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AS and A Level: Structures, Objectives & External Influences

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  1. united biscuits

    To be a private company there must be at least two shareholders, which United Biscuits have two more than the minimum. Shares in privately owned companies cannot be traded on the Stock Exchange and often shares can only be bought with the permission from the board of directors. The board of directors is a group of officials whose job it is to protect the shareholders' interests, they also choose the managing director who looks after the daily running of the company.

    • Word count: 751
  2. Is Wal-Mart Too Powerful?

    costs and lower the "Wal-Mart price" * A potential downfall of Wal-Mart could damage the sales for many manufacturers Foreign Markets/Businesses Positive * Wal-Mart is purchasing many products from outside the US, helping to increase the economy of those countries. Wal-Mart accounts for 10% of all US imports from China.3 Employees Negative * Offers lower wages than competitors * Cases of gender wage discrimination * Forced to take Wal-Mart employment when competitors are forced out of business Competitors Negative * Wal-Mart's ability to offer lower prices forces out competition; causing loss of jobs, vacant property, and limited store/product selection.

    • Word count: 1147
  3. "Reducing Logistic Costs for Ladner Building Products"

    Which means this loss in the delivery process is eating up from the profit margins of the company. Ladner has a few options here. They can cancel all delivery rebates for all future deliveries (or reduce them), they can increase the charge on deliveries, and/or they can organize their deliveries better to reduce costs. The latter option is more favourable and is discussed in the following three paragraphs. Taking the Ontario region as an example that represents all regions, one can analyze the two transportation costs: when transporting to a local customer, and when transporting to a customer in a rural region.

    • Word count: 1152
  4. I am writing a report to analyse the performance of Benedon Limited Company

    Therefore, it could not reflect the operating margin (OM) which has decreased in year 20X3. The average operating margin figures of Industrial Average (IA) and in year 20X2 were 16.0% but there is only 13% in year 20X3. In addition, ROCE in year 20X3 is much lower than the Industrial Average figure of 18%. This means Benedon Limited is not using the capital efficiently in year 20X3. "These margins are often watched closely, as changes can be early warning signals of serious problems.

    • Word count: 1218
  5. Continental Carriers, Inc.

    Although long-term debt is a better financing choice a few of the drawbacks are pointed out. Debt holders claim profit before equity holders, so the chance that profits may be lower than expected, increases risk to equity may reduce or impede stock value. However, in extreme financial situations such as a recession period, CCI would still be able to increase its cash during a recession period with all debt capital structure. Also, there is a remaining 12.5 million that would have to be paid at the expiration of the bonds, but that could be paid off by issuing new bonds or additional equity at that time.

    • Word count: 959
  6. Science Technology Company - 1985

    STC is losing cash flow in both its operating and investing activities; therefore projections of 30% sales growth are overly optimistic and unreliable. When STC began they only competed against a handful of companies, and although they currently hold the dominant share of the market, this increase in competition could upset future revenue. Increasing competition in the ATE segment will inevitably induce price wars, which will further deplete the profit margin of the company. If price wars were to take place, Teradyne seems to be the reasonable winner.

    • Word count: 871
  7. Avon is a company selling beauty and related products. The service provides customers with products of the highest quality

    * As CPC was expanding adverts appeared in magazines and a colour catalogue was produced. * The name is changed from CPC to Avon Products inc. in 1939. * By 1980, Avon had opened in 50 different countries and its sales had topped $1 billion. * In 1989, Avon became the first major cosmetics manufacturer to announce a permanent end to animal testing of its products and later launched its women's health care program in the U.S. * Today, Avon is known for it's leadership in beauty and continues to raise awareness of breast cancer and has awarded multi-million grants for breast caner research and clinical care.

    • Word count: 4232
  8. Warren E. Buffet, 1995 Case Study

    What might account for the share price increase for Berkshire Hathaway at the announcement? Review of Warren Buffet's historical investment success might explain the increase in share price for Berkshire Hathaway at the announcement. Given that he has had a good track record, it is expected that shareholders respond positively. In 1977, the price of Berkshire Hathaway was $89 closing at $25,400 by 1995, an unparalleled annual growth of 37.7%. In comparison, the growth rate of the S&P 500 over the same period was 14.3%. Warren Buffet's formidable investment performance was also demonstrated when Berkshire Hathaway acquired Scott & Fetzer.

