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AS and A Level: People & Operations Management

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How to manage people successfully

  1. 1 A business needs to be clear on their recruitment needs and then use recruitment practices to ensure that they find them.
  2. 2 A business must train their staff in the right way. This is likely to include a mix of off the job and on the job training.
  3. 3 Staff must be appraised so that the business ensures that they are performing the job correctly. This appraisal process will often include objective setting for employees and then judging whether they have performed to this standard.
  4. 4 Staff need to be managed so that they are motivated to do a good job.
  5. 5 One of the main measures of the effectiveness of staff is to look at their productivity. This measures the output of individual workers.

Five motivation theories

  1. 1 Identifying where you see examples of the below theories in action can give big analysis marks. Motivation is not all about money. Money gets people to work but only in certain circumstances does it then lead to a more motivated workforce.
  2. 2 F. W. Taylor believed that all that was necessary was for the management to decide on the most efficient means of production and then pay workers to do it.
  3. 3 Elton Mayo said that workers work best when their group needs are considered and they are treated as human beings rather than as machines as in Taylor’s theory.
  4. 4 Frederick Herzberg discriminated between hygiene factors like pay and good working conditions which did not motivate in themselves but the absence of them demotivated and the motivators like praise and interesting work which did motivate.
  5. 5 Maslow said that we have a hierarchy of needs and we are motivated by the next unfilled need. Most workers in developed countries have sufficient money to eat so you will not motivate them just with more money but by meeting their needs and by work that is fulfilling.

Five key concepts in operations management

  1. 1 Operations management is about how and where businesses produce their product e.g. labour or capital intensive, in-house or outsourced.
  2. 2 Capacity utilisation is the percentage of total possible output a business is actually producing. Too low and capital is not being used fully, too high and there is no slack for machine breakdown, sickness or new orders.
  3. 3 Economies of scale are the benefits accruing to a business for being larger e.g. it is likely to be able to buy goods in bulk, have more specialist managers and workers, produce on a larger scale.
  4. 4 Lean production is where a business reduces waste as much as possible. Just-in-time, where businesses hold minimum stock and produce to order is a key element of this.
  5. 5 Ensuring quality might be through quality control (checking at the end) quality assurance (all staff responsible for quality) or Total Quality Management where the whole ethos of the business is centred on quality.

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  1. Business Ethics

    As Tesco keep ever expanding, they try to open up a new store in areas they know they can make money. Operating this way can be unethical to local competitors, as they cannot compete with Tesco, such as price or the availability of certain products they can offer to their customers. In some parts of Britain, where Tesco have opened new stores or expanded old ones, local business have seen sales go way down or even have had to shut down.

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  2. Analysing Skills

    So if the applicant was a team player we would benefit from him/her working with other people with coordinated effort to reach a goal for the company. Attention to detail - is where one accomplishes all tasks given with great care and attention. Having a member of staff with this skill would be beneficial because then managers will have peace of mind that all jobs will be completed to set standards. Paying attention to detail also means that if a customer asks for help the applicant would give his all to make sure what they want/need they receive as quick as possible.

    • Word count: 1011
  3. Explain briefly why study behaviour in organizations.

    by them and in return they are shaped by the world in which they exist. Some things in life can only be accomplished if people come together to apply collective physical and mental effort, and in many cases this enables task to be completed in a more effective way. Although organizations exist in many forms for the last 400 years they have tended to become larger, more complex and more specialized in what they do. These days have long gone when a family could itself do all that needed to be done to remain self-sufficient and most people today would be incapable of performing all these activates because they been over taken by organizations.

    • Word count: 633
  4. Job Profiles and progression routes

    The starting salary for a tertiary teacher can range between �26,000 depending on what college/6th form they're teaching at and the starting salary for a technician is �11,000. The teachers are paid differently because some have more responsibility than others. The technician is paid the lowest because their job is to fix things in and around the school and to ensure safety whereas the actual teachers also ensure the safety of the students as well as educating them. Another reason for this is because there are fewer qualifications required to become a technician.

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  5. Evaluation of chosen career path

    Another reason for this is because it requires more qualification than I have; a science course have to be chosen at college/6th form and I have taken these courses. Similarly, I have not chosen to enter in the public service sector because I find the job is more physically challenge and I believe I am not able to handle these sort of tasks. My career pathway is as follows: After finishing my A levels, I will apply to 5 universities I wish to attend.

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  6. Interview Evaluation

    As well as motivational factors it also contained training which another reason that encourages the candidate to apply was. The job description contains the Greenford High School logo in the header which made it look more professional and a list of the companies they're associated with such as Healthy School which again made the school look more professional. In the person specification, it contains a list of qualifications, skills and experience the candidate must have in order for them to get the job. This is so that Greenford High School can employ the right candidate. Like the job description, the person specification also contains the Greenford High School logo and the companies they're associated with as well.

