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AS and A Level: People & Operations Management

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How to manage people successfully

  1. 1 A business needs to be clear on their recruitment needs and then use recruitment practices to ensure that they find them.
  2. 2 A business must train their staff in the right way. This is likely to include a mix of off the job and on the job training.
  3. 3 Staff must be appraised so that the business ensures that they are performing the job correctly. This appraisal process will often include objective setting for employees and then judging whether they have performed to this standard.
  4. 4 Staff need to be managed so that they are motivated to do a good job.
  5. 5 One of the main measures of the effectiveness of staff is to look at their productivity. This measures the output of individual workers.

Five motivation theories

  1. 1 Identifying where you see examples of the below theories in action can give big analysis marks. Motivation is not all about money. Money gets people to work but only in certain circumstances does it then lead to a more motivated workforce.
  2. 2 F. W. Taylor believed that all that was necessary was for the management to decide on the most efficient means of production and then pay workers to do it.
  3. 3 Elton Mayo said that workers work best when their group needs are considered and they are treated as human beings rather than as machines as in Taylor’s theory.
  4. 4 Frederick Herzberg discriminated between hygiene factors like pay and good working conditions which did not motivate in themselves but the absence of them demotivated and the motivators like praise and interesting work which did motivate.
  5. 5 Maslow said that we have a hierarchy of needs and we are motivated by the next unfilled need. Most workers in developed countries have sufficient money to eat so you will not motivate them just with more money but by meeting their needs and by work that is fulfilling.

Five key concepts in operations management

  1. 1 Operations management is about how and where businesses produce their product e.g. labour or capital intensive, in-house or outsourced.
  2. 2 Capacity utilisation is the percentage of total possible output a business is actually producing. Too low and capital is not being used fully, too high and there is no slack for machine breakdown, sickness or new orders.
  3. 3 Economies of scale are the benefits accruing to a business for being larger e.g. it is likely to be able to buy goods in bulk, have more specialist managers and workers, produce on a larger scale.
  4. 4 Lean production is where a business reduces waste as much as possible. Just-in-time, where businesses hold minimum stock and produce to order is a key element of this.
  5. 5 Ensuring quality might be through quality control (checking at the end) quality assurance (all staff responsible for quality) or Total Quality Management where the whole ethos of the business is centred on quality.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 8
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    How employee performance is managed and measured at a business

    5 star(s)

    An assessment of an individual's achievement and an expected distribution of performance levels within Tesco. These would also include employee goal setting. The value of such a system serves to deliver a variety of value to both Tesco and the employee whose performance is being assessed. The benefits for the Tesco employee and Tesco- � Work plans and performance targets can and will drive desired goal attainment � Periodic performance assessment provides the opportunity to focus and develop talent needed to enhance career opportunity � Work plans and performance appraisal demonstrate personal interest in individual contribution and may foster a

    • Word count: 1645
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Roles and Responsibilities of Staff Members at McDonalds.

    5 star(s)

    Other rewards can be paid holiday and pay raises; however these can only be awarded to employees that have been working for McDonalds for more than a certain length of time. It is the role of the manager to carry out 4 different types of activities, these being under headings of; planning, organising, motivating and controlling, these can be applied to any staff under the manager themselves, these being called subordinates. These are the general areas of responsibility for the manager: * Carrying out the instructions of higher authority (directors of the business.).

    • Word count: 15837
  3. Marked by a teacher

    NVQ2 Business and admin assessment 1. Know the employment rights and responsibilities of the employee and employer

    4 star(s)

    Briefly describe employer and employee responsibilities for equality and diversity in a business environment. You should give at least two employer responsibilities and two employee responsibilities. If possible, provide relevant equality and diversity procedures from your workplace (or place of study) to support your answer. These documents should be annotated to highlight the relevant sections. One employer?s responsibility to equality and diversity is when hiring staff to make sure that they consider everyone for the position regardless of their age, weight, gender, religion, disability or anything else that may be discriminated on, there are slight exceptions to this, for

    • Word count: 2995
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Understanding Discipline

    4 star(s)

    Some would describe severe authoritarianism as dictatorship. Dictatorial authority is a very severe version of authoritarian authority. There is a hierarchy here as well, but the overall leader is indefinitely charge and has absolute power. Team members who are under this type of authority must have a huge amount of discipline as they are not aloud to ask questions on the relevance of their orders; they must do what they are ordered to do because the leader says so. This type of authority can have many disadvantages such as low morale within the team, and defection. Also this type of authority can sometimes lead to very harsh punishment to those who disobey such as torture and violence.

