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AS and A Level: Accounting & Financial Management

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  1. Btec Business Level 3 Year 1 - Introduction to Accounting

    * Net profit - it is the gross profit minus (take away) the general expenses of the firm. * Value owed to the business - it is the amount the business can expect to receive from customers in the near future. * Value owed by the business - it is the amount that the business owes to suppliers and other people or companies from which it has bought goods or services. Accounts are kept for example: Legal reasons, All UK businesses, from sole traders to Plc's must produce annual accounts and submit them to the Inland Revenue, and (in the case of Limited Companies)

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  2. impact of finance on business decisions

    'LH Turtle Limited' is in a highly competitive market with likes of Focus, Wickes, BBQ and other DIY stores. 'LH Turtle Limited' find it very challenging competing in the market as there is large DIY stores who sell at low prices. Also as 'LH Turtle Limited' is located in centre of Croydon it restricts number of sales 'LH Turtle Limited' makes as there is limited parking space for the customers. Even though they offer home delivery service it still does not increase sales compared to amount of potential sales lost because of restricted parking spaces. Task 1 --> identifying the financial needs and constraints LH Turtle Limited's long term goal is to maximise profit, however its daily goal is to survive.

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  3. Identify and evaluate costs involved in the purchase of business assets.

    The van is needed so she can make deliveries also pick up her materials. 4. Pottery wheel �1118. She also needs this to make the pots. 5. Equipment �1200. The equipment is also needed to make pots. Opportunity cost If sue did not use the money for these assets she could have used the �14318. And invested the money into a savings account. I have looked up the nationwide savings illustrator and found out Savings Illustrator Based on your information: Lump sum Savings Term: Account Types: �10,000.00 2 years Bonus Saver Bonus Saver More Information Total savings (gross): �11,062.62 Interest rate gross 5.15 % Total savings (net): �10,844.83 Interest rate AER 1.90 % Effective from 1 February 2007 The gross rate and total savings (gross)

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  4. Cash Flow Forecast for Sues Pottery Business.

    75 75 75 75 Advertising 50 50 50 Ferry fees 50 50 50 50 50 50 Sues other wages 400 400 500 500 500 500 Car boot fees 40 40 40 40 40 40 Van running expenses 30 30 30 30 30 30 Total Payments 15465.5 1105 1,605 1462.50 1540 1522.50 Opening Balance �15 000 139.50 24.5 (210.50)

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  5. Analyse the impact of the economic environment of business performance.

    Interest Rates The interest rate is the amount that individuals or businesses are given back on their investments. Impact on the option Interest rates need to be higher then the rate of inflation and provide a better return in any other investment. The interest rate needs to be high as possible to get a better rate of return. She will gain interest so the money will increase. If the �15,000 is invested in a building society then all of that �15,000 will have gone and you will not have a chance of investing the lump sum in any other way.

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  6. Explain the role in the economy of a range of financial institutions.

    All of these services are also provided to business customers. The business customers are the people who want to open businesses or invest. For the business customers the high street banks offer advice and support to people who are going to open new business. The banks want new businesses to open so that they can take loans and mortgages out. Link to UK Economy The way the high street banks are linked to the UK economy is in many ways. First off all the high street banks look after people's money.

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  7. Sources of Finance available to Joseph Chamberlain Sixth Form College.

    JCC may take this loan in for its finance for the use of buying premises. * Hire purchase - hire purchase means that resources can be used by the business while they are being paid for. Until the last payment is made on the agreement the goods are not owned by the business and if payments are not made the finance company can take them back. JCC might use this for purchasing its resources such as computers. * Overdraft - an arrangement with the bank where a business will be able to borrow more money from its bank than is actually in their account.

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  8. Financial Analysis: Home Depot

    However, in 2008 same store sales should be positively affected because of their recent investment in customer service. This investment included the hiring of more than 2,500 licensed Master Trade Specialists in the plumbing and electrical departments. (Yahoo Finance Online) We believe that this investment project will be value enhancing because these specialists will provide both increased service to customers and training for associates which will increase sales. B) Quantitative Analysis: We determined that Home Depot's investment in The Home Way was the most significant recent investment.