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  7. Training methods available for a teacher

    This also means that they employees can get to know each other better. The disadvantage of on the job training is that it limits what the employee can learn because the manager, who is most likely the person training the employee, has limited knowledge they can pass on. The advantages of off the job training are that it allows me to learn from more experienced staff. It also allows me to focus on my training and not get distracted by work or other employees.

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  8. Suitability Assesment of chosen career path

    This means that I am most likely to succeed in this sector whilst enjoying myself at the same time. The career test also helped me to choose the education sector because it told me what kind of person who I am. It also told me the areas I am strong at and the areas I am weak at which allowed me to improve these. I have chosen to working in the teaching sector because I believe I have the right personal qualities and skills which are required by a teacher, which would mean I should be able to complete my job in this sector successfully.

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  9. Interview Roleplaying. Evaluate your experience of planning and participating in the recruitment and selection process

    I also had good eye contact and often smiled. However, I did have a few faults. I had closed arms to begin with and kept changing the way I asked questions, which was unfair for some. Overall the roleplaying stage of the assignment went smoothly (despite the short absence of one of our group members). I don't believe I carried out my role to the best of my ability. There were still some areas that needed improving. Firstly, I didn't allow much fairness when interviewing applicants. In order for me to tackle this problem, I would need to present candidates with the same questions with no differences involved.

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  10. A-level Business Studies PDP

    October 2008 If I pass my exams I will attend university to studying Accounts and Finance. To progress in university I will have to manage time well between leisure and studying. By passing my first year at university it will lead me on to the second year and on the path to my chosen carer as an accountant. January 2009 I will be revising for modules in which I will have to pass or repeat later in the year. To progress in my modules I will have to revise consistently and will have to attend all lectures in the build up to the module.

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  11. Unit 2: Recruitment in the Workplace

    External recruitment is when someone from outside the business is employed to fill a vacancy. This is a more common approach when recruiting as there is a larger range of candidates that have different skills and abilities. There are many ways to recruit externally. Most businesses will advertise using media such as the internet, newspapers, company newsletters and magazines. Another way to recruit is to go to the job centre and tell them that the company has a vacancy and eventually there will be a range of different candidates with different levels of experience, qualifications and skills.

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  12. Compare the importance of team work and personal attributes

    Betta Values uses verbal skills because of the size and level of the business this is because that Betta Values is a flat structure so the staff uses a lot of verbal communication Both businesses need to listen because they are both dealing with customers, if staff don't then they will loose clients but Asda is more likely to formally train employees in communication skills. For Asda personal presentation will be more consistent because staff will get issued with full uniform and it says on terms and conditions you must wear full uniform as for Betta values dress code and badges is what they have to wear because Betta Values has fewer budgets to spend.

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  13. n this part of my assignment I will find out the performance of Beechwood School, and how they measure and manage the employees. Staff performance is crucial to the success of an organisation.

    SMART Targets: - The efforts of human resources managers and directed towards getting value for money from employees. We have seen that there is a growing trend for businesses to quantify performance by setting measurable targets - even in those industries where this was not traditionally done. * The directors set strategic targets for the organisation as a whole. These show where the organisation is trying to go. For public sector organisations, these may be imposed from outside by regulators or government.

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  14. In this assignment I have been employed as the head of information system for Newham sports Club.I have been requested to prepare a report for the sports club. The topics that I am going to discuss are the benefit, and the development of the system.

    Timely This is basically when the information should be available when it is needed for decision making and not sometime afterwards. In most organisations managers hold regular meetings where information is checked and shared with other managers. Example Newham sports club has can use the idea of a quarterly sales marketing. The first meeting for this year will be on 17th March 2008. At this meeting all the sales statistics and corresponding information for the months of January to February 2008 will be discussed.

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  15. Consider the view that autocratic leadership has no place in todays business world

    This means that because of the de-motivated workers, there is an impact on the business as work is less efficient, leading to a lower productivity and maybe even a higher labour turnover. Therefore increasing the costs of the business and lowering its profits. The autocratic style of leadership has similar characteristics to Theory X, where leaders believe that workers need to be controlled and monitored to make sure they put in effort at work, which could also lead to the de-motivation of workers and thus resulting in the employees being less efficient in their work and impacting on the business in a negative way.