    • Word count: 2180
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Factors of Labour turnover There are many factors could cause the high level of labour turnover and absenteeism

    3 star(s)

    Factors of Absenteeism Although each individual absence reasons are different, employeers absent generally may be occur due to the poor health of the employee. Also, they are influenced not just by levels of health, but also by management style, working condition and home conditions, personal factors (age, health, education). Another reason of absent is stress that associated with coworker & manager and their attitude. Absenteeism tend to increase where there are high levels of overtime. Additionally, absenteeism is positively correlated with turnover, which means that the more an employee misses work, the more likely he or she is to eventually leave the company.

    • Word count: 1138
  6. Marked by a teacher

    Explain how customer service standards are planned, implemented and monitored, and the impact this has on the operation of a selected business.

    3 star(s)

    Methods of setting aims for customer service are wide. It depends on company and what good or service they provide. Some of the businesses have different aims, like providing employment for the owner; increasing sales and production or taking over businesses. Except aims, like making profits, providing goods and services, businesses have to state objectives by which they can get their aims. In example, if a business settled an aim to make a profit, they have to think how to achieve this; they need to set targets to know how much they want to spend and how much they want to receive.

    • Word count: 2511
  7. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the importance of employability, and personal skills in the recruitment and retention of staff in the NHS.

    3 star(s)

    This would be required for any job as you need to be able to understand other colleagues and customers/public. The NHS need to consider this skill in former employees as they need to communicate and understand former colleagues and patients for tasks to be understood and carried out effectively. The NHS looks to see if their staff and new recruits are hard working. This would be portrayed at inductions/interviews for a job or in a trail period of a vacancy. Employees need to be hard working so the work/service they provide is of a high quality and meets the company's standards.

    • Word count: 942
  8. Recruitment. Identify how two organisations plan recruitment using internal and external sources.

    This is however a much cheaper option for companies as staffing costs are usually very high for a business. Culture Caf� often recruits internally especially when some staff would like more or less hours or to work in a different site and when more suitable vacancies arise they will recruit internally and help staff to learn new skills and encourage career progression, but ultimately most of their staff will be recruited externally. External recruitment is when a company recruits staff from outside of the business.

    • Word count: 5167
  9. Week Three Employee Portfolio: Assessing and motivating 3 employees.

    If the employee is more involvement in his job this would enhance the level of attitude toward the assigned tasks and duties He should be given authority into doing his job so that the employees feel the power and affiliation to the company. # Person 2 The characteristics that person #2 might have may affect on the performance organization as the employee lacks concentration while doing the job which suggests that the job does not seems to be interesting to this employee. Because of his lack of concentration he might not be motivated into doing the best on his job.

    • Word count: 1224
  10. Week Two Employee Portfolio: Management Plan for 3 employees.

    To motivate and improve the level of satisfaction in the organization, managers are interested in understanding attitudes and satisfaction level. As an organization we want to keep resignations and absences down and keep motivate employees. We are interested in understanding what makes the employees' job interesting and challenging. Moreover would like to measure how you feel about, benefits, career advancement opportunities, career development opportunities, compensation/pay, and flexibility to balance life and work issues. Further, as we evolve as an organization, we want to empower and motivate our key employees into decision makers, leaders, motivators, and innovators.

    • Word count: 1328
  11. As a member of the Career Advisor in a large private school in Dubai. I have been asked to produce a guide to the recruitment and selection practice.

    Employees are protected against racial discrimination at all stages of employment. Under the Act, it doesn't matter if the discrimination is done on purpose or not. What counts is whether employees are treated less favorable than someone else because of race. Equal Pay Act 1970 The Equal Pay Act 1970 gives an individual a right to the same contractual pay and benefits as a person of the opposite s*x in the same employment, where the man and the woman are doing: * Like work * Work related as equivalent under an analytical job evaluation study * Work of Equal Value- in terms of demands made under such headings as effort, skill and decision-making.

    • Word count: 1201
  12. Free essay

    I need to prepare the job description and person specification for graduate management training placement within Kent Country Council.

    -Viruses are easily spread via email attachments. Website -An advantage of having a website is business information and details about the services or products can be accessed by anyone. -Users can easily access information about the business. -Once the website is designed, company can keep it up-to-date to be relevant to the business and encourage more visitors. -Advantage of a website in terms of advertising of a business. The ongoing costs are minimal and it's more likely to see the value.