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  9. Autralia's Retail Loan Rate Changes

    The Operation of Monetary Policy 2.1.1. Monetary Policy Instruments Open market operations has to offer higher than the bond market rulings price to get a successful bid of the security, in case to ease monetary conditions and it consequently buys bonds from banks. By offsetting the liquidity requirements of the money market, RBA neutralizes the effects which the often erratic, fluctuations in funds may otherwise have on short-term interest rates, in particular the money market dealers pay on market cash rate (Bell, 2004)

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  10. U.S. Subprime loan Issue

    1 Sub-prime mortgage origination Source: http://www.investopedia.com 1.2 Figure 2 credit rating on sub-prime performance in 2007 Source: <http://www.economist.com> 1.3 Figure 3 Increasing share of securitized home mortgages Source: <http://economistsview.typepad.com> List of tables 1.4 Table 1 Write-downs on the value of loans, MBS and CDOs MAIN CREDIT CRUNCH LOSSES UBS: $37.4bn Merrill Lynch: $22bn Citigroup: $21.1bn HSBC: $17.2bn Morgan Stanley: $9.4bn Deutsche Bank: $7.1bn Bank of America: $5.3bn Bear Stearns: $3.2bn JP Morgan Chase: $3.2bn BayernLB $3.2bn Barclays: $2.6bn IKB: $2.6bn Royal Bank of Scotland: $2.6bn Credit Suisse: $2bn Source: Company reports Source: <http://news.bbc.co.uk> Executive summary The purpose of this report is to analyze the reasons of the sub-prime crisis, which has created worldwide financial market problems in recent time.

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  11. Principles of accounting

    Decrease in the owner's equity can be brought by drawings of goods and cash or other assets from the business for the owner's private purposes and net loss from the year's business activities. The changes in the capital structure of the owner's equity can be shown in the following manner: Sole trader's capital at the beginning of the account period. add Additional capital brought into the business from his private sources add Net profit Or deduct Net loss deduct Drawings equals Sole trader's capital at the end of the accounting period The information that pertains to the owner's equity is found in the capital account, which is in the general ledger.

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  12. Income Elasticity Of Demand Applied to Business and Consumers

    Example: A person's monthly income increased from $ 3200 to $ 3400. She spends a portion of its income on food by eating outside twice a week rather than once. What is the income elasticity of demand for food that person. Solution: Percent change in income is DY% = 100 (Y2 - Y1) / Y1 = 100 (3400 - 3200) / 3200 = 6.25%. Change percent of the quantity is DQ% = 100%. Therefore, income elasticity of demand for outside to eat this person is ey = DQ% / DY% = 100% / 6.25% = 16.

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  13. Income Elasticity of demand

    = 150 and QDemand (NEW) = 180, where "QDemand" is an abbreviation of "quantity." Also, you should these four figures in written form: The result (OLD) = 40,000 Income (NEW) = 50,000 QDemand (OLD) = 150 QDemand (NEW) = 180 To calculate the price elasticity, we need to know what the percentage change in the quantity and demand is what the percentage change in the price. It is better to calculate these one at a time. Calculate the percentage change in the quantity required The formula for calculating the percentage change in the amount requested is as follows: [QDemand (NEW)

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    JCC does not need to use this service as it has to pay interest on the amount they go overdrawn. * Trade credit - when a business sells its goods and then allows the customer to pay at a later date. Goods have to be paid for within an agreed time limit. JCC do use the trade credit source of finance as they purchase the resourses such as stationery and computers. * Factoring - when a business sells off its debt to another company.

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  15. The Soul Food Shack

    Mama Cherri's Soul Food Shack has too many staffs when they are not needed. So getting rid of some staffs will mean that the business will not need to pay extra staffs. The money saved from this can be used towards the restaurant and to pay of the debts the business is facing. How Aims and Objective can be achieved by Planning & Monitoring Structure If the way the structure of the business is organised and the staffs at the restaurant know what they are doing then it will help the business to more likely to be successful.

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  16. Break Even

    Formulas To find the variable cost: Material + Direct Labour then answer x Units= Variable Cost e.g. 7+3= 10x 1000=10000 To find the revenue: No of Units x Selling Price= Revenue E.g. 1000 x 15= 15000 To find the Profits/Loss: Revenue -Total Cost= Profit/Loss �15,000.00 - �28,000.00= -�13,000.00 To find the Total Cost: Variable + Fixed Cost= Total Cost �10,000.00 + �18,000.00= �28,000.00 To find Break Even Point: Selling Price- Materials= Break Even Point �15 - �7= �8 Total Fixed Cost Selling Price - Materials Units Fixed Costs Variable Costs Total Costs Revenue Profit/Loss 0 �18,000.00 �0.00 �1,800.00 �0.00 -�1,800.00

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  17. Advantages and Disadvantages of the various sources of finance available to businesses.

