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AS and A Level: Accounting & Financial Management

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  1. Business resources P2

    The main physical resources of Sainsbury - Some of these resources are fixed and current asset * Staff * Equipment - fixed asset * Building - fixed asset * Security - fixed asset * Insurance * Materials - current asset * Vans - fixed asset * Products - current asset The functions and benefits of the staff are to run the organisation in an efficient and successfully approach. Moreover the benefits are to help the company achieve the company targets and objectives.

    • Word count: 883
  2. Business resources P1

    incentives * job description * person specification * disciplinary action * trade unions * Culture * Problem solving Sainsbury have recruitment and retention as part of the human resource functions this is because they will need to employ employees to be able to work within the supermarket in order to run the business smoothly. For example they will need to employ manager, supervisors and sales assistant. During the summer and Christmas times Sainsbury will need to employ more staff. Sainsbury have training and retention as part of the human resource functions because the employees need to have sufficient training in order to perform to the best of their ability and achieve the company's targets.

    • Word count: 995
  3. Business resources P5

    The bottom half of the financial statement is the expenses and this will determine whether the business has made a y profit or loss at the end of the financial year. Terms Definition Sales Sales are the amount of revenue a business makes before deducting the cost of sales Less inwards Less inwards is the goods which are returned to the business and this is deducted from the sales. Cost of sales The cost of sales is the goods or services the business sells in order to make the sales for example the stock Gross profit The gross profit is the profit the business makes before the expenses and tax.

    • Word count: 1521
  4. Business resources M3

    Net profit margin The net profit is the profit the business has made after deducting the expense and tax. Formula Net profit/turnover x 100 Working out - �349.810/�845,000 Answer = 41.37% This mean that out of every �1 of profit the business makes the business keeps 41.3%. So this is a good figure has the business keeps 41.3 business makes a lot and this money would be invested back in stock. This suggests that if the business makes �349,810 of net profit form a turnover of �845,500 it will have a net profit percentage of 41.37%.

    • Word count: 571
  5. Business resources M1

    There is two kind of training that could be given to the staff one is one the job training and the other is off the job training. This will benefit the business as it will have staff who can do various task and might decide to save money by making some employees redundant. If Sainsbury manages its equipment appropriately use the equipment to it full capacity and strength then the business can gain good level of productivity from the machine.

    • Word count: 732
  6. Business resources P6

    A figure less than 1.5 indicates that the business may experience difficulties in meeting its short-term debts. A figure more than 2 indicates that the business may be holding cash in an unproductive and unprofitable form, it may better use elsewhere. Last year �192.000/�120.000 Answer = �1.6 This means that for every �1 of current liabilities the business has �1.60 of current assets available. Normally it should between �1.5 - 2. A figure less than 1.5 indicates that the business may experience difficulties in meeting its short-term debts. A figure more than 2 indicates that the business may be holding cash in an unproductive and unprofitable form, it may better use elsewhere.

    • Word count: 601
  7. business plan unit

    This is because big businesses don't need every customer because they are so big around the world where as a small business needs every customer it can get. Another reason is because it is in high demand, this is because people in Qatar entertain a lot and they usually require some from of catering, also there is a limited amount of catering companies in Doha. Also other factors which help in this in that people in Qatar have a high level income amongst the Expatriates and the Qatari's. the catering in Doha at the moment Is only supplied by hotels.

    • Word count: 10676
  8. Ben Sherman

    The company's goal is to become the best knowledge- and information based apparel company. * Operating Discipline and Control- Satisfying the company's customers requires operating discipline and control throughout the business process-from booking only deliverable orders through ensuring complete and on-time shipments * Adaptability to Change -the company must be vigilant, flexible, and adaptable in the company's response to the changing dynamics of their business. Ben Sherman must be willing to change their paradigms, our business models, our processes, our structure, or even the very nature of our business to adapt to the changes we will face.

