Unit 32 M1 The Need for Health and Safety at Work
Health and safety at work act 1974 (HASAWA)
An Act to make further provision for securing the health, safety and welfare of persons at work, for protecting others against risks to health or safety in connection with the activities of persons at work, for controlling the keeping and use and preventing the unlawful acquisition, possession and use of dangerous substances, and for controlling certain emissions into the atmosphere. This impacts food retailers because:
- All employers have a duty to ensure the health, safety and welfare of their employees. They also have a duty to protect non-employees from risks arising out of their work activities
- Accidental injuries, dangerous occurrences and notifiable occupational diseases should be reported to the appropriate enforcing authority and records kept. Records also have to be kept of the results of workplace environmental monitoring, health surveillance and maintenance etc.
- Adequate precautions should be taken against fires and explosions and adequate means of escape and firefighting equipment should be provided
- The workplace must be made safe without risks to health. Accidents and work related health damage should be prevented by tackling risks.
Also the workplace should have training programs for their employees to train them so the workplace is a safer place to work in for their employees or customers who go in and out day and night. For example employees/staff should have
- Emergency procedures, eg fire, first aid, reporting accidents
- Safe use of equipment
- Electrical safety
- Manual handling
- Safe use of display screen equipment
- Possible exposure to asbestos
- Stress management
- Personal safety
- Risks and control measures in relation to harmful chemicals and other dangerous substances.
All these training programs will make the workplace a safer place to work at and will help the business do better and can handle any hazards that occur.
Health and safety (first aid) regulation 1981
The Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 places a duty on employers and the self-employed to make arrangements for first aid in the workplace. The Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 provides protection to workers if they become unwell or injured in all workplaces A business should use first aid to solve any injury’s problems in a business because if employees and customers that have become injured or get struck with an illness in the workplace. This impacts food retailers because they should have a spare room where minor medical procedures can take place, which includes an event of injury or sudden illness, failure to provide first aid could result in a casualty’s death.
Staff at food retailers needs to provide adequate and appropriate equipment, facilities and personnel to ensure their employees/customers receive immediate attention if they are injured or taken ill at work. The business needs trained first aiders and they should know what equipment is required in the first-aid box and they need a first aid room to handle any injuries/illness that occurs.
The necessary equipment is needed in a first aid box are:
- First Aid Book
- Box Plastic Adhesive Bandages - 1" x 3" 16/Box
- Spool Tape - 1/2" x 5 yards
- Compress Bandage - 3" x 3"
- Triangular Bandage - 40"
- Small Ice Pack
- Box Fingertip Bandage - 10/Box
- Box Cloth Knuckle Bandage
- Eye Dressing
- Box Telfa Pads - 1 1/2" x 2" 12/Box
- Roller Gauze
- Packages Clean Wipes
- Compact CPR Shield
- Latex Gloves, Pair
- Emergency Blankets
The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR)
The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR), places a legal duty on employers; self-employed people; people in control of premises. This means they have to Report Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) require employers and others to report accidents and some diseases that arise out of or in connection with work. This impacts food retailers because
- When an employee or a consumer is injured or has a disease they have to report it.
- Food retailers require someone who is in charge of the premises to report deaths at work, major injuries caused by accidents at work, and dangerous occurrences
This also means staff/employees need training so they can help the business do well if any injuries or diseases occur, they will know what to do if anything happens during their work hours also they will know how to report it. Food retailers also must have an accident book to record if injuries or diseases occur. The accident book is also a valuable document that organisations can use to record accident information as part of their management of health and safety. It can be used to record details of injuries from accidents at work that employers must report under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR).
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Control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH) 2002
The control of substances hazardous to health is to help the person to be aware of chemicals and what the hazards they can cause also this helps them how to dispose of chemicals safely and know how to clean up anything that spills. In every business they have folders that contain every chemical and what it can cause also how to use it so the person doesn’t harm itself or do any accidents COSHH is the law that requires employers to control substances that are hazardous to health. You can prevent or reduce workers exposure to hazardous substances by:
- finding out what the health hazards are;
- deciding how to prevent harm to health (risk assessment);
- providing control measures to reduce harm to health;
- making sure they are used ;
- keeping all control measures in good working order;
- providing information, instruction and training for employees and others;
- providing monitoring and health surveillance in appropriate cases;
- Planning for emergencies.
