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AS and A Level: Accounting & Financial Management

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  1. Estimate the cost of equity appropriate for the evaluation of the incremental cash flow associated with the Collinsville investment.

    Beta. In this case we are selling a factory which has only one objective, to manufacture Sodium Chlorate. Therefore we cannot use the beta that is rated on Dixon because they manufacture other chemistry products. To determine the beta for the factory we take a look at two others factory that manufacture only Sodium Chlorite. The companies are Brunswick Chemical, which have the beta 1,1 and Southern Chemicals, which have the beta 1,2. We take the average for these two companies and get 1,15. We decide to use this beta in our calculations. Risk free rate. It is normally argued to use the short time Treasury bills to estimate the risk free rate and we decided tu use it in our calculations.

    • Word count: 1990
  2. Evaluate the importance of cash flow and breakeven for the effective management of business finance.

    A forecast usually covers the next 12 months; however it can also cover a short-term period such as a week or month. Cash flow forecasts can help predict upcoming cash surpluses or shortages to help you make the right decisions. It can help in tax preparation, planning new equipment purchases or identifying if you need to secure a small business loan. You can also use it to see the effect of an upcoming business change or decision. If you?re considering hiring a new employee for example, you would add the additional salary and related costs into your forecast.

    • Word count: 993
  3. Investment Appraisal Question. Trevor must decide which project is best to invest money into. All three projects will bring him financial benefits

    The only financial downfall of option 3 is the low NPV and profit, meaning that the time value of money is going to decrease the value of his profit. Trevor should not choose this option if he is purely interested in the financial success and profit of the project, but if non-financial factors are more important to the success. If Trevor decided to invest in project 3, he may face the problem of lack of experience in the sector, therefore he may need to employ staff, meaning their wage would add to the cost of this project.

    • Word count: 545
  4. What was the overall impact of both the software capitalization policy and the revenue recognition policy on Microsoft's fiscal 1997, 1998, and 1999 financial statements?

    The retained profits would have increased in the balance sheet and the net income would have increased in the Income Statement. The revenue recognition policy of Microsoft also has a serious problem during 1997, 1998 and 1999. Unearned revenue reported in the balance sheet was $1.4 billion, $2.9 billion, and $4.2 billion. This value apparently represented the amounts that had been received by services related to these payments had not been delivered.

    • Word count: 588
  5. Analysis of Financial Statements for Business Y and Z

    This simply means that the business can pay they can pay their liabilities. It is considered good practice that a business to have a figure between 1.5 and 2, so that the business can be sure it can pay its liabilities easily. Business Z 80,000 16,000 = 5:1 ratio This is not an ideal ratio because it is higher than 2 and means that the business is not using their assets well and would not be as good as the money should be place elsewhere to improve the business.

    • Word count: 1492
  6. Using the example (simplified) bank balance sheet below show and explain why the Leverage And Capital Ratios are changed as a result of a 6m write-down in mortgages.

    1 Other Bonds & Bills 40 (20%) 8 Equity Shareholder Capital 7 Other assets Retained Profits 3 Loans and Advances 125 (100%) 125 Mortgages 114 (50%) 57 Total Equity 10 Total Liabilities + Equity 299 Total Assets 299 Total Risk- Adjusted 191 UK Liquidity Ratio 3.34% Leverage Ratio 3.34% Capital Ratio 5.24% From the table above, we can conclude that: The initial balance sheet shows that the total equity is £16m and the total asset is £305m. After the written-down of £6m on mortgages, the mortgages have converted £120m into £114m so that the new total assets change to £299m.

    • Word count: 1229
  7. Reflective report - Introduction to Financial Accounting

    The last component is liability which is the name given to the amounts owing to these people or organizations for these assets. The format of the accounting equation is capital + liabilities = assets. When I learn this subject, I think the interesting part is the double entry which is the basic part of the whole subject. What I have learned is each transaction requires one debit entry and one credit entry and for each pair of entries: the left hand side must therefore equal right hand , only you know how to put the items into debit part or credit part can you prepare the account correctly.

    • Word count: 1509
  8. Financial forecasting for business, Start up costs, running costs, variable and fixed costs

    Start-Up Costs for a Catering Business 2. Operating costs 3. Cost behaviour 3.1 Fixed costs 3.2 Variable costs 3.3 Mixed costs 3.4 Graph Analyse 1. Start-Up Costs for a Catering Business Start-up costs are costs that a business has to pay when they begin. They are not usually paid on an on-going basis. Business start-up can take advantage of available funds and a bank loan. Catering business can start as small as and grow into quite the lucrative enterprise. The start- up costs for this business are determined by the size of the events you wish to cater and what food and other supplies your business will provide guests.