    • Word count: 763
  9. Cadbury Schweppes

    They also want to make a profit on sales and to beat other competitors such as Nestle. Cadbury's also want to continue making good quality products so they survive and maximise sales. They also need to make sure that they are environmentally friendly and make sure that quality is kept at a very high standard. Objectives 1. To continue to lead in the area of community interest 2. To introduce new products successfully to customers 3. To continue to help fund education in a number of ways 4.

    • Word count: 2862
  10. Cost Based Transfer Price

    Disadvantages: will be very difficult to determine what profit markup will be. Northern supplies mostly to outside companies and therefore will require additional resources in his division to price internal sales. The resources needed to work through the complexity of this system might not be justified by such a low volume. Two Step Pricing The standard VC is charged per unit sold then a periodic charge is made equal to the fixed costs associated with the facilities reserved for the buying unit. Since Thompson rarely sells to other divisions this might work because the facilities needed could easily be identified.

    • Word count: 1269
  11. Making judgments on how successfully Sainsbury's are meeting objectives

    This could be bought by their rivals, which would then give them total authority over Sainsbury's. They could change the name Sainsbury's to their own. That is the nearest problem that could happen to Sainsbury's, which could threaten their survival. Profit maximisation: In my judgement I can say that Sainsbury's do try to maximise their profits. If you look at there accounts, Sainsbury's are making over a billion pounds. This tells me that they are maximising their profits. This shows us that they are meeting this objective. They would be expected to meet this objective too, this is simply because they are in the top three in the market. This objective is also shown in theirstores.

    • Word count: 977
  12. Matrix Organisational Structure

    Another government department might ask for a spacecraft to go to Mars. Obviously these craft would be very different. How could an organisation set itself up to complete both projects? Well it might set up two project groups. The Mars group and the shuttle group, both of which would utilise resources, staff etc from all of the different departments in the organisation. When the projects are completed, these project groups would be disbanded Geographical Structure As a firm grows it sometimes needs to set up branches in other locations. A firm may wish to allow these branches to work as autonomous units, that means that they are like little organisations of there own making local decisions but guided by the policy decisions made at the head office.

    • Word count: 584
  13. This paper examines the type of corporation which meets James's best interest.

    Finally, the cases in Salomon v. Salomon Co. (1897) and Marcaura v Northern Assurance Co. Ltd help to evaluate the principle of personal succession which is the unique feature of being a company. Across the paper, James is given recommendations to the type of company which best suits his needs. a) Advantages of Incorporation Incorporating a company offers James many advantages, even if he is doing one-person business. Some of these advantages are: * Separate legal personality. A corporation is by law recognized as a separate legal person.

    • Word count: 2672
  14. This report is about Florence Manufacturing Limited, giving a brief overview of analyses and making recommendation to Florence Manufacturing Limited on how the company should proceed on the problems they are experiencing.

    Mr Jenkins believes that employees should be given training because they need to be kept updated with the changes in the environment. Teamwork is vital rather than individual contribution since teamwork will improve the quality and standard of the goods and increase productivity. 3.0. MAIN FINDINGS From our presentation on Florence Manufacturing Limited, the finding was divided into two major sections, which are SWOT & PEST analysis. 3.1. SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT analysis stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. SWOT analysis is a technique used by management as well as marketing consultant.

    • Word count: 1996
  15. Rolls Royce

    And they design appropriate products for potential customers. It generates profits for the company. PLC enjoy limited liability. When the company goes bankrupt. The shareholder will no be liable to lose its own possessions to pay the debts. It is only lose what they invested in the company. It is a kind of protection for the shareholders. Production costs may be lower. The companies buy raw materials in bulk and regular basic. They enjoy economies of scale. Disadvantage: Raise fund for stock exchange can be costly and risky. As if the people think the company aspect is not good.

    • Word count: 1053
  16. Linear Programming

    Blending problems occur frequently in the petroleum industry( such as blending crude oil to produce different octane gasoline), chemical industry( such as blending chemicals to produce fertilizers, week killers, and so on), and food industry( such as blending input ingredients to product soft drinks, soups, and so on). Linear programming is also a very useful tool that can be used to deal with problems in manufacturing industry, such as the product-mix problem. In this situation, the objective of the manager is to determine the production levels that will allow the company to meet the product demand requirements, given limitations on labor capacity, machine hour's capacity and so on, at the same time, to make the cost of production to minimum.

