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AS and A Level: Accounting & Financial Management

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 4
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  1. Accounting Revision Notes

    The balance sheet must reflect financial positions of the business alone. The Continuing Concern Concept The continuing concern concept assumes that a business will continue to operate unless it is known that it will not. This is also known as the going concern concept. The Principle of Conservatism The principle of conservatism provides that accounting for a business should be fair and responsible. In their work, accountants are required to make evaluations and estimates to deliver opinions, and to select procedures.

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  2. Sources of finance for a new business.

    Your investors might want a set rate of interest and a final repayment date. It is very common for friends and family to lend money at a lower rate of interest that a bank or another financial institution. If the business is struggling when it is a couple of months into trading, these repayments may be difficult to meet. Friends and family may be a little more sympathetic if you cannot make a month's payment and maybe cannot afford the whole amount the next month.

    • Word count: 3002
  3. Edexcel Applied Business A2 unit 11 finance task A

    This could be a property or land or machine and although it may take a business a long time to pay off it can create profits for the business. Therefore finance would be needed to purchase these good and a long-term source would be ideal. Finance is also used for revenue expenditure and this is day to day finance that the business needs to survive. This can be wages for the employees or current expenses. This generally provides a quick return and therefore short term or medium term sources of finance can be used.

    • Word count: 3539
  4. Business Income and Expenditure

    Two people working together have many different skills, which can be very cost-effective as people specialise and become more efficient in certain parts of their creative business. One partner might be good at selling work and presenting to clients, while another is better at accounting etc. money can be maximised for partnership is called PLC (private limited company) these companies end their name with letters 'plc' is a limited liability company owned by shareholders. The shares in the company are available publicly for purchase through the stock exchange, or they could borrow money from other different areas such as getting a loan from the bank or getting money from friends or family.

    • Word count: 3355
  5. A2 Business CourseWork

    In 1977 Tesco started the "operation checkout" to help them recover from their increasingly poor image amongst council's and the people. Operation Checkout involved scrapping green shield stamps and using the money they saved on gifts for the customers they vastly cut prices. The result in 4% market share increase in just two months. In 1995 Tesco introduced the club card and later on an internet shopping service which in 2006 was the only food retailer to make a profit from the service.

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  6. The maintenance of accurate records supplies the company with the financial data that assists them to function more effectively, it also helps to make it possible for the company to maximise profit. The key statements are the profit and loss account, bal

    The cut in variable cost will result in a lower total cost figure. Furthermore the business will break even at an earlier point therefore the business will generate larger profits, the progress can only be identified if clear and accurate accounts is being produced and kept after a trading period. Legal requirements: The Companies House plays a big role in UK's government as it is an Executive Agency, which falls under the Department of Trade and Industry. A business operating as a limited company as defined by law has to register and publish its financial statements with the Company House

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  7. Unit 2 - Investigating Business

    posters, leaflets, facebook, you tube and even one off stall in the market so people can sign up. Not only advertising is promotion but also using myself to show the quality of my service. Place My business will be based in my house for a year customers will have to come to order but they can have their product mailed to them if they wish. My business will be at my house only for a year. Reasons why business will be placed in this location Because the rent is too expensive in South Norwood an average rent is �700-�900

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  8. Impacto mundial fusiones

    m�s sociedades preexistentes, bien sea que una u otra sea absorbida por otra o que sean confundidas para constituir una nueva sociedad subsistente y esta �ltima hereda a t�tulo universal los derechos y obligaciones de las sociedades intervinientes. (Durand rt. J. Latsha. Funsions. Scissions et apports partiels d'actifs. 3ra edicion 1972. Paris) Otro concepto que aplicar�a tambi�n es el siguiente: Es "una operaci�n usada para unificar inversiones y criterios comerciales de dos compa��as de una misma rama o de objetivos compatibles".

