Describe the functions and structural design of the cerebrum.

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1.) Describe the functions and structural design of the cerebrum.

The cerebrum is the largest portion of the brain, and is located in the uppermost section of the brain. It is divided into two separate sections, separated by a groove called the great longitudinal fissure. Each of the sections is referred to as a cerebral hemisphere. The left hemisphere of the cerebrum controls the right side of the body, and the right hemisphere of the cerebrum controls the left side of the body.

Within the hemispheres are several lobes that correspond to the bones in the region in which they lie. These include the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes.
             The frontal lobe is the main center for voluntary movement, and is often associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving. It is often referred to as the motor area, due to the fact that it contains the areas for fine muscle movement. The prefrontal cortex area plays an important part in memory, concentration, temper, intelligence, and personality, as well as creativity and association of ideas. The premotor cortex area is located beside the primary motor cortex and guides our eye and head movements, our sense of orientation, and is associated with learned motor activity, such as playing an instrument, or dancing.
        The parietal lobe is the lobe that is most often associated with collection, recognizance, and organization of pain, temperature, touch, position, movement, perception of stimuli, and allows us to register shape, size, and weight. It coordinates signals received from the other brain regions and interprets sensory signals.
        The temporal lobe contains the auditory cortex that helps us receive signals from the ear and allows us to hear sounds and associate meanings with sounds. This area is also responsible, in part, for memory, and is an area of the brain essential for language and speech.
        The occipital lobe of the cerebrum is associated with visual processing, and contains the visual cortex, which aids in the recognition of objects. It is involved in visual perception, visual memory, and associations, and plays a role in eye movements.

        The outer surface of the cerebrum is composed of a series of folds, called gyri, separated by sulci. The gyri are the upward folds in the surface of the cerebrum, while the sulci are the deep grooves. These folds dramatically increase the surface area of the cerebrum.

        The commissural tracts are connections between each of the cerebral hemisphere with the other. They consist of the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, and the posterior commissure. The corpus callusum is the largest of the three, and is composed of dense white matter that transversely connects the two hemispheres. The anterior commissure connects the parts of the temporal lobes with each other by a network of fibrous strands. The posterior commissure consists of a sheet of fibers that cross under the corpus callosum to connect to the olfactory centers.

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2.) List the major parts of the brain and their functions.

The four major parts of the brain are the cerebrum, diencephalon, cerebellum, and brainstem. The cerebrum, described above, has a wide range of functions, ranging anywhere from memory to controlling voluntary responses, as well as learned motor movements. It is divided into two major hemispheres, the right and the left, and the hemispheres are further divided into lobes.

        The cerebellum is the part of the brain that is important in refining movements, equilibrium, and posture, as well ...

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