    • Word count: 1503
  13. Discuss the implications for UK service sector firms that have off shed IT or administrative functions to low cost economies, such as India.

    This is an ideological tool in exploiting different economies efficiently. It helps businesses to keep their costs very low but rather increase their profit margins. This may not always be the case though, since economic factors are very much unpredictable. Such firms are likely to have a huge loss should there be any increase in the value of the Indian currency. This could create potential instability in the business thus causing them to relocate into the UK service sector. Also, firms relocating in low cost economies are able to benefit from cheap labour costs.

    • Word count: 1069
  14. With reference to Google and/or other business you have studied to what extent does the culture of the business determine its ability to maintain competitiveness?

    For example, Body Shop had a distant ethical culture which supported the business brand image and relationship with customers. This gave the business a USP and helped them maintain its competitiveness. However, when Body Shop was taken over by L'Oreal in 2006 (a company that is known for using animal testing on their products), Body Shop like-for-like sale rose by 9.7% and now have an additional 143 stores. This expansion has therefore increased Body Shop competitiveness. This suggests that the culture of a business does not affect its competitiveness rather the products themselves. As Body Shop changed their culture going against their brand image but managed to increase their competitiveness.

    • Word count: 700
  15. Motivation in workplace. Shine Communications, a communications agency based in London and employing 56 staff, was voted by employees, the number one company, in the Sunday Times 100 Best Small Companies to Work For

    Although some factors were found to fall into both categories, broadly speaking, Herzberg identified, Achievement, Recognition. The Nature of Work, and Responsibility as motivators, and How the Business was Run, Supervision, Work Conditions, and Pay as hygiene factors. One striking finding in the study was that factors associated with encouraging motivation, have little connection with money, but are associated with personal development and achievement. This is not to say that increasing pay doesn't remove job dissatisfaction - it does, but only in the short term. Shine Communications, a communications agency based in London and employing 56 staff, was voted by employees, the number one company, in the Sunday Times 100 Best Small Companies to Work For, 2012.

    • Word count: 2267
  16. Present complex internal business information using three different methods appropriate to the users needs.

    It is one way to communicate with someone face-to-face. Telephone conversations are very useful for this type of communication. People who use verbal communication can share their feelings, thoughts, and emotions by way of them communicating. Staff and students in CCA use this communication every day. Non-Verbal Communication: Non- verbal communication is any kind of communication not involving words. When the term is used, most people think of facial expressions and gestures, but while these are important essentials of nonverbal communication, they are not the only ones.

    • Word count: 824
  17. Explain the different types of business information their sources and purposes with examples from Capital City Academy.

    Communication is only successful when both the sender and the receiver understand the same information because of the communication. What are the different types of information used by CCA? Information comes from a wide range of courses. In CCA there are many different types of communication that are used between one another. Formal and informal communication, verbal and nonverbal communication, audio/video communication, and ICT communication are all used in Capital City Academy. What is a written communication? Written communication involves any type of interaction that makes use of the written word.

    • Word count: 1625
  18. Job Roles at Sainsburys Supermarkets

    The roles and responsibility of a manager in Sainsbury are as follows: Store Managers are vital in achieving Sainsbury business objectives. They have complete responsibility for everything that happens in their store. Leading and motivating a team, ensuring store standards are first class and that the store, stock and people are in place to deliver the customer experience people expect from Sainsbury. Sales generation: A store manager must meet monthly, quarterly, or annual sales goals, depending on the company's cash flow.

    • Word count: 10367
  19. Managing A Business Event. Planning the different elements of an event will require you to think about the timings of the event, what you need to order and when.

    You will learn in more detail about these aspects of the role in the section on planning an event. Setting up the programme The programme is the list of what is happening at the event and the order in which it is happening. It guides the organisation of the event and will be used by attendees. The programme's quality and content will help to guide people's interest as well as give them an outline of what is going to happen during the day. The programme will also give details of any special guests, speeches, entertainment, prize-giving or free gifts that might be part of the event.

