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AS and A Level: People & Operations Management

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How to manage people successfully

  1. 1 A business needs to be clear on their recruitment needs and then use recruitment practices to ensure that they find them.
  2. 2 A business must train their staff in the right way. This is likely to include a mix of off the job and on the job training.
  3. 3 Staff must be appraised so that the business ensures that they are performing the job correctly. This appraisal process will often include objective setting for employees and then judging whether they have performed to this standard.
  4. 4 Staff need to be managed so that they are motivated to do a good job.
  5. 5 One of the main measures of the effectiveness of staff is to look at their productivity. This measures the output of individual workers.

Five motivation theories

  1. 1 Identifying where you see examples of the below theories in action can give big analysis marks. Motivation is not all about money. Money gets people to work but only in certain circumstances does it then lead to a more motivated workforce.
  2. 2 F. W. Taylor believed that all that was necessary was for the management to decide on the most efficient means of production and then pay workers to do it.
  3. 3 Elton Mayo said that workers work best when their group needs are considered and they are treated as human beings rather than as machines as in Taylor’s theory.
  4. 4 Frederick Herzberg discriminated between hygiene factors like pay and good working conditions which did not motivate in themselves but the absence of them demotivated and the motivators like praise and interesting work which did motivate.
  5. 5 Maslow said that we have a hierarchy of needs and we are motivated by the next unfilled need. Most workers in developed countries have sufficient money to eat so you will not motivate them just with more money but by meeting their needs and by work that is fulfilling.

Five key concepts in operations management

  1. 1 Operations management is about how and where businesses produce their product e.g. labour or capital intensive, in-house or outsourced.
  2. 2 Capacity utilisation is the percentage of total possible output a business is actually producing. Too low and capital is not being used fully, too high and there is no slack for machine breakdown, sickness or new orders.
  3. 3 Economies of scale are the benefits accruing to a business for being larger e.g. it is likely to be able to buy goods in bulk, have more specialist managers and workers, produce on a larger scale.
  4. 4 Lean production is where a business reduces waste as much as possible. Just-in-time, where businesses hold minimum stock and produce to order is a key element of this.
  5. 5 Ensuring quality might be through quality control (checking at the end) quality assurance (all staff responsible for quality) or Total Quality Management where the whole ethos of the business is centred on quality.

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  1. Business Ethics

    The risk can directly affect sales, costs, quality and other key aspects of business performance. One of the problems that BP face is not only the extraction of oil and the energy use of BP's own operation, but more significantly of the impact on climate change of the actual use of all the oil by BP's customers. The main problem that stands out is that whether or not human society can actually afford to burn all the hydrocarbons. If BP is not burning the hydrocarbons (toxic waste) partly because it would be expensive and leave it for the community to do it or to even let them suffer than would classify BP as an unethical company.

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  2. team building

    My personal definition of the phrase team-work is working in a group to contribute ideas and thought; and then working together to follow up these ideas. It could also mean supporting one another in a group. Group dynamics is the study of groups, and also a general term for group processes. Relevant to the fields of communication studies, a group is two or more individuals who are connected to each other by social relationships.

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  3. Business and Markets

    Sainsbury's main competitors are: * Tesco * ASDA * William Morrison * Waitrose The aims and objectives of Sainsbury's are: Profits: Sainsbury's aim is to make profits. Some businesses try to make as much profit as possible. They are known as PROFIT MAXIMISERS. Others just try to make a satisfactory profit. Profit is the reward to the owner for running the business. If the business were not making profit then the owner would feel the need to close down and invest their money in something that will give good returns.

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  4. Customer Service

    Then they ask for their product. What you need to do is those get the details of the product, and then cheek it. Enquires should be quick and fast. Make sure that you don't waste customer's time. 6. A customer may ask for advice about any product he or she is purchasing. For that what you need to do is that tell them every single function, advantages and disadvantages etc of the product. This is how we are able to satisfy our customers.

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  5. consistent and reliable customer service

    In fact this is not possible as well to memorise all the knowledge about the products or services, so the best way is to know where to find information is by looking in catalogues, brochure, or online database. Type and quality of products/services: - This is easy to know the range of goods or services if you are selling cheap and fresh items i.e. chocolates or sweets but any one who sells expensive products or complex services should be able to give advice on the best buys and most reliable suppliers.

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  6. Why do businesses follow up sales and record customer information?

    * Recording customer information is also done by businesses because in some cases some businesses will tend to use information for market research. 3. The sort of methods that a bus driver would use in personal selling are as follows: * He may use word of mouth to advertise the different type of travel passes available. * Alternative, he can rely on the already advertisements that are seen on the buses already. * Another method of personal selling he could is being courteous in all the services that he gives out.

