worthwhile causes people will be more inclined to shop at Tesco which should, in theory drive up sales.

How they are going about achieving this aim: Tesco this year have made considerable charitable donations to all sorts of causes. Such as one recently made to the Haiti disaster fund made through the Red Cross. Donations like this that get out in the public make Tesco look good in the public eye and may well lead to a higher volume of customers.

Environment: Any business will be very conscious about their contribution towards environmental issues. Today with the environment being at the forefront of many people’s minds a business will want to look good in the public eye with their contributions to the environment. This is because having people admiring and appreciating a contribution to something they feel strongly about could well lead to them shopping there; this will lead to higher profits. Tesco clearly see the environment to be a key issue in the business it has a whole section in their corporate responsibility report. Below is an example of one of their aims stated in the corporate responsibility report 2009.


Aim - Home insulation: In Tesco’s annual company report they said the following with regards to offering their customers home insulation:

Tesco Home Insulation Service, introduced in September 2008, is working to help 500,000 customers over the next three years. The service aims to cut five million tonnes of CO2 emissions and reduce our customers’ combined annual energy bill by around £180 million. The service offers fixed cost cavity wall and loft insulation for just £198 each (or free to those over 70 or on benefits). We had around 30,000 applications and completed over 10,000 installations in just five months after launching the service.

What it means: As you can see or tell Tesco is going to offer its customers the chance to gain better home insulation. The service is not free but comparative to the cost of buying the insulation direct is comparatively cheaper, to certain people it is even free. Not only does this have the obvious environmental benefits by cutting “five million tonnes of CO2 emissions”, which vastly helps their ‘Green’ credentials it is also of social benefit. It is offering to give people, for a low price huge savings “around £180 million” in fact. This helps them look good in many aspects, by offering just one scheme.

How they are going about achieving this aim: Tesco are trying to make this scheme available to the wider public, offering discounts to people for taking part in the scheme. The more people who get on board with the scheme should reduce the level of Co2 output every year. With that in mind the more people who know about the service and take part in it the better. They have set up a web address dedicated to the scheme to try and promote and get more people involved located at the following address: . The scheme is evidentially working because in the corporate responsibility report of 2009 they released figure stating they had had “around 30,000 applications and completed over 10,000 installations in just five months after launching the service.” 

Tesco do have other aims regarding environmental issues including reducing the levels of CO2 emissions from their distribution and transportation. It means that they should cut down on their total carbon footprint making them look better in the public eye. They look to be achieving this aim rather well by following the following rules and ideas:

1. Using our vehicles more efficiently;

2. Using alternative transport;

3. Investing in new technology.

This has resulted in saving 3.7% CO2 per case delivered last year and taking them 23% of the way to their target of 50% reduction by 2012.

Tesco steering wheel: Tesco use a steering wheel (right) to show and emphasise their business priorities in the business. The wheel has five different major segments, Customer, Community, Operations, People and Finance. This helps Tesco breaks up their priorities, tasks and aims within the business easily and provides a visual, simple way of understanding how, and if they are meeting these points included in the wheel. Tesco say” At Tesco we use a 'balanced scorecard' approach that we call the Steering Wheel. This management tool focuses our business on the delivery of our core purpose. It is the framework for all activity linking top-line strategy to personal objectives and it ensures that we balance our priorities effectively.” This is essentially stating how they regard each area of the business in equal regard and how using the wheel should help them meet their core aims in the correct manner.   Below I have split up the wheel into its core areas to help explain it.

Customer: The customer is arguably the most important segment of the wheel. The customers’ are right at the core of the business and it is imperative that they meet their desires. Having happy customer is crucial because it directly helps with customer retention. Tesco split the segment up into six different areas for them to meet which is as follows:

‘The staff are great’:  Tesco aims to ensure that the customers’ have a great experience in the store. They feel that having friendly, helpful staff the customers’ approve of is one way to achieve this. Having staff the customers approve of is key to any business, having staff that the customers’ don’t like could dissuade the customers’ from returning to the store. Tesco aims to ensure that their staff are great by offering training to their staff, and by ‘talent spotting’ to try and ensure that they employ the right staff from the start.

‘I don’t queue’: Another way of improving customer experience is by making their shopping experience as hassle free as possible. This can be achieved by not making the customer wait elongated periods of time. As you are probably any Tesco store has a vast number of checkouts to enable customers to pay as quickly as possible, just having a greater number reduces queuing time dramatically. Also they have introduced different checkout, such as basket only ones to enable people with fewer goods to be out even more quickly. They have also recently introduced the self-checkout. These measure have improved the time that customers queue for to increase their satisfaction

‘The prices are good’: One thing that customers’ do care about is the cost of what they are buying. They don’t want to be paying over the odds for a product. If they can save money somewhere else they may well decide to shop there. Tesco aim to provide goods at a competitive and fair price; they do this by ‘bulk’ buying to reduce costs, but also offering a large product range from value to premium products to offer the customers’ a variety a products at varying prices.