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  9. Investigating Business Resources

    Sometimes a company or an organisation is so big that it have more than one team. Communication in different teams Sometimes a company does have a hundred teams, but they all have to work together on the same level to get the results that they want. Those company's use a cross-functional team. That means that in every team someone can work together with an other team so they know what going on in their company. Rules in a team Every company does have their own rules in a team. It depends in what like a company or organisation you work, what there rules are.

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  10. Business studies coursework - On the next page, there is a table of Safeways profit and loss accounts:

    I will be attempting to measure the success of Safeway in the following ways: 1. Business aims and objectives 2. Business Size 3. Business Ratios 4. Business Targets Business aims and objectives Any company would obviously aim to maximise their profit, reduce costs, improve their market share, and improve their reputation so that more customers will be loyal and satisfied. In Safeways 'Annual Report & Accounts 2003', the chairman - David Webster writes: "Last year was one of mixed fortunes. Our first half performance was solid, with profit growth of 4% before tax and exceptional items, achieved in a very competitive marketplace...However the announcement in early January of out proposed merger with Morrisons and the

    • Word count: 4600
  11. business plan unit

    This is because big businesses don't need every customer because they are so big around the world where as a small business needs every customer it can get. Another reason is because it is in high demand, this is because people in Qatar entertain a lot and they usually require some from of catering, also there is a limited amount of catering companies in Doha. Also other factors which help in this in that people in Qatar have a high level income amongst the Expatriates and the Qatari's. the catering in Doha at the moment Is only supplied by hotels.

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  12. In this section I am going to be looking at various life stages and the financial requirements Financial Life stages are groups that people go through as the grow bigger financially The life stages are: School age youth (0-16) Teenagers and Students (

    Post-education / pre-families (23-30) People in this group are young adults that have just finished university and looking to start a family. So this means that their financial needs will be quite great. This is because people in this group will be paying off student loans for their university fees. They might also want to get a mortgage to buy a house just to start off a family. The parents may perhaps open up a bank account to start saving for their children's future university fees.

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  13. In this assignment I will be explaining in detail the importance of cash flow, working capital, costs, budgets and breakeven in selected business and also why it is used in selected businesses.

    an increased bank overdraft or loan Some examples of the cash that will be coming out of Cadbury Schweppes, which include the following: � The purchase of any stock, raw materials or tools that Cadbury Schweppes needs � Cadbury Schweppes staff wages, property rent and all of their daily operating expenses � Any repayments of loans that Cadbury Schweppes may have � Any dividend payments � Income tax, corporation tax, VAT and other taxes � Reduced overdraft facilities If Cadbury Schweppes is to have a good cash flow they must ensure that their pattern of income and spending habits allows them to have cash available as well as being able to pay debtors on time.

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  14. Profitability and Liquidity

    This is because liquid resources can be turned into cash within 12months. This will allow me to pay off immediate bill and wages etc. Liquidity Liquidity is a term that refers to 'the ability with which assets can be converted into cash.' As I may not be making a profit within the first twelve months, I will need a way in which my business to survive. I believe it is possible to survive without making a profit within the first year as I can use the cash from liquid sources. These include cash in hand and money I have put either in a savings account or have as savings.

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  15. Budgeting Techniques and Globalisation

    Management will also receive feedback from subordinates; - Co-ordination: co-ordination between different operations, departments and individual plans so that the objectives of the organization can be achieved. - Control: compares actual results against the budgets; and - Motivate: motivate employees to attain organizational goals and to improve their performance. Budget must be flexible so that plans can be revised to reflect changed conditions and to enable management to use his direction to carry out the work properly (Das 2001). The author also stated that budgets may be prepared for one year such as trading budgets, less than one year such as cash budgets and more than one year such as capital expenditure or research and development budgets.