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  7. People In Business

    Unit 2 is all about the people behind the businesses and the recruitment. The BBC's recruitment process is driven by their desire to find the right person for the job. It is designed to identify people who not only have the right mix of skills and experience but who also aspire to their values. The BBC find recruiting very important as it is the people that make the BBC what is it and if they don't get the right people coming into the business then it will impact on all of them.

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  8. Business of management

    These are divided into behavioural, contingency and also trait approaches. Behavioural approaches are again divided into three leadership styles. Firstly the autocratic style. This type of leadership seems to be a 'one man' show or single mindedness where all the power of making decisions are made by the leaders. These leaders offer speed where it leads to quick decision and work could be done on time. This type of situation, the team actually benefits from being told what to do. However, autocratic leadership suffers poorer productivity and performance as well as greater discontent than those who are led in other leadership styles.

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  9. Business Studies - Marketing Mix

    To see how business offer service in practice, let's look at some real examples. IKEA sells their products ready to be fitted, meaning the products they sell have to match customer's precise requirements and also come with good instructions to help them build it at home. Otherwise people will see it as a hassle, meaning they re less likely to purchase from IKEA again. IKEA has bought it self a good name due to fact they offer good after sale services so if needed to contact a member of staff its possible, they give you a good instructional manual, if

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  10. Business Studies - Recruitment

    Scope Of The Role Gives the boundary of responsibility: that is, who the job holder is responsible to, and who they are responsible for. This section should also list any budgetary responsibilities. Special Requirements Specific requirements such as shift r flexible work patterns, travelling requirements, essential languages and professional qualifications. A person specification is not a legal requirement but will be useful when writing a job advertisement and defining the qualities you are looking for in a candidate. Include the knowledge, experience and skills you would like them to have, separating those which are essential for the job from those which are desirable.

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  11. Roles and Responsibilities

    The 'Gap Buster Scheme': this is where an anonymous observer comes twice a month and observes the quality of the food and service, whether it meets the customers' requirements. Therefore it the store manager's responsibility to make sure things don't go wrong and when they do to be under control and efficient. Because they also get observed on how they deal with problems. After the observation they receive feedback from the observer, and it is the manager's job to take those feedbacks and make any improvements/alterations in order to enhance and become better.

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  12. Unit 13 - Organising an Event

    * Financial constraints * Risk assessment The second task is planning the event, I will have to consider; * The procedures * Undertaking a risk assessment * Evaluating what physical resources are required * Making a time allocation table * Consider what teachers are going on the trip * Information on the importance of management and communication * Insurance plans The third task is staging the event, I will have to consider; * Contacts for venues, suppliers and personnel * Marketing and publicity * Operations (organisation and communication)

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  13. Organisational Behaviour

    The main part of the problem seems to be employee motivation. Some of the employees are not getting job satisfaction and are therefore unhappy within their role. Before we can create a new strategy we need to look at each employee and find the problem they are having within the organization. The next step would be to correct that problem and create a good working atmosphere where "The Edge" caf� is once again successful. The Staff Penny Phillips is a senior waitress who seems to have worked hard to better herself in order to attain an interesting job and to travel the world, her main ambition.

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  14. investors in people

    Currently the company employs more than 1500 people in these facilities. Northbrook Technology is focused on delivering the highest quality customer service to Allstate and has a proven track record of delivering on-time, high quality information technology and business process outsourcing solutions at a globally competitive price. The business located in NI for a number of reasons. NI has a large number of highly skilled IT graduates but very few IT companies - this provided Northbrook with a very large pool of potential employees. Last year in November 27th at the Belfast Business Awards NTNI received the People Development Award.

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  15. applied business studies unit 2

    Partnership - A legal business relationship of two up until twenty people who share responsibilities, resources, profits, and liabilities. Limited partnership - A legal partnership where some owners are allowed to assume responsibility only up to the amount invested. Public Limited Company - A listed company whose shares can be bought by the public and whose share capital is not less than a statutory minimum, however not all PLCs are listed companies. Private Limited Company - Registered company which has limited liability (the shareholders cannot lose more than their original shareholdings), and a minimum of two shareholders and a maximum of fifty.

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  16. Planning and Organisational Roles

    The pre construction process ranges in its depth and complexity depending on the scale of a particular project. Traditional tendering is still very widely used, on simple one off projects. For these the pre construction input often takes place within a time frame of four week or less. With the growth of design and build and PFI forms of procurement however, the pre construction period can take many months and require contractors to employ large multi skilled teams to ensure that all the client's needs are met.

