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AS and A Level: People & Operations Management

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How to manage people successfully

  1. 1 A business needs to be clear on their recruitment needs and then use recruitment practices to ensure that they find them.
  2. 2 A business must train their staff in the right way. This is likely to include a mix of off the job and on the job training.
  3. 3 Staff must be appraised so that the business ensures that they are performing the job correctly. This appraisal process will often include objective setting for employees and then judging whether they have performed to this standard.
  4. 4 Staff need to be managed so that they are motivated to do a good job.
  5. 5 One of the main measures of the effectiveness of staff is to look at their productivity. This measures the output of individual workers.

Five motivation theories

  1. 1 Identifying where you see examples of the below theories in action can give big analysis marks. Motivation is not all about money. Money gets people to work but only in certain circumstances does it then lead to a more motivated workforce.
  2. 2 F. W. Taylor believed that all that was necessary was for the management to decide on the most efficient means of production and then pay workers to do it.
  3. 3 Elton Mayo said that workers work best when their group needs are considered and they are treated as human beings rather than as machines as in Taylor’s theory.
  4. 4 Frederick Herzberg discriminated between hygiene factors like pay and good working conditions which did not motivate in themselves but the absence of them demotivated and the motivators like praise and interesting work which did motivate.
  5. 5 Maslow said that we have a hierarchy of needs and we are motivated by the next unfilled need. Most workers in developed countries have sufficient money to eat so you will not motivate them just with more money but by meeting their needs and by work that is fulfilling.

Five key concepts in operations management

  1. 1 Operations management is about how and where businesses produce their product e.g. labour or capital intensive, in-house or outsourced.
  2. 2 Capacity utilisation is the percentage of total possible output a business is actually producing. Too low and capital is not being used fully, too high and there is no slack for machine breakdown, sickness or new orders.
  3. 3 Economies of scale are the benefits accruing to a business for being larger e.g. it is likely to be able to buy goods in bulk, have more specialist managers and workers, produce on a larger scale.
  4. 4 Lean production is where a business reduces waste as much as possible. Just-in-time, where businesses hold minimum stock and produce to order is a key element of this.
  5. 5 Ensuring quality might be through quality control (checking at the end) quality assurance (all staff responsible for quality) or Total Quality Management where the whole ethos of the business is centred on quality.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 8
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    How employee performance is managed and measured at a business

    5 star(s)

    An assessment of an individual's achievement and an expected distribution of performance levels within Tesco. These would also include employee goal setting. The value of such a system serves to deliver a variety of value to both Tesco and the employee whose performance is being assessed. The benefits for the Tesco employee and Tesco- � Work plans and performance targets can and will drive desired goal attainment � Periodic performance assessment provides the opportunity to focus and develop talent needed to enhance career opportunity � Work plans and performance appraisal demonstrate personal interest in individual contribution and may foster a

    • Word count: 1645
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Factors of Labour turnover There are many factors could cause the high level of labour turnover and absenteeism

    3 star(s)

    Factors of Absenteeism Although each individual absence reasons are different, employeers absent generally may be occur due to the poor health of the employee. Also, they are influenced not just by levels of health, but also by management style, working condition and home conditions, personal factors (age, health, education). Another reason of absent is stress that associated with coworker & manager and their attitude. Absenteeism tend to increase where there are high levels of overtime. Additionally, absenteeism is positively correlated with turnover, which means that the more an employee misses work, the more likely he or she is to eventually leave the company.

    • Word count: 1138
  3. In the case Freedom of Expression in the Workplace Barbara Hill is an employee at American Plastic Products Company. In order to do her job Barbara has to walk down a hallway to a meeting room at least once every day. On the walls of the h

    As far as values go it appears that Barbara values equal rights and a high moral standard. It looks as if Barbara values the fact, that although she is working in an environment that appears to be dominated by men, she still has the right to be there and earn an equal pay. She is capable of doing the job as well as anyone else and she deserves to be paid the same as anyone else. Barbara also values a high moral standard in that she does not believe she has to view offensive pictures hanging in the hallway which she must walk down to do her job.