    • Word count: 1126
  9. Business Development Plan

    These policies are usually in the form of employee manuals, which all employees are given. The people that may be needed to be employed in order to make the business run more efficiently and successful if it was to expand would include; * Manager (Sole Trader) - Managing the business and the overall businesses making and demanding orders and meeting customer needs and expectations * Managing Sales Director - To control the selling of the product(s) and also to ensure that the customers get a good quality product(s)

    • Word count: 2236
  10. Income increased To Budget

    A Private Limited of Public Limited Company may chose to do this by offering shares. Other businesses raise money in different ways. They may get a bank loan or may try to raise finance by getting a grant. Grants can be given to businesses by national or local government agencies for many different reasons. These include where the business is located, how big the business is, or if the business is an industry that has problems. The most common organisations to receive grants are in farming, manufacturing or tourism.

    • Word count: 879
  11. management accounting

    The traditional costing does not attempt to try to determine the connection at all because when the methodology was developed several decades ago, the direct labour comprised the major portion of product cost, which meant that an analysis of overhead was not important. In addition, prior to wide availability of computers, detailed cost analysis was time consuming and costly and the easiest thing to do was to allocate "all other" costs i.e. the overhead, according to direct labour. The figure below illustrates the basic concept of traditional costing.

    • Word count: 1981
  12. report on domestic dogs

    Domestic Dog Homes trading profit and loss account What is the Cost of Sales? If all items purchased during the year are sold then purchases is equal to the cost of sales. However, sometimes items purchased are not sold by the end of the year. These items are referred to as closing stocks. The cost of sales in these cases is not the total purchase figure. Instead it is equal to purchases less the items left unsold at the yearend i.e.: purchases less closing stock Sometimes stock existed at the beginning of the year because it remained unsold at the end of the previous year.

    • Word count: 2087
  13. In this section I am going to be looking at various life stages and the financial requirements Financial Life stages are groups that people go through as the grow bigger financially The life stages are: School age youth (0-16) Teenagers and Students (

    Post-education / pre-families (23-30) People in this group are young adults that have just finished university and looking to start a family. So this means that their financial needs will be quite great. This is because people in this group will be paying off student loans for their university fees. They might also want to get a mortgage to buy a house just to start off a family. The parents may perhaps open up a bank account to start saving for their children's future university fees.

    • Word count: 5111
  14. In this assignment I will be explaining in detail the importance of cash flow, working capital, costs, budgets and breakeven in selected business and also why it is used in selected businesses.

    an increased bank overdraft or loan Some examples of the cash that will be coming out of Cadbury Schweppes, which include the following: � The purchase of any stock, raw materials or tools that Cadbury Schweppes needs � Cadbury Schweppes staff wages, property rent and all of their daily operating expenses � Any repayments of loans that Cadbury Schweppes may have � Any dividend payments � Income tax, corporation tax, VAT and other taxes � Reduced overdraft facilities If Cadbury Schweppes is to have a good cash flow they must ensure that their pattern of income and spending habits allows them to have cash available as well as being able to pay debtors on time.

    • Word count: 3751
  15. Finance- understanding cost, revenue and profit for a business

    Piece-work wages also fluctuate, depending on the employees' efficiency and the demand for the company's products. Start- up costs These are incurred before a business begins to operate, such as the purchase of land, building and equipments. Total costs The fixed costs and the variable costs are added together to establish the total costs. The fixed costs remain constant, but the variable costs increase in direct proportion with output. Marginal costs Using marginal cost is a way of measuring how much more it will cost a company to make one more individual item. Semi-fixed costs Semi-fixed costs are costs which only change when there is a large change in output.

    • Word count: 1570
  16. Investigating Financial Control

    There are over 14 million people that shop at Sainsbury's supermarkets regularly and there are 721 stores throughout the UK. Over 10.3 million aluminium cans are recycled at Sainsbury's stores each year along with 22,000 tonnes of glass. J Sainsbury plc is one of the UK and US's leading food retailers with interests in financial services and property. Sainsbury's is the parent organisation controlling these operating companies and they are: * Sainsbury's supermarkets * Sainsbury's bank in the UK * Shaw's Supermarkets * Star Market in the US * Sainsbury's Development * Sainsbury's property company Sainsbury's goal is "To deliver

    • Word count: 1784
  17. Sources of Finance

    Thomas Cook plc operates within a very competitive travel market due to the amount of consumers booking holidays increasing. The have main competitor is Thomson holidays (TUI); however there are many others in the market such as First Choice and Virgin Holidays. Thomson holidays sell over 5 million holidays a year with recruiting over 48,000 employees. Thomas Cook plc provides its customers a service which most of our competitors does not offer; they have certain brands which target a variety of different customers. Some are for the most 'well off' consumers who are searching for the most luxurious holiday, whilst others are booking holidays in a family package to receive the best deal.