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  17. unit 4: effecting communication and information

    Role Level: Assistant Manager Region: London Location: London Salary: �17,000 - �23,000 Details: You will be required to work six days a week. In your role as assistant manager, it will be your duty to assist the retail manager in his day-to-day work. This job is very demanding and you never know, it may be the just the job for you. In a position as assistant manager, you will be given two weeks paid holiday a year. Person Specification: Role: We are looking for a good team player, with proven retail management experience, good communication, a target driven approach plus the ambition and potential to succeed.

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  18. Teamwork. There are several reasons why a business may organise their staff into teams. Working as a team can be a motivator with every member having support as teams are formed to undertake tasks and procedures

    Teams also make it easier for a business to disseminate information to all employees. How Teams are formed Teams go through a fairly defined pattern of development. There are 4 main stages to team formation; Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing. I will discuss these stages in more detail: Forming The team members come together as a collection of individuals. At the outset, there is likely to be some discussion of the objectives and composition of the group. At this stage and members begin to establish their roles within the team, to seek recognition and position.

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  19. Personal Development Planning

    Such insights will cause you to think specifically about the skills you would like to develop and how you will go about gaining them. Writing them down will give you an aid to refer back to and review your progress. The advantages of PDP on your own personal development are: * Recognition of your current skills and qualities which will increase your confidence. * Understanding how your activities are developing you as a person, which will increase your motivation and your attitude towards learning.

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  20. Motivation. Douglas McGregor in his book; The Human Side Of enterprise, examined theories on behaviour of individuals at work, and he has formulated 2 models, which he calls Theory X and Theory Y.

    The second component in Herzbergs' approach to motivation theory is related to what people actually do on the job. The motivators are: * Achievement * Recognition * Growth/Advancement * Interest in their job Both these approaches must be done simultaneously; treat people as best as you can so they have a minimum of dissatisfaction. There is a similarity between Herzbergs' and Maslow's models. They both suggest that needs have to be satisfied for the employee to be motivated. However Herzberg argues that only the higher level of Maslows' hierarchy (e.g esteem needs), act as a motivator.

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  21. team effectiveness essay

    Reward systems give employees an opportunity to see more directly the rewards for their hard work and as a result will promote productivity and increase cooperation among team members. The rewards that employees receive should be timely so that they can begin to recognize the connection between the reward and the work they are doing. An important element to consider when implementing team reward systems is the size of the reward. Reward size has a definite impact on an employee's pay satisfaction and motivation, so if the reward size is rather large, then it is in the group's best interest

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  22. motivation and leadership essay

    perspective of leadership, the transformational perspective of leadership, and the situational leadership theory. The four-drive theory was made to explain human motivation. It pulls together the many drives and needs, and it considers human thought and social influences rather than just instinct. The four-drive theory is arranged in four categories: the drives to acquire, bond, learn, and defend. These drives are found in everyone around the world, as they are part of our nature and how we naturally act as human beings.

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  23. British Airways and HM Prison Business Activities

    It's not a profit making business, and the general public pays for these services through taxation. The public sector Prison Service forms part of the National Offender Management Service (NOMS) within the new Ministry of Justice. The purpose of the business is that HM Prison Service serves the public by keeping in custody those committed by the courts. Their duty is to look after them with humanity and help them lead law-abiding and useful lives in custody and after release. HM Prison is national Business. The purpose of the business is to provide end-to-end management of offenders with interventions to reduce offending and to protect the public.

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  24. Review on Management Styles

    A manager who is democratic is likely to spread the workload out among the employees. There will be more communication involved with this type of management, managers and employees at different levels are likely to discuss matters and come up with conclusions together. It may be the case that sometimes voting is used to ensure that in true democratic style opinions from everyone is taken into account. The advantage to the democratic type management style is that more complex scenarios will be assisted by a range of staff and managers, therefore decision making will be easier.

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  25. Factors which can influence the environment in which a manager/supervisor performs his/her role.Factors which can influence the environment in which a manager/supervisor performs his/her role.

    Autocratic Autocratic management involves one person in a position of power who directs and dictates employees within the organisation. This type of management style is seen not to focus on developing strong employee/employer relations as there is not as much communication between each. Autocratic is likely in various situations to increase the productivity of employee's as it is directing them to ensure that maximum output is achieved. Employees will constantly have directions and management will define the rate at which they must work, this will mean that managers are able to enforce higher rates of output.

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