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  16. Leadership_Practice_in_TAWAM

    TAWAM entered into a ten-year affiliate agreement with Johns Hopkins Medicine International (JHI) to include management of TAWAM while developing the leadership and management capabilities of the facility (JHI, 2010). The current management staff is comprised of expatriates and locals. Developing leadership competencies at the management level in TAWAM hospital fosters the provision of better guidance and motivation to lower-level employees as well as the communication of recommendations to upper management on how to continuously develop the hospital and its personnel. II. The Condition of Leadership in TAWAM Hospital Leadership style in TAWAM hospital is semi-autocratic and semi-democratic.

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  17. Dilemmas_in_leadership

    Hence, it's important to be prepared in advance with strategies that can be used to counter resistance. Coordinated ideas and efforts from different parties' form the core of success in changing leadership style. Change from authoritarian to collaborative requires commitment and provision of direction to the employees as most are used to being given orders and supervised as they carry out their responsibilities. As a result of this it's important for the leadership to change the culture and structure of the organization.

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  18. Recruitment and selection

    Suhaib Bashir Task 5 - Unit 13

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  19. AO3 Managing Finance

    Each of the departments within the company are given a target and will be monitored either by the manager of that department or by someone from Robert Brown's department. Each department's overall performance, effectiveness and proficiency will be checked and brought up in the monthly meeting of departmental managers. This meeting is to ensure that everything in the company is running smoothly and productively. The forecasting plans that Robert draws out will effect each person within the company individually as well as keep the company ahead of their competitors and in among the consumers favourites.

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  20. Analyse employment trends

    Also mechanics tend to be a male dominated field of the sector. Construction Jobs: Construction: architecture, business analysis manager, financial construction manager, site manager, civil engineering Companies: Timothy James consulting, DP group, Northern island informatiq, subsea 7 LTD, Murphy, balfour beatty, carillion plc. I am not a brilliant designer, so I wouldn't trust myself in building and constructing a brand new building. However, construction also tends to be a male dominated sector. Distribution, hotels and restaurants Jobs: Distribution: FedEx, Tour Operator Hotels: hotel receptionist, security guard. Restaurants: Chef, waiter/waitress, restaurant manager, Bartender, Companies: Marriot, Pizza hut, McDonalds, Hilton hotel chain, Hill McGlynn, Radisson SAS, Ritz I am not interested in working in the hotel/restaurant industry because I am not a good server or chef.

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  21. Compare and Contrast Discipline

    "Developmentally inappropriate expectations of children may influence how parents choose to discipline and may undermine policies, programs and activities." (Discipline and Development p.3) A further element of a cultural context is the term "child abuse" which suggests extreme physical harm. People struggle with where the line is between "discipline" and "abuse." Physical punishments are not necessarily abusive, depending on the age of the child and the severity of the act. In contrast, spanking is not the preferred disciplinary activity and some say they use this option rarely.

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  22. In this assignment I want to describe the recruitment and retention process and documentation in M&S.

    M&S for example diverted into providing other ranges of products like home wares and furniture. > To comply with government law: Government law makes organisations to recruit a right amount of staff based on gender, race and disability. M&S could get in trouble if they don't employ the right blend of staff. Task 1.2 The key aspects of the recruitment process is to first analyse by the employer of the business, what the business requires from the current job if that is done the will prepare a description of the job which means they will prepare the working conditions and also make a list of attribute that the person will need to perform the job.

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  23. Change Management

    There are many reasons why a company would want to change and cutting costs is the main reason why OBS feel a need for change is necessary. Using Retrenchment, OBS are able to save costs by moving to a more centralised location getting rid of regional offices and ultimately trying to grow and gain a high market share. By reducing the size and scale of the business to begin with, OBS then have the chance to grow into a bigger business over time.

    • Word count: 1009
  24. Exploring Business Activity P4

    HRM will be responsible for all ideas of people management in a firm. The kind of work covered in the human resources function might include the following. Yes Yes Research and development R&D department enables new products and processes and then seeks to develop them into finished article. They investigate new goods and process and then seek to develop them into the finished article. E.g. software's manufacturers are researching environmentally friendly software's that run on computers programme, electricity. Yes Yes Production Production manager of a Microsoft is responsible for making sure raw materials are processed into finished goods well.

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  25. Exploring Business Activity P3

    * It is important to alert emergencies during floods and earthquake, they must reach there to get people to survive or rescue them at anytime at future periods. * To advertise on TV or ask people, who don't need computers, books and software? But needed to accumulate 1-100 computers for schools, and to inform whether they need it or not; will be predicting by January 2011. Private sector business (Microsoft) 3 Strategic Aims * To help customers to reach their potential * To consider the Microsoft software's to worldwide technology and get skills from new Computer science programming * To help people to get knowledge in latest digital education on computing.

    • Word count: 1906

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