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AS and A Level: People & Operations Management

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How to manage people successfully

  1. 1 A business needs to be clear on their recruitment needs and then use recruitment practices to ensure that they find them.
  2. 2 A business must train their staff in the right way. This is likely to include a mix of off the job and on the job training.
  3. 3 Staff must be appraised so that the business ensures that they are performing the job correctly. This appraisal process will often include objective setting for employees and then judging whether they have performed to this standard.
  4. 4 Staff need to be managed so that they are motivated to do a good job.
  5. 5 One of the main measures of the effectiveness of staff is to look at their productivity. This measures the output of individual workers.

Five motivation theories

  1. 1 Identifying where you see examples of the below theories in action can give big analysis marks. Motivation is not all about money. Money gets people to work but only in certain circumstances does it then lead to a more motivated workforce.
  2. 2 F. W. Taylor believed that all that was necessary was for the management to decide on the most efficient means of production and then pay workers to do it.
  3. 3 Elton Mayo said that workers work best when their group needs are considered and they are treated as human beings rather than as machines as in Taylor’s theory.
  4. 4 Frederick Herzberg discriminated between hygiene factors like pay and good working conditions which did not motivate in themselves but the absence of them demotivated and the motivators like praise and interesting work which did motivate.
  5. 5 Maslow said that we have a hierarchy of needs and we are motivated by the next unfilled need. Most workers in developed countries have sufficient money to eat so you will not motivate them just with more money but by meeting their needs and by work that is fulfilling.

Five key concepts in operations management

  1. 1 Operations management is about how and where businesses produce their product e.g. labour or capital intensive, in-house or outsourced.
  2. 2 Capacity utilisation is the percentage of total possible output a business is actually producing. Too low and capital is not being used fully, too high and there is no slack for machine breakdown, sickness or new orders.
  3. 3 Economies of scale are the benefits accruing to a business for being larger e.g. it is likely to be able to buy goods in bulk, have more specialist managers and workers, produce on a larger scale.
  4. 4 Lean production is where a business reduces waste as much as possible. Just-in-time, where businesses hold minimum stock and produce to order is a key element of this.
  5. 5 Ensuring quality might be through quality control (checking at the end) quality assurance (all staff responsible for quality) or Total Quality Management where the whole ethos of the business is centred on quality.

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  1. Outline how consumers are protected in contracts for the sale of goods.

    Should the statute be breached the vendor is held responsible by law. It is an implied terms as it isn?t negotiable and is set as a benchmark for the seller of the goods to meet. The sale and supply of goods and services act 1994 The sale and supply of goods and services act 1994 is a statute from the United Kingdom which governs contract law of the supply of goods and services. It confirms that the goods supplied are of satisfactory quality, this is the standard that a reasonable person would call satisfactory.

    • Word count: 1491
  2. Describe the Different Forms of Ownership of Businesses

    The main disadvantage is that there is also risk of Unlimited Liability, where the sole trader might can be strained to sell his/her individual assets to cover up debt help by business. Sole Traders invest their own money to run their own business, if they does not make profit then they might cause a lost in business and they have to invest their own money into business again, this known as Unlimited Liability. For example, they might be forced to sell their own house/car in order to these debts if the sole trader is legal obligation.

    • Word count: 3380
  3. Cross-Cultural Communication. The following scenario highlights the importance of adapting interaction to people with different culture.

    After we finished a school group project, all the team members Wu Gang (Chinese), Samuel (Singaporean) and I (Chinese) decided to have a dinner together at a Chinese restaurant for celebration. When the dinner came to the end, Wu Gang took out his wallet and would like to pay the bill. At that moment, Samuel asked Wu Gang how much he should pay for his share. ?No need, no need! It?s my treat.? replied by Wu Gang. Seeing this, I tried to took the bill from Wu Gang and insist that I pay the bill this time.