    • Word count: 1620
  4. Within this task I am going to produce data that is going to be included in a job information pack, as part of an advertisement campaign for a new post with a company that my supervisor has asked to to work on.

    There are many factors that a company must take into account when opening there business so that they maintain their responsibility of ensuring the health and safety of people involved in the business. The first issue that I will look at is when a business is employing five or more people. In this case the business would have to have an official record of what the assessment consists of, meaning that that the employer would have to have certain plans in order to deal with potential risks.

    • Word count: 1803
  5. Human resource planning at Toyota.

    inside the business and how the organisation is changing itself to cope with new methods of working or new demands being made on it, such as the introduction of technology or new products. It is also a way of considering the new skills that will be needed in the future and those that existing staff already have, so that the gap can be measured. Human resource planning cycle The Planning Cycle brings together all aspects of planning into a logical, unified process.

    • Word count: 1475
  6. Outline how an organisations motivational practices and reward systems are informed by theories of motivation.

    Taylor put forward the case that workers were only motivated by money, so work must be linked to payment. A manager should motivate a worker by using pay as a reason or by firing them if they did not work to their best of their ability. The positive side of this form of motivation, which relies solely on money, is that the more you produce, the better your pay is. But this can lead to issues around quality. By rushing to finish products can cause mistakes and faults in products so will not satisfy the customers.

    • Word count: 1122
  7. In this report I will conduct a report on Crickets clothing and ASDA distribution systems.

    Designed labels would require space when shipping this would cost more and they would properly be delivered hanging. These designer labels will be shipped but they wouldn't be as frequent as some of the other high street shops such as top man or zara. Because designers are leading the trend and zara and top man are copying them. Cricket stock their clothes in a stock room and they wouldn't need a warehouse. Because cricket is a local brand this means that they will not need any other stock over the country. The distributing used by ASDA ASDA is the second biggest supermarket in the UK.

    • Word count: 1305
  8. When I first began the process of recruiting an employee for McDonalds, I was looking for an employee to work as a shift manager.

    I also ensured that I let the potential recruit know how to apply to make it easier for them. From looking at my Advert and the type of information that was included I thought it was appealing, and stood out from the bold font what was used, but it could have been slightly more in depth as to the basic skills/ requirement that was expected of the shift manager, due to the CV's received that didn't have the experience of working under management.

    • Word count: 1970
  9. Business Strategy

    To show you what I mean, if we look at the firms that operate in the airline industry, they could never have predicted the events of September 11th. Because of this, their strategy would have immediately changed. This might have been from making a profit to survival. Strategic planning could benefit a business by allowing it to be able to respond to seen or unseen, changes within their environment. This might be a new competitor that has entered the same market or an unpredictable change such as a natural disaster.

    • Word count: 1700
  10. The two government policies that I have chosen to write a word report about is the Equality act and Environmental change act.

    In the police force, at the current climate it is very lucky that you would get police officers from all sorts of ethnic backgrounds and different beliefs. The aim of the equality act has had a big impact on the police force because before you would have only seen white police officers but since the act has been introduced all the different background and religions have been able to get the job. This act was an advantage to the police force to make it a better working environment seen as the government had backed it up also every staff in the police force has to pledge to it.

    • Word count: 1093
  11. Risk Assessment for Group Work

    Solution: We can request that each member write a quick synopsis of what they have completed for the week. Everyone must know what is expected and if their update is in no way associated with the weekly task, we can redirect their attention at that time. If someone doesn't want to complete a task, this will be evident in discussion and that task will have to quickly reassign to another member of the group. 3. Loafing. The loafer is the most commonly cited disadvantage of group work. This is when a member does not contribute to the group, +and therefore decreases the group's ability to perform to their full potential.

    • Word count: 1177
  12. Business SMART targets

    I would make sure I wake up early for my lessons and come in college before 10mins registration so I would have time to get everything sorted before the lesson starts and also coming into college everyday which would improve my attendance. If I do not monitor my attendance then this would affect me as they might not take me in as my attendance has gone down this would look bad on my reference as they wouldn't take me serious as they might not think I'm reliable and not keen to study.

    • Word count: 1566
  13. Job roles in travel and tourism - Air cabin crew and Holiday rep.