‘I can get what I want’: The whole point to shopping at a supermarket is for the product range. Tesco need to ensure they cater to every customers’ needs otherwise they lose revenue and customer satisfaction. As explained earlier Tesco, each year research into what products customers want and try their best to meet these desires.

 ‘The aisles are clear’: This issue is again to do with making shopping hassle free, if customers are constantly getting frustrated by the unclear signage they may become dissatisfied with the business and no longer shop there. Tesco has to ensure that products people tend to buy frequently are clearly visible. Tesco spends a great deal of time investigating product placement and will try their best to put products were customers think they should be, otherwise they may not find them.

‘Earn lifetime loyalty’: This area is to do with customer retention. Getting repeat customers is crucial to any business because otherwise you will eventually exhaust the amount of possible customers. Tesco hope that by following the above that customers will be happy with the business and they will hopefully continue shopping there.

KPI’s: One of Tesco’s KPI’s is to ‘Increase the number of eligible own-brand lines with nutritional or front-of-pack GDA labelling.’ This gives customers important information and optimally the choice of what kind of products they wish to buy. It gives customers what they want to see – the level of GDA which enables them to choose about the health values they follow.  Their target for 2009 was 99% and their current performance was 92% putting them well on the way to achieving this. The main reasons for this were due to not having 100% in some countries; where labelling was not required, but most countries they now have 100%

Community: This area was only introduced recently. The idea is for the company to make a good impression on the community. Doing this should persuade people to shop at the stores. Looking good in the public eye is incredibly important to any business because it can have a dramatic influence on customer levels.

‘Be responsible, fair and honest’: One thing that people really tend to dislike is dishonesty, Tesco will need to ensure that they stand up and be honest about their shortcoming. However the best way to go about dealing with it is not making the mistakes in the first place. Tesco will want to make sure that they take into account all factors before making big decisions. Tesco will have boards of people to decide on these issues and they will also listen to public opinion before doing something that may upset people, for instance building a store in an irresponsible place.

 ‘Be a good neighbour’: Tesco will need to evaluate the effect that they are having in the local communities where they are situated. The last thing you want is for people complaining about you because they could spread the word about you being bad. Tesco will need to take on the opinion of their neighbours with the highest regard to ensure that they do not upset them. This may include delivery and opening times or simply offering decent compensation money to people they have to move to build new stores etc.

KPI’s: One of Tesco’s KPI’s is to ‘Reduce CO2 emissions from existing stores and distribution centres by at least 50% by 2020.’ This is Tesco trying to be responsible with their level of CO2 output. They also aim to reduce this by 5.5% in 2009. Reducing the level of CO2 output will set a good example to communities and show communities that they are trying to be responsible with the environment. Tesco are achieving this aim by a fair margin. Their actual performance is a reduction of 7%; 1.5% above their goal which shows their commitment to the idea.

Operations: This area is all how to do with how the business runs itself on a day to day basis. This is important because this governs how the staff are performing, and ultimately will have an effect on profits.

‘We always save time and money’: To any business being efficient is of great importance. Reducing costs is very important because it means that profits are increased. Increasing profits is at the very core of every business. Tesco will try to do this by investigating the current way they are doing things and consider investing in new things which may save money and reduce time. For instance replacing light bulbs to energy efficient ones will reduce their electricity bill etc.

‘We know how vital our jobs are’: Knowing the importance of your job is crucial to how you go about doing it. If you are of the opinion that your job has no bearing on the business as a whole, the odds are that you will not go about doing it in the correct manner. This could lead to flaws in parts of the business which could have a variety of outcomes upon both the business and its customers. Tesco will need to remind employees the importance of their job and keep them motivated with tasks to ensure that their work force is being as productive as possible. 

‘We make our jobs easier to do’: Making a job easier to do is very important; if a job is really difficult people will get stressed and could ultimately resign. Tesco need to try and make their employees as easy as possible to ensure people can complete them efficiently and effectively with minimal stress. Tesco do this in a variety of ways such s introducing computer systems to help certain tasks.

‘We deliver consistently every day’: Delivering a good service every day is what persuades customers returning to the outlet. If a service is inconsistent customers will get annoyed and not continue shopping there. Tesco will try their best to provide a consistent service by trying to keep on top of things by having a well-structured management and effective ways of measuring variables such as level of stock control.

‘We try to get it right first time’: Getting things wrong can have huge implications on anyone, businesses included. It is important that Tesco get things right first time otherwise their costs will go up and customers may lose interest in the business. Tesco will assess risk and assess the ways in which to achieve aims in the most effective manner. They may even employ external risk assessment companies for impartial advice on certain matters and decisions.