    Also you can normally set a repayment plan to suit the needs of the business. Long Term When you sign a commercial mortgage contract you are committing to a period of 10 to 30 years. It's a big commitment. Simplified cash flow management Mortgage schedules are pre-set, making cash management more predictable. Lengthy application process Loan As with a mortgage, you can retain ownership, have a tax advantage and simplify cashflow management. Disadvantages rise depending on how much the company is wanting to borrow, more factors come into the process as detailed below with the more being borrowed, lengthening the repayment time etc.

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  18. ratio analysis

    According to the calculation in the appendix, the ROCE for Easyjet is 7.50%, which has a better performance than that of British Airways at 2.74%. This result shows that Easyjet effectively generates 7.5% on the funds that the shareholders have invested. It means that stakeholders for Easyjet have less risk. However, the ROCE for both companies is generally low. As airline companies, their fixed assets are relatively high for new airplane purchases, plane maintenance, etc. With regard to the gross profit margin and net profit margin for British Airways, the difference between them is small; nevertheless, that of Easyjet is not.

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  19. Sainsbury's Ratio Analysis

    0.8% 5.0% Gross Profit Percentage 6.6% 6.8% Net Profit Percentage 0.6% 2.8% Liquidity Current Ratio 0.8:1 0.7:1 Acid test Ratio 0.7:1 0.5:1 Working Capital Management Stock Turn Over 14 days 13 days Debtors Collection Period ----- ----- Creditors Payment Period ------ ----- Report on Financial Performance of Sainsbury's in 2006 & 2007 (M3) Ratio Analysis can make accurate judgements of an organisation's performance. Ratio Analysis could also be useful to many stakeholders in the business. * It helps Owners to inform them when they are looking to make decisions about the future of the business.

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  20. Finance, cash flow and insolvency

    Assets which have been purchased previously in this case it will be equipment for hair can be sold to raise money for the company; however he must be sure that he does not need these assets. Hire purchase/lease Hire purchase and leasing is similar, here he can choose an asset that he needs for his business and then agree to make regular payment for a fixed period to a hire purchase company in exchange for the right to use that asset.

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  21. Factors which will affect business investment and Cameron Balloons Investment decisions

    By this way business has more capital for investment projects and if businesses invest they can use this to offset the cost of investment against tax which reduces the businesses tax liability. Human relations - it is not unusual for investment projects to have an important impact on staff in an organisation. Investments aid business to grow which will mean that there will be new jobs created and future jobs can be secured. Corporate strategy - this is when the businesses views the decision that they take when making an investment and the decisions which will affect the businesses overall objectives.

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  22. customer services

    Price The price displays are also very important and there is a law for this too. The Prices act 1974 and 1975 is controlling the price displays. They require prices to be indicated on goods or services offered by businesses. It is illegal for Thorpe Park to mislead the customers by displaying wrong pries for entering the park and using the rides. Age restrictions Varies legislations restricts sales on products to children. These products are such as tobacco, alcohol and lottery tickets.

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  23. Identifying and evaluating two proposed projects for Camerons Balloons - discuss the suitability of investment appraisal methods which are used and analysed on estimated cash flows.

    One of the two main cutters cut the fabric with laser and the other one uses a high powered water jet. Cameron Balloons are in the decision of investing in a new machine which will cost them between �200 and �125,000 which will depend on the machines sophistication. Cameron Balloons has to consider the choice between the two machines by how cheap one of them will be and it will reasonably improve the efficiency and the other one will be expensive but have more benefits to the business.

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  24. Sources Of Finance

    There is basic financial help that this type of business venture can obtain; the most commonly used for small enterprises are their own personal savings. This is money that the individual has free access to and can do with as they wish. This could be used to invest in setting up the business, so then when the business is making a profit the savings can be put back. The advantage to this is that it dose not have to be paid back at all as it is the owners, or at least not until the business is making enough money to make a profit.

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  25. Assess Effects of Corporate Personality

    This issue had been resolved by the case Salomon & Salomon. Aaron Salomon specialised in manufacturing leather boots, His son became interested in taking part of the business so Salomon decided to incorporate his business into a limited company. Mr. Salomon had become the managing director with 20,001 shares in the company, with his family holding six remaining shares. Mr. Salomon sold his business to the newly incorporated company at �39,000, of which �10,000 was a debt to him and �20,000 in �1 shares, which made him a principle shareholder and a secure creditor.

    • Word count: 1150

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