    • Word count: 1490
  20. The main aim of this research is to evaluate the information on the human resource management and the role of HRM in the organization along with the different concepts and human resource strate

    3.2 Organizational leadership 3.3 HR Core Competencies 3.4 Necessity of mind set change 3.5 HRM strategy aims 3.6 HR strategy outsourcing 3.7 Human resource management at organization level 3.7.1 Human resource management improvement preparation 3.7.2 Structure of organization 3.7.3 Grading, benefits and salaries 3.8 Write Job profile 3.8.1 Job profile for driver job 3.8.2 Evaluate job 3.8.3 Designing system 3.8.4 Method of evaluating job 3.8.5 Assign grade 3.8.6 Job evaluation methods 3.9 Frame work of Human resource management 3.10 Principles of the organizations 3.11 HR Managers and their strategies 3.12 Managing performance 3.12.1 Motivation 3.12.2 Principle 3.12.3 Procedures 3.12.4 Promotion

    • Word count: 19178

    The letter is usually quite short and it is a formal letter so it should be formal language that is used. The structure is usually importrated and is usually retained by the employer along with the cv. What are the advantages of the written method from the perspectives of the employer and interviewee? The advantages of an application form would be that you can put all your basic information down to an employer before having an interview. The employer then has basic information so they can pick people out by their past experiences or if their personality would be suitable for a job.

    • Word count: 2620
  22. Describe the main employability, personal and communication skills required when applying for a specific job role.

    * Knowledge of the product or service - this is a good insight to have as it shows that you have studied the company and its products and shows you will you have the skills capable of working in the company. For example - if applying to be an administrative assistant then knowing the background of the company is good as you know what their standards are * Suitable qualifications - if the job requires you to have qualifications it must mean they want extra from the person applying for the job, they may need these qualifications in order to complete the task.

    • Word count: 743
  23. Crossing borders. What competencies are appropriate to ensure greater effectiveness of U.S. employees operating in a maquiladora or other non-U.S. organization?

    � Employees must be able to balance the needs for global consistency and local responsiveness. Employees must be able to show sensitivity to the culture in which they are operating, and yet be able to operate, (perform their function as an employee), effectively. � Employee must attempt to overcome the language barrier, either by gaining knowledge of the local language, or having a means of interpreting the local language. This can be vital since communication is key to the effectiveness and success of any operation.

    • Word count: 1021
  24. Monitoring, Maintaining and Improving Customer Service at Disneyland Paris

    Another method Disneyland Paris use to monitor customer service is using mystery shoppers as a method of inspection and monitoring customer service. This involves a quality assurance employee of Disneyland or hired externally to dress up as an ordinary customer and evaluate the level of customer service which their current staff are providing customers with. The quality assurance employee will be looking for particular characteristics from cast member employed by Disneyland Paris such as; politeness, how considerate they are and if they present themselves well.

    • Word count: 2902
  25. Financial methods of motivating and empowering employees

    This gives the high achievers to benefit from their hard work. The disadvantages of performance related pay to the business are that the reward system can be detrimental to the business because employees may only be focusing on the financial reward rather than development needs. Because of this, co-operation and teamwork can be hindered. There is the danger that employees may expect a pay-out year on year regardless of rising requirements on performance related pay. Finally, this method is only short-term and wouldn't motivate workers long term; it does not encourage employee loyalty.

    • Word count: 2806

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Critically discuss how organisations can develop a human resource strategy"

    "8. Conclusion Developing a HR strategy is imperative for organisations in today's competitive business environment. The various approaches to HRM strategy outlined in the report are not always practical as in reality it is very difficult to have a "one size fits all" HR theory, and this means that there can never really be a "one size fits all" HR strategy. In reality when organisations are developing a HR strategy they will fit somewhere between the "hard" and "soft" approach. Another point is that contingencies need to be considered, as HR, strategies need to be contingent with the organisations subcultures. The following concepts need to be considered if the HR strategy an organisation adopts is to be effective * Different human resource practices should be coherent and complement each other. * There should be a fit between the coherent sets of human resource practices and other systems within the organisation. * The human resource systems should be in line with the business or competitive strategy of the organisation. * The human resource system adopted by the organisation should be compatible with its operating environment. 1"

  • Evaluate how managing resources and controlling budgets can improve the performance of a business

    "In my opinion breakeven analysis will not worry the business a lot because they are going to have their product stored and they know that the products are going to be sold soon, which will then make their profit for the business. Setting budgets will be essential for the restaurant because after their restaurant has been open for 1 to 2 months, they will know what product is being sold more and which one isn't. So therefore they will set themselves budgets, the less the product is being sold then they will order it less and the more a product is being sold then they will order more of it."

  • This essay will explain how groups are formed and will discuss how motivation techniques promote effective group work and a well motivated workforce.

    "In conclusion this essay shows different ways how groups are formed and different types of groups such as formal and informal groups. There are many ways of motivating employees but employers should know that there are different ways of rewarding. Different theorists have different ways of explaining their techniques on motivating workforces."

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