    • Word count: 3728
  9. Accounting Assignment - Partnerships, Limited Liabilty Companies and share capital

    ratio for sharing profits and losses, any salary entitlements, allowable drawings from the business and any other conditions they wish to agree. This agreement is not set by the law. Partners agree on matters such as, how much capital was paid by each partner, profit or loss sharing ratios, salary entitlements (if one partner is putting a lot of work in to the business then that partner should get paid more than a partner who does not do much in the company ?sleeping partner?), any rate of interest claimable by individual partners and allowable drawings and any rate of interest chargeable.

    • Word count: 907
  10. Managing Financial Decisions Case Study - sources of finance

    Main Body As you can see from reading above, Jacinda need advice how to do it in this situation. In this case Yacinda can use Internal or External Sources of Finance. There are several options that I can suggest for het to help to choose the right one. Let?s start from External Sources of Finance. The 1st option for her could be to use Personal/Self Sources. Of course, these also could include Retained Profits which definition is the cash that is generated by the business when it trades profitably. If her income is constant, certainly the best way is to buy all motorcycles and bicycles at once.

    • Word count: 926
  11. In this report I will be speaking about how managing the resources of an organisation and effective budgetary control can lead to improved performance of a business.

    Managing resources of an organisation improves performance as it gives more cash flow, providing you cut back on unnecessary resources; this gives more to re-invest or to pay off liabilities. E.g. If John Lewis had £4600 of current assets and £3600 of current liabilities then they would have a working capital of £1000. By managing the resources and cutting back on waste products, such as recycling paper, they can decrease the liabilities figure from £3600 to £3200. This gives them £400 more working capital and add that to the previous amount of £1000 you get £1400 working capital.

    • Word count: 1587
  12. I am going to produce a report which assesses the working capital management of Marks & Spencer using information from their annual report

    However, comparing these two years there has been a decrease of £807.60 from 2010 to 2011 which is a good thing because this shows that M&S are taken up strategies to improve its working capitals. Current assets are cash or assets owed buy a business that will be turned into cash within one year, examples of current assets are; Trade receivables (Debtors): debtors are money owed to a business by its clients or customers. This is a current asset because customers that purchase goods on credit are usually required to pay the amount owed within a year, so due to this reason they become an asset to a business.

    • Word count: 3860
  13. Compare the benefits of using manual and computerised accounting systems to record business transactions

    Benefits of computerised accounting 1. Faster and efficient 2. Automatic generation of accounting documents like invoices, cheques and statement of account; 3. Cheaper in maintaining than a manual accounting system; 4. More timely information can be produced; 5. No manual processing of the data they are all automatically posted to the various ledgers/accounts 6. Many types of useful reports can be generated for management to make decisions Disadvantages of computerised accounting 1.

    • Word count: 496
  14. Prepare a monthly budget for Ms Masters that would account for the needs of each person in the family.

    Next total all of your individual monthly expenses. This may range from your rent or mortage right down to a daily snack or newspaper. Your budget can be as simple or complex as you want it to be. Purposes of a budget Individuals plan/make a budget in order to: 1. guide and organize one?s spending 2. recognize and correct areas of overspending and waste 3. avoid impulse buying, i.e. buying items that you do not want or haven?t planned to buy. Benefits of a Budget Effective budgeting would most likely gain these benefits: 1. The family will become more financially stable as areas of waste will be eliminated.

    • Word count: 874
  15. I am going to discuss the difference between managerial accounting and cutting cost. I will also provide some of where lean production came from and how it started

    Cost accounting is used internally and is primarily an internal mechanism, it is not tied with managerial accounting standards such as GAAP, and the steps to try and figure out where reductions in budgets and costs will be realistic. When talking about lean production it actually came from the Japanese and originated in Toyota Company.

    • Word count: 493
  16. Fractional Reserve Banking

    Total $3,439 $1,000 $2,439 As you can see from the table above, the banks created $2,439 based on the first $1,000 deposited. Talking about license to print money. The fractional reserve banking works for now, because the total amount of withdrawals is offset by deposits made at the same time. While the depositors are confident at the fractional-reserve banking system, a very small part of all deposits is withdrawn at the same time allowing the banks to handle the withdrawals through their minuscule reserves.

    • Word count: 1234

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