    • Word count: 482
  4. How to communicate in a buiness environment

    Written communication is also used in a work place to communicate with clients by writing letters, or communicating with fellow employees in the form of memos. Electronic methods of communication are again used widely in such an environment especially emails and instant messaging services which many large business? have. Different sources of information which can be used when preparing written communication can vary depending on situations. If you?re emailing somebody you are more likely to use websites or computer documents as sources of information rather than books or other people?s words.

    • Word count: 1591
  5. The 4 m's. Describe different types of organizational resources and elaborate their significance in different organizational functions?

    Purchase versus hire? 1. Machines Trucks, cars, cement mixers, PCs, server racks, telephones, and so on. What physical machines/tools do you need to do the job. You can add in office space, software, etc. here too. 1. Materials concrete powder, sand, rebar, pencils, glue, USB drives, printing paper, diesel, electricity, stationery, etc. What do you consume to do you consume to deliver your task? Significance of 4 M?s in different organizational functions Since man became victorious in the industrial revolution, every business has been using these four M's: man, materials, machines, money to operate with, or without, and success.

    • Word count: 889
  6. In this report I will be evaluating how The Regent theatre'spolicies and procedures contribute to effective and efficient management of physical resources.

    This is an increased cost for the business. However a positive is that Fluorescent bulbs do not have to be replaced as often as incandescent, therefore they are making a small saving, and also they use less energy as these light bulbs run with less waste, i.e. heat. Tender If any work is over £5000 it has to be put out to nationwide tender by IBC. This procedure can take a long time. Because they have to get three different quotes and go with the best value, best value is not always the cheapest, as there may be some hidden extras.

    • Word count: 3561
  7. I will be producing a report detailing the factors the factors that Mobile Communication has to consider when planning human resources.

    Staff training is a factors that business need to consider before employing staff in the work. Increase Mobile Communication revenue and improve staff productivity and morale are the most visible benefits of proper staff training. Workforce profile is a factor that business manager has to view and monitor the type of employees that are working in the organisation. A work profile can include, age, gender, ethnicity and ability. Mobile Communication manager use workforce profile in knowing the age, gender and the ethnicity of the employees and the type of work they do for the organisation. Teleworking is a factor that human resources use when saving expensive office cost.

    • Word count: 7409
  8. Motivational theories applied in the workplace. Examples from Tescos.

    Although Taylor?s theory is based upon a production line where workers are paid for each item that is produced which creates an incentive to work faster. Although this meant that work would be completed quicker, it may also lead to lower quality work. Some positive aspects of this theory include that people are able to work for longer periods, and workers feel rewarded for putting in more effort although negative features may include not being suitable to everyone as people may feel less secure in their job.

    • Word count: 1201
  9. In this task I am going to explain the attributes that are needed in a team leader.

    The very essence of leadership is that you have to have a vision. A great leader has the capacity to visualize the future, to imagine himself already having accomplished his goals and going on to the next set of goals. The further a person can see into the future, the greater his leadership abilities. The leader is able to direct his actions and that of his team towards the visualized future. The great leader has both vision and discipline to work towards achieving his vision.

    • Word count: 903
  10. Discuss how the objectives of a manufacturing business might be affected by ethical issues.

    They also need many energy resources in order to keep they factories fabricating. Ethical issues in a manufacturing company are associated mainly to those needs. Manufacturing businesses will have objectives that they are aiming to fulfil. Ethical issues in society often lead to these objectives becoming unattainable, as the enterprise has to choose between what is morally right or what is the best for the company. The first ethical issue appears when talking about the relationship the business has with their workers, and what are the working conditions in which they are operating.

    • Word count: 489
  11. Discuss the possible reaction of the sales team to the new incentive scheme

    In the next lines, I will explain what would be the reaction of the sales team to this new incentive scheme. To start, I will talk about Taylor?s Theory and how would it fit into this case. Taylor believed that man was driven or motivated by money alone and the only factor that could stimulate further effort was the chance of earning extra money.

    • Word count: 453

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