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  16. Sources of Finance

    The company is never required to repay the capital but have to repay the new shareholders in the form of dividends when profits are made (Georgen et al 2006). Company can float its shares on a stock exchange in two methods, offer for sale and private placement. Offer for Sale Offer for sale is to issue a prospectus announcing its intention to issue new shares, set a price and invite the public to apply it at the advertised price (http://www.finance-glossary.com/terms/offer-for-sale.htm?id=1042&ginPtrCode=00000&PopupMode=).

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  17. DIvidend Policies and Financing

    Usually, enterprises dealing in necessities suffer less from oscillating earnings than those dealing in luxuries or fancy goods. Age of Corporation Age of the corporation counts much in deciding the dividend policy. A newly established company may require much of its earnings for expansion and plant improvement and may adopt a rigid dividend policy while, on the other hand, an older company can formulate a clear cut and more consistent policy regarding dividend. Liquidity of Funds Availability of cash and sound financial position is also an important factor in dividend decisions.

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  18. introduction to accountant

    Monitoring activity and controlling the business - All business need to know how they are performing throughout the year. If sales suddenly start to fall this trend needs to be quickly identified and remedial action taken. Business will also need to track how much they are spending on running the business. If these costs are steadily raising it is likely that profits will start to fall. Helping the management of the business - Management accounting is concerned with the provisions and use of accounting information to managers within organizations, to provide them with the basis in making informed business decisions that would allow them to be better equipped in their management and control functions.

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  19. Btec Business Level 3 Year 1 - Introduction to Accounting

    * Net profit - it is the gross profit minus (take away) the general expenses of the firm. * Value owed to the business - it is the amount the business can expect to receive from customers in the near future. * Value owed by the business - it is the amount that the business owes to suppliers and other people or companies from which it has bought goods or services. Accounts are kept for example: Legal reasons, All UK businesses, from sole traders to Plc's must produce annual accounts and submit them to the Inland Revenue, and (in the case of Limited Companies)

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  20. Financial Analysis: Home Depot

    However, in 2008 same store sales should be positively affected because of their recent investment in customer service. This investment included the hiring of more than 2,500 licensed Master Trade Specialists in the plumbing and electrical departments. (Yahoo Finance Online) We believe that this investment project will be value enhancing because these specialists will provide both increased service to customers and training for associates which will increase sales. B) Quantitative Analysis: We determined that Home Depot's investment in The Home Way was the most significant recent investment.

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  21. Autralia's Retail Loan Rate Changes

    The Operation of Monetary Policy 2.1.1. Monetary Policy Instruments Open market operations has to offer higher than the bond market rulings price to get a successful bid of the security, in case to ease monetary conditions and it consequently buys bonds from banks. By offsetting the liquidity requirements of the money market, RBA neutralizes the effects which the often erratic, fluctuations in funds may otherwise have on short-term interest rates, in particular the money market dealers pay on market cash rate (Bell, 2004)

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  22. U.S. Subprime loan Issue

    1 Sub-prime mortgage origination Source: http://www.investopedia.com 1.2 Figure 2 credit rating on sub-prime performance in 2007 Source: <http://www.economist.com> 1.3 Figure 3 Increasing share of securitized home mortgages Source: <http://economistsview.typepad.com> List of tables 1.4 Table 1 Write-downs on the value of loans, MBS and CDOs MAIN CREDIT CRUNCH LOSSES UBS: $37.4bn Merrill Lynch: $22bn Citigroup: $21.1bn HSBC: $17.2bn Morgan Stanley: $9.4bn Deutsche Bank: $7.1bn Bank of America: $5.3bn Bear Stearns: $3.2bn JP Morgan Chase: $3.2bn BayernLB $3.2bn Barclays: $2.6bn IKB: $2.6bn Royal Bank of Scotland: $2.6bn Credit Suisse: $2bn Source: Company reports Source: <http://news.bbc.co.uk> Executive summary The purpose of this report is to analyze the reasons of the sub-prime crisis, which has created worldwide financial market problems in recent time.

