Tractors- this would be sold to the retailer directly, this would save time as things like these products come out very quickly, so it needs to be sold quickly after manufacturing.
Tins of peas- This would be sold to a Wholesaler, then the retailers, this means that the products can be sold in more places, and tinned products don’t expires for years after manufacturing, so time can be taken for this to happen.
Made-to-measure-suits –This would be sold directly from the producer to the consumer, as time cannot be stretched too far here. Also, the consumer would have to send information- for example measurements to the producer directly.
Types of production
Trade Union is-
- Pressure groups- a group of people with similar interests.
- They act of behalf of their members ad try to influence others and protect their interests. E.g. Working hours and pay.
- There are Trade Unions for employees and employers.
- The main one in this country is Confederation of British Industry (CBI).
What does the Trade Union do?
They use something called ‘Collective Bargaining’.
They use this to help members obtain:
- Higher Pay
- Better working conditions
- Shorter working hours
They also give their members:
- Social facilities
- Legal advice- e.g. if you fell you were unfairly dismissed.
4 main Trade Unions and description
E.g. Horse Farriers Union (HFU) - Are the oldest- they represent workers who have a particular trade of skill.
E.g. Rail, Maritime & Transport (RMT)- Represents workers who work in the same industry regardless of their job in that industry.
e.g.- Transport & General Workers Union (TGWU)- Look after the interests of skilled workers in any job from any industry.
White Collar Unions
E.g. National Union of Teachers - Represents office workers and Professionals.
Trade Union Hierarchy
The President of the Trade Union is a link to the Trade Union Congress (TUC) who is a major pressure group that tries to influence Government and the EU.
- If unions and employers can’t agree this is called an Industrial Action.
- If this dispute carries on and is not sorted, action is taken, leading to Industrial Action- e.g. Strikes!!
- Apart from strike there is 3 other ways-
- Go slow- productivity is slowed down.
- Overtime ban
☹ To decide if industrial action is taken, a ballot is usually taken.
☹ Members are not expected to work if the overall vote is to take industrial action- striking?
☹ If they do, this (not strike though the votes say so) is called crossing the picket line
Trade Union membership has fallen down from 12 million to 7 million from the 70’s, because of 3 main reasons.
- Laws passed in the 80’s have reduced the power of a Union
- Fewer people work in manufacturing which have the highest membership rates.
- A European Works Council Directive has been put in place which requires employers with more than 50 employees to have regular council meetings.