ICT Serving Organisations

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Unit 2- ICT Serving Organisations

Information and its uses


A database is a collection of data about something or someone (people).

What can they do?

  • Search through data (query)
  • Do calculations on data
  • Allow data to be entered through forms
  • Allow the creation of reports which is a summary of the data

Examples of databases

Bank, Doctors, Work, Online Shop, Library, Registry Office, DVLA, Video Library, Criminal Record, Football Club, Ebay, Stock Exchange, Census.

Within a company, there may be a number of databases. For example, in TESCO, you may find databases on:

  • Staff
  • Club Cards
  • Suppliers
  • On-line Shoppers
  • Products
  • Purchase orders

Centralised Databases systems

It is best to have a centralised database system rather than lots of little separate ones, as there will be less duplication of the data that can lead to mistakes. It is also much more efficient and effective as the whole database can be searched or queried at one time. E.g. purchase orders do not need to access a separate database to get the supplier details to accompany the order.

What is the difference between data and information?

Data- Data is numbers, names, codes etc held about a specific object or person.

Information- Information is combined pieces of data that have a meaning.

E.g. in a school library database, you will have data on books and pupils, this can be combined in ad database to give details on which books are being taken on loan by students.

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Methods of communication

  • Phone
  • Fax
  • E-mail
  • Text
  • Memos
  •  Post/Internal
  • Pagers
  • Speaking/ Verbal
  • Website
  • LAN Email
  • Website
  • Sign Language
  • Brail

EDI is an electronic way of communicating information that tries to reduce the need for human input. For example, at Safeway, when products are sold, the bar code is read and the quantity of the item is reduced in the stock database. When enough stock has been sold and the re order level has been reached, the database will automatically send an order to the regional distribution centre for more of that item.


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