    • Word count: 1533
  17. Business plan

    I felt that I needed to get all the information the audience needs into 20-25 pages or less. I felt I presented my plan well and used informative headings in the document. I used lots of subtitles, short paragraphs, and clear headings that convey information even if you don't read the content. I made it easy for readers to find what they want to know. It appeared that the idea had potential as there were relatively few similar businesses in the area. I researched other American style restaurants to inspire my business layout and attain accurate stock prices.

    • Word count: 1758
  18. Why do firms engage in mergers? Describe a recent merger between two firms and identify the reasons for the merger.

    Established in 1948, the Monopolies and Mergers Commission (MMC) was the UK body responsible for investigating matters which come under the 1980 Competition Act and related legislation. The MMC has no powers to initiate investigation and therefore no choice as to which inquiries it undertakes. The name has now changed along with various aspects of its role. The MMC is now known as the Competition Commission. The commission would act in a situation such as the attempted takeover of Manchester United PLC by American tycoon Malcolm Glazier.

    • Word count: 1708
  19. "Discuss the assumption that the firm's main motivation is to maximise profits?"

    Since this assumption is based on two assumptions, therefore if these two premises don't hold is it understandable to believe that firms goals is not to maximize profits. Well, this will depend on the motivation of individual firms. If a firm's ownership and control are in the hands of a single person or small groups of people, then it's reasonable to assume that the firm's owners' goal is to maximize profits. But most of today's firms are owned by shareholders and other large cooperation, but day-to-day control of the firm is under management.

    • Word count: 2237
  20. Why Businesses Exist

    Innovation: is the introduction of the new ideas. It may affect products or the way in which they are made. Developing Relationships: is Architecture with customers, employees & businesses. Businesses, which look carefully at the way it works with customers, employees, and other businesses are more likely to be successful. Reputation: A reputation of a company can be achieved through developing a particular image: * Low Prices * Appealing to the affluent * Ensuring top quality Competitive Advantage: Is a distinctive feature that makes a business successful.

    • Word count: 920
  21. The Legal Eagles

    About half of all trading in Britain is controlled by private sector organisations. The other half known as the public sector/enterprise are businesses which are owned and controlled by the government or Local Authorities and run for the benefit of the country. The sector this report is concerned with is the Private Sector. 2.1 SOLE TRADER This is the oldest, simplest and therefore most common form of business unit. A sole trader is one who conducts their business by themselves either using their own name or a business name.

    • Word count: 9914
  22. Types of Ownership

    The shareholders are normally the directors of the company. PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANIES: (PLC) is normally larger than a private limited company. The share capital (money invested by the shareholders) has to be over �50,000. Many plc's have share capital of millions of pounds. Unlike a private limited company the public can buy its shares. CO-OPERATIVES: The word 'co-operative' refers to two types of business: * Retail Co-operative Society-, which sells goods and services to the public. * Co-operative- a group of people 'clubbing' together to produce goods or provide a service.

    • Word count: 1227
  23. Business Studies Report - Tesco.

    The first Tesco store was opened in Edgwell in 1929 as a partnership with T E Stockwell. In the 1930's Tesco opened the first self-service supermarkets in America and by employing less staff they could offer lower priced goods to the public. In 1947 Tesco became a PLC (public limited company) and floated its shares on the stock exchange at a value of around 25p per share. By the 1960's Tesco had branched out into the sale of non-food produce. In 1979 Tesco annual turnover reached �1billion. By 1995, Tesco had become the largest food retailer in the UK, and is now market leader with a market share of more than 17%.

    • Word count: 811
  24. Business Case development for a new stadium for Arsenal Football Club

    The stadium in Highbury which has 38,500 seats is significantly below that of some of the main rivals. The increasing in revenues from ticket sales for the new stadium will bring lots of stresses to competitors, Manchester United for example. Potential Solution The stadium itself is but one element of the overall project. There will be a wider development around Lough Road, with the provision of new housing, including affordable provision and a sealed waste and recycling plant. Community healthcare facilities including a primary healthcare centre and a children's nursery will also be constructed. Public transport improvements will also be undertaken as part of the project.

    • Word count: 3178
  25. Business Studies Case Study: Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Company

    The advantage of this ratio is that it related profit to the size of the business. The next factor which I evaluated was the gross profit margin of my selected company, which shows the gross profit made on sales turnover. For Johnson and Johnson in the year 2003, this was 70.91%. This is also a very encouraging factor of the company, because a higher profit margin is preferred. This is also the case with the Net Profit Margin, which is 23.8%.

    • Word count: 661

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