    • Word count: 780
  18. Profitability and Liquidity

    This is because liquid resources can be turned into cash within 12months. This will allow me to pay off immediate bill and wages etc. Liquidity Liquidity is a term that refers to 'the ability with which assets can be converted into cash.' As I may not be making a profit within the first twelve months, I will need a way in which my business to survive. I believe it is possible to survive without making a profit within the first year as I can use the cash from liquid sources. These include cash in hand and money I have put either in a savings account or have as savings.

    • Word count: 4243
  19. Budgeting Techniques and Globalisation

    Management will also receive feedback from subordinates; - Co-ordination: co-ordination between different operations, departments and individual plans so that the objectives of the organization can be achieved. - Control: compares actual results against the budgets; and - Motivate: motivate employees to attain organizational goals and to improve their performance. Budget must be flexible so that plans can be revised to reflect changed conditions and to enable management to use his direction to carry out the work properly (Das 2001). The author also stated that budgets may be prepared for one year such as trading budgets, less than one year such as cash budgets and more than one year such as capital expenditure or research and development budgets.

    • Word count: 3356
  20. Sources of Finance

    The company is never required to repay the capital but have to repay the new shareholders in the form of dividends when profits are made (Georgen et al 2006). Company can float its shares on a stock exchange in two methods, offer for sale and private placement. Offer for Sale Offer for sale is to issue a prospectus announcing its intention to issue new shares, set a price and invite the public to apply it at the advertised price (http://www.finance-glossary.com/terms/offer-for-sale.htm?id=1042&ginPtrCode=00000&PopupMode=).

    • Word count: 3958
  21. DIvidend Policies and Financing

    Usually, enterprises dealing in necessities suffer less from oscillating earnings than those dealing in luxuries or fancy goods. Age of Corporation Age of the corporation counts much in deciding the dividend policy. A newly established company may require much of its earnings for expansion and plant improvement and may adopt a rigid dividend policy while, on the other hand, an older company can formulate a clear cut and more consistent policy regarding dividend. Liquidity of Funds Availability of cash and sound financial position is also an important factor in dividend decisions.

    • Word count: 5129
  22. M&S Finance

    The key financial highlights from the year to March 2008 are: * Profit before taxation of �821 million, an increase of 24% on the previous year * Sales revenue of �9,022 million, an increase of 5.05% on the previous year * Total net assets of �1,964 million * Earnings per share up 7.9% to 43.6p * Retained earnings of �5,707.9 million On 2nd October this year, the company announced its results for the second quarter of this year (July, August, September).

    • Word count: 2099
  23. Basel II countributions

    However foreign companies doing business in China face challenges due to the complex business culture. The government play a key role in the Chinese markets, by sustaining growth in the emerging markets. To enter a new market in china, adapting at the right strategy will be curtail. The start up cost and other business registering costs should be in considered. The very first strategic move should be to get the approval of ex ante and registering with the local State Administration of industry and commerce. Establishing a company structure and the company seal is necessary for legal and liability purposes.

    • Word count: 1562
  24. costing methods - absorbtion and variable costing

    Under variable costing, reported operating income is driven by the unit level of sales. Under absorption costing, reported operating income is driven by the unit level of production as well as by the unit level of sales. Under variable costing, Fixed overhead is a period expense assigned to the income statement periodically regardless of the number of units sold. Effect on Income Measurement 1. If units produced is equal to units sold, then no difference between absorption costing and variable costing net income. Production equals sales (no change in inventories). under both costing methods all of the current fixed manufacturing overhead will flow through to the income statement as an expense.

    • Word count: 1194
  25. introduction to accountant

    Monitoring activity and controlling the business - All business need to know how they are performing throughout the year. If sales suddenly start to fall this trend needs to be quickly identified and remedial action taken. Business will also need to track how much they are spending on running the business. If these costs are steadily raising it is likely that profits will start to fall. Helping the management of the business - Management accounting is concerned with the provisions and use of accounting information to managers within organizations, to provide them with the basis in making informed business decisions that would allow them to be better equipped in their management and control functions.

    • Word count: 6765

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