Sources Of Finance and Profit and Loss Accounts.

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Sources Of Finance

Internal Sources– These are sources of finance that come from the business’ assets or activities.


Ownership Capital
In this context, 'owners' refers to those people/institutions who are shareholders. Sole traders and partnerships do not have shareholders - the individual or the partners are the owners of the business but do not hold shares.
Shares are units of investment in a limited company, whether it be a public or private limited company. Shares are generally broken down into two categories:

Non-Ownership Capital
Whilst the following sources of finance are important, they are not classed as Ownership Capital - Debenture holders are not shareholders, nor are banks who lend money or creditors. Only shareholders are owners of the company.

Retaining Profit

Profit not distributed to stockholders: the part of after-tax profits of a business that is not distributed to stockholders.

Selling Assets

The business can finance new activities or pay-off debts by selling its assets such as property, fixtures, and fittings, machinery, vehicles etc.


This is a form of long term loan that can be taken out by a public limited company for a large sum and it will be paid back overall several years. It is usually borrowed from specialist financial institutions.


An important source of finance for limited companies. A share issue involves a business selling new shares that entitle the shareholders to share in the control of the business. Each share gives the shareholder a vote on the direction of the company.

Sale And Leaseback

' in which an  an  or  to a  and, at the  time,  it (as a )  a  basis to  and use. Although this  tied  in a , the  owner  and .

External Sources– This is the finance that comes from outside the business. It involves the business owing money to outside individuals.


The bank sets an agreed limit on the customer’s bank account, beyond which they cannot take out money.  Interest is charged daily.

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Bank Loans

Written or  for a temporary  of a  (usually ) from its  (the ) to a  who  to  it  the  of the , usually  for its use. If the loan is  the  of the lender, it is called a . If repayable in equal , it is an . If repayable in  on the loan's  (expiration) date, it is a .  further  their loans into other categories such as , , and  loans,  and , and  and .  A written promise to  the loan is called a .


A firm pays for the use of a ...

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