KPI’s: One of Tesco’s KPI’s is to achieve a good supplier viewpoint. Having good relationships with suppliers is important for a variety of reasons. Not only does it make their jobs easier, but it can also lead to cost reductions and other benefits. Achieving good relationships with suppliers is key to the operation of any business. Tesco’s target was to achieve 70% favourable scores and they are currently achieving 68% putting them very close to achieving this.

People: The people are the employees of the business. They are important to every business because they are the people who effectively make a business money by carrying out certain tasks. Having important staff who leave can present huge problems so having a good, solid relationship with employees is crucial.

‘An opportunity to get on’: Getting on with staff creates a good, productive and happy atmosphere within a business. If staff dislike their managers they may not complete the tasks to their maximum potential. Tesco will look for people to feel happy and secure throughout the business to improve productivity. This can be done in a variety of ways including financial motivators as well as being treated in a fair and respectful way.

‘An interesting job’: Having an interesting job is probably the biggest motivator of all. Tesco will look to make each and every job interesting. This can be done by the tasks of the job they do, or giving people different roles now and again to give them a different role to do. Tesco will try their best to add ‘perks’ to the job to ensure their staff are motivated by the job itself.

‘A manager who helps me’: Everyone in a business needs someone above them to help them out. Without a helpful manager it makes staff feel very much on their own. Having someone to query about problems and reassure you is very desirable, because otherwise the pressure of a job becomes immense. Tesco will look to try and appoint the best possible person for a managerial role by carrying out rigorous assessments during the employment process.

‘To be treated with respect’: Being treated with respect is key to feeling happy. If you are not treated with respect you will become disgruntled and not complete your job to your maximum potential. Tesco will try to ensure that everyone within the business is treated with respect by hearing their opinion and sharing their input and showing them their worth in the business.

KPI’s: One of Tesco’s new KPI’s was to train staff for their next job. This is helpful to staff to allow them to be confident in their new jobs. It will also help them build relationships with other colleagues and managers. Tesco set a target of 10% of staff being trained. Because it is the first year they do not have a current performance but they have set up certain programmes to help with this.

Finance: Finance is, ultimately the most important issue to any business. They will want to try and gain the highest level of profits possible. Pretty much any business will be looking to improve their financial results. They will try to improve their profits, directly and indirectly using the ideas above to maximise customers and productivity of its staff.

‘Manage our investment’: Managing investment is very important because investing in the correct areas will lead to greater profits, investing in the wrong areas will just be money down the drain. Tesco assess where they need to invest money by performance and exploiting the places where money can be made.

‘Maximise profit’: Maximising profit is very important to any business because profit is the whole point of one, without it they most likely wouldn’t exist. Owners or shareholders of a business want to see the best possible return of their investment because they want as much money as possible. Maximising profit cannot be affected directly but can be influenced heavily by volume of sales and the level of money being paid the business. Tesco will tediously research pricing strategies and the amount of people who will by the product to gain the most amount of profit on every product. They will also look to reduce costs where possible to increase their profits, this may include staff cut backs or investing in more efficient ways of running parts of the business.

‘Grow sales’: Growing sales directly influences profit margins. Having a higher volume of sales will lead to greater profits. Tesco will make sure that they are selling the right products at the right times. They will also need to make sure that people are away of the products, so they will invest in advertising and product placement. Tesco will not stock products which do not sell and make profits because they will look to replace these with products that will sell and produce profits.

Overall: Overall it is quite clear that Tesco looks in a variety of areas in which to analyse and improve the business. All of which will have an ultimate bearing on their profit margins. In each area they will look to be better than their rivals to try and take their trade away and dominate the market.

Reducing carbon footprint: Any business will look to reduce their carbon footprint because today having a large, negative effect on the environment is not only expensive but looks bad ion the public eye. Looking into alternative power sources or simply reducing the level of electricity used can be highly beneficial both in the expense side and also looking good on the public side of things which could result in higher volume of customers. Tesco now measure their carbon footprint and monitor it regularly publishing the findings at . Tesco have commissioned Environmental Resources Management Limited (ERM) to help them document and monitor their overall carbon footprint.

Join now!

What they found: Tesco found out that their total amount of carbon dioxide output up to February 2007 was 4.13 million tonnes worldwide, and 2.25 million tonnes in the United Kingdom which is 55% of their total output. Obviously this is a sizeable chunk, but there are clearly other areas where they are responsible for emissions (see chart on right).

Using information from DEFRA () Tesco found that they are responsible for 0.3% of the overall CO2 output for the UK and 2% for the food market and are responsible for roughly 20% of the retail markets greenhouse gas emissions.


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