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  23. The Soul Food Shack

    Mama Cherri's Soul Food Shack has too many staffs when they are not needed. So getting rid of some staffs will mean that the business will not need to pay extra staffs. The money saved from this can be used towards the restaurant and to pay of the debts the business is facing. How Aims and Objective can be achieved by Planning & Monitoring Structure If the way the structure of the business is organised and the staffs at the restaurant know what they are doing then it will help the business to more likely to be successful.

    • Word count: 3740
  24. Finance, cash flow and insolvency

    Assets which have been purchased previously in this case it will be equipment for hair can be sold to raise money for the company; however he must be sure that he does not need these assets. Hire purchase/lease Hire purchase and leasing is similar, here he can choose an asset that he needs for his business and then agree to make regular payment for a fixed period to a hire purchase company in exchange for the right to use that asset.

    • Word count: 3692

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • compare and contrast financial and management accounting

    "In conclusion, all three writers/authors agree that the social and economic change in the past has pushed the change barrier further and further. As the society continues to change, so also will be change in organisation strategy in the use of information in making quality decision in the running of their affairs. The nature and effect of government legislation in the control of a more global organisation not only has contributed, but will continue to contribute to further development of financial and management accounting in the future. Organisations that are not ready for a re-think will further find they are unable to face competition in the new global market."

  • Identify and evaluate costs involved in the purchase of business assets.

    "As you can see that loan has been spread out over 2 years and each month is paying 532 pound also by leasing the van this cost us 124.99 pound a month. This saves us 10,000 pound year as shown in the highlighted box. With the �10,000 she can invest this in the bank and gain interest for the money invested. 1 2 3 4 5 6 RECIEPTS Capital �5,000.00 Sales(France) �0.00 �360.00 �360.00 �720.00 �540.00 �550.00 Sales(UK) �605.00 �630.00 �1,010.00 �1,025.00 �1,200.00 �1,290.00 Total Receipts �5,605.00 �990.00 �1,370.00 �1,745.00 �1,740.00 �1,840.00 PAYMENTS Raw Materials(France) �190.00 �190.00 �380.00 �285.00 �290.00 �187.50 Raw Materials(UK) �247.50 �255.00 �415.00 �417.50 �490.00 �525.00 Electricity �65.00 �65.00 �65.00 �65.00 �65.00 �65.00 Rent for garage �75.00 �75.00 �75.00 �75.00 �75.00 �75.00 Advertising �50.00 �0.00 �50.00 �0.00 �0.00 �50.00 Ferry Fees �50.00 �50.00 �50.00 �50.00 �50.00 �50.00 Sues Other Wages �400.00 �400.00 �500.00 �500.00 �500.00 �500.00 Car boot fees �40.00 �40.00 �40.00 �40.00 �40.00 �40.00 Van running expenses �30.00 �30.00 �30.00 �30.00 �30.00 �30.00 loan �532.00 �532.00 �532.00 �532.00 �532.00 �532.00 Small Van �124.99 �124.99 �124.99 �124.99 �124.99 �124.99 Total Payments �1,804.49 �1,761.99 �2,261.99 �2,119.49 �2,196.99 �2,179.49 Net Cash Flow Per Month �3,800.51 -�771.99 -�891.99 -�374.49 -�456.99 -�339.49 Opening balance �0.00 �3,800.51 �3,028.52 �2,136.53 �1,762.04 �1,305.05 Closing balance �3,800.51 �3,028.52 �2,136.53 �1,762.04 �1,305.05 �965.56"

  • Assess Effects of Corporate Personality

    "Conclusion Corporate personality has had a significant affect in forming company law over the last centuries, and the Salomon case has been a crucial benchmark to company law and is still being used in courts today. However, there is a need for more clear definition in key concept and a solid framework, where as when to lift the veil or who should be liable and what is mere fa�ade etc. Or would the future of company law revolutionise and abandon the Salomon theory?"

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