    Giving first aid to passengers where necessary; * Ensuring passengers disembark safely at the end of a flight and checking that there is no luggage left in the overhead lockers; * Completing paperwork, including writing a flight report. Entry requirements Height: Airlines have set a minimum height restriction between 5'2" and 6'3" for safety reasons, so the cabin crew can reach all the safety and emergency equipment on the aircraft Weight: companies usually ask for height should be in proportion to weight which enables cabin crew to wear the standard crew safety harness.

    • Word count: 1135
  14. The Appeal and Importance of UK Visitor Attractions

    This provides an opportunity for people to still enjoy the best moments of their experience. In addition, the number of places to eat around Madame Tussauds makes it easier for tourists and visitors to find a place where they can relax after their visit. Different type of visitors:- Students - Madame Tussauds has a range of activities and attractions for students. The ride of London provides a summary of how London as a city developed from the ancient times to date and so this could be of interest to students studying History.

    • Word count: 1167
  15. Different things motivate different people at work

    If a company pay its staff more money then they the company may make more profit overall. Many people have come up with theories on what motivates people such as: Abraham maslow thinks that everyone has a hierarchical of needs and you are motivated by yours. He describes it as a pyramid and says that once you fulfil one level of needs you will move on to the next one. He believes we all have the same basic needs and they are fulfilled in order 1) Physiological needs- Life, food, water survival 2) Safety needs - Job security in a nice environment 3)

    • Word count: 1245
  16. Analysing Skills

    So if the applicant was a team player we would benefit from him/her working with other people with coordinated effort to reach a goal for the company. Attention to detail - is where one accomplishes all tasks given with great care and attention. Having a member of staff with this skill would be beneficial because then managers will have peace of mind that all jobs will be completed to set standards. Paying attention to detail also means that if a customer asks for help the applicant would give his all to make sure what they want/need they receive as quick as possible.

    • Word count: 1011
  17. Training methods available for a teacher

    This also means that they employees can get to know each other better. The disadvantage of on the job training is that it limits what the employee can learn because the manager, who is most likely the person training the employee, has limited knowledge they can pass on. The advantages of off the job training are that it allows me to learn from more experienced staff. It also allows me to focus on my training and not get distracted by work or other employees.

    • Word count: 1011
  18. Suitability Assesment of chosen career path

    This means that I am most likely to succeed in this sector whilst enjoying myself at the same time. The career test also helped me to choose the education sector because it told me what kind of person who I am. It also told me the areas I am strong at and the areas I am weak at which allowed me to improve these. I have chosen to working in the teaching sector because I believe I have the right personal qualities and skills which are required by a teacher, which would mean I should be able to complete my job in this sector successfully.

    • Word count: 1844
  19. A-level Business Studies PDP

    October 2008 If I pass my exams I will attend university to studying Accounts and Finance. To progress in university I will have to manage time well between leisure and studying. By passing my first year at university it will lead me on to the second year and on the path to my chosen carer as an accountant. January 2009 I will be revising for modules in which I will have to pass or repeat later in the year. To progress in my modules I will have to revise consistently and will have to attend all lectures in the build up to the module.

    • Word count: 1373
  20. Analyse employment trends

    Also mechanics tend to be a male dominated field of the sector. Construction Jobs: Construction: architecture, business analysis manager, financial construction manager, site manager, civil engineering Companies: Timothy James consulting, DP group, Northern island informatiq, subsea 7 LTD, Murphy, balfour beatty, carillion plc. I am not a brilliant designer, so I wouldn't trust myself in building and constructing a brand new building. However, construction also tends to be a male dominated sector. Distribution, hotels and restaurants Jobs: Distribution: FedEx, Tour Operator Hotels: hotel receptionist, security guard. Restaurants: Chef, waiter/waitress, restaurant manager, Bartender, Companies: Marriot, Pizza hut, McDonalds, Hilton hotel chain, Hill McGlynn, Radisson SAS, Ritz I am not interested in working in the hotel/restaurant industry because I am not a good server or chef.

    • Word count: 1357
  21. In this assignment I want to describe the recruitment and retention process and documentation in M&S.

    M&S for example diverted into providing other ranges of products like home wares and furniture. > To comply with government law: Government law makes organisations to recruit a right amount of staff based on gender, race and disability. M&S could get in trouble if they don't employ the right blend of staff. Task 1.2 The key aspects of the recruitment process is to first analyse by the employer of the business, what the business requires from the current job if that is done the will prepare a description of the job which means they will prepare the working conditions and also make a list of attribute that the person will need to perform the job.

    • Word count: 1704
  22. Change Management

    There are many reasons why a company would want to change and cutting costs is the main reason why OBS feel a need for change is necessary. Using Retrenchment, OBS are able to save costs by moving to a more centralised location getting rid of regional offices and ultimately trying to grow and gain a high market share. By reducing the size and scale of the business to begin with, OBS then have the chance to grow into a bigger business over time.

    • Word count: 1009
  23. Exploring Business Activity P4

    HRM will be responsible for all ideas of people management in a firm. The kind of work covered in the human resources function might include the following. Yes Yes Research and development R&D department enables new products and processes and then seeks to develop them into finished article. They investigate new goods and process and then seek to develop them into the finished article. E.g. software's manufacturers are researching environmentally friendly software's that run on computers programme, electricity. Yes Yes Production Production manager of a Microsoft is responsible for making sure raw materials are processed into finished goods well.

    • Word count: 1900
  24. Exploring Business Activity P3

    * It is important to alert emergencies during floods and earthquake, they must reach there to get people to survive or rescue them at anytime at future periods. * To advertise on TV or ask people, who don't need computers, books and software? But needed to accumulate 1-100 computers for schools, and to inform whether they need it or not; will be predicting by January 2011. Private sector business (Microsoft) 3 Strategic Aims * To help customers to reach their potential * To consider the Microsoft software's to worldwide technology and get skills from new Computer science programming * To help people to get knowledge in latest digital education on computing.

    • Word count: 1906
  25. Exploring Business Activity P5

    The European Union courts are increasingly important in making judgements which apply across the Union. European Union laws are regarded as having supremacy over national laws. Employment: Over time a body of law or legislation has developed governing employer/employee relations and the rights of employees and employers in the workplace. The Working Time Directive, 1999 Both businesses must guarantee to all employees a maximum 48 hours working week, and a four week holiday. Employees can choose to opt out of the Working Time requirement and agree to work longer hours if they wish. * Contracts: Oxfam employees have rights under their contract of employment.

    • Word count: 1759

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Critically discuss how organisations can develop a human resource strategy"

    "8. Conclusion Developing a HR strategy is imperative for organisations in today's competitive business environment. The various approaches to HRM strategy outlined in the report are not always practical as in reality it is very difficult to have a "one size fits all" HR theory, and this means that there can never really be a "one size fits all" HR strategy. In reality when organisations are developing a HR strategy they will fit somewhere between the "hard" and "soft" approach. Another point is that contingencies need to be considered, as HR, strategies need to be contingent with the organisations subcultures. The following concepts need to be considered if the HR strategy an organisation adopts is to be effective * Different human resource practices should be coherent and complement each other. * There should be a fit between the coherent sets of human resource practices and other systems within the organisation. * The human resource systems should be in line with the business or competitive strategy of the organisation. * The human resource system adopted by the organisation should be compatible with its operating environment. 1"

  • Evaluate how managing resources and controlling budgets can improve the performance of a business

    "In my opinion breakeven analysis will not worry the business a lot because they are going to have their product stored and they know that the products are going to be sold soon, which will then make their profit for the business. Setting budgets will be essential for the restaurant because after their restaurant has been open for 1 to 2 months, they will know what product is being sold more and which one isn't. So therefore they will set themselves budgets, the less the product is being sold then they will order it less and the more a product is being sold then they will order more of it."

  • This essay will explain how groups are formed and will discuss how motivation techniques promote effective group work and a well motivated workforce.

    "In conclusion this essay shows different ways how groups are formed and different types of groups such as formal and informal groups. There are many ways of motivating employees but employers should know that there are different ways of rewarding. Different theorists have different ways of explaining their techniques on motivating workforces."

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