This has an impact on food retailers because:
- They have to clean any chemical spillage that may arise.
- Clean any dust or fumes to keep the environment a safer place.
- They should dispose of chemicals safely.
- Chemicals should be stored away from the food preparation areas or food products and should not contaminate food.
Many businesses today use substances that could cause harm to employees, customers and other people. These hazardous substances can come in many different forms such as:
- Asphyxiating gases
- Biological agents
COSHH training is required as it will allow employees to identify measure and control the exposure to harmful substances, and as a result will safeguard your employees. A COSHH training course should provide you with:
- An understanding of how and which substances can harm health
- Knowledge and definitions of exposure limits
- Skills to understand exposure and to conduct COSHH risk assessments
- A greater understanding of practical control measures and safe systems of work
Healthy and safe environment
Healthy and safe environment is to help employees or staffs to have a safer environment also not only this for their customers. A business needs a proper building so nothing happens, non-wet floors so the business has a safer environment. For food retailers slips and trips remain the single most common cause of major injury in the retail sector. Food retailers need to have warning signs if there is any wet floors, this helps their customers identify the hazard and not to hurt themselves. Another example to keep the workplace safe is fire exit doors and escape routes, if there is a fire, people will know where to go and escape.
A business should have wide enough aisle for trolleys or wheel chairs to go past, the correct flooring like laminated floor so any falling prevents the workers from slipping or equipment they are carrying from sliding of the floor, another example is food retailers should have a secure environment for their customers so most food retailers have laminated floors which are proven to reduce injuries. Also there are more risks in a business that can occur but to prevent them it will make the environment safer. For example, fire, explosion and release of harmful substances into the environment or the work area must be prevented.
- Smooth cleaned floors are left wet;
- Spills are not cleaned up quickly and effectively; and
- When there is failure to keep the floor free from contamination.
Food retailers need to keep the store clean and tidy so their customers, employees and visitors have a safer environment.
Implementing organisational safety policies
The business has their own polices around their stores for the customers and staff for example they put up signs like ‘’No smoking’’ so customers and staffs follow it. The business sets these polices so no accidents occur for example if someone smokes in the business theirs a chance of someone putting the place on fire so using a ‘’No Smoking’’ sign this reduces a chance of accidents. This impacts food retails that managers in the business needs to inform employees and customers about new signs and rules because if the policy in the business is changed to something else and employees don’t know about it, they might break the policy or maybe they hold up a meeting so inform their employees.
All staff should receive safety training as appropriate for their safety responsibilities. In particular all Operational Staff, Managers, Supervisors, Senior Managers and the Accountable Manager should be trained and be competent to perform their duties.
Handling products and equipment safely
In an organisation when handling products and equipment safely for example Handling Operations Regulations define it as 'any transporting or supporting of a load (including the lifting, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving thereof) by hand or by bodily force'. More than a third of all reportable injuries of over three days involve manual handling, and around 10% of major injuries are linked to manual handling. It has a major impact on all workplaces, and costs the economy hundreds of millions of pounds every year. This impacts Food retailers because they must use products or equipment safely, if they use it correctly it reduces the chance of any injuries occurring, for example if an employee working at the butcher sector, he or she using dangerous equipment, they need to use it correctly and safely so they don’t injure people around them
Roles in a business is that each employee has their own play in the organisation also each employee has its own task that they have to complete each day this also helps the business run smoothly and successfully
Also employees have roles on health and safety act to keep the workplace safe for example
- Be consulted on arrangements for the organisation of the risk assessment and for the appointment of those undertaking the task
- Participate in the risk assessment
- Alert their supervisors or employers regarding perceived risks
- Report any changes in the workplace
- Be informed of the risks to their safety and health and of the measures necessary to eliminate or reduce these risks
- Be involved in the process of deciding on the preventive and protective measures to be put in place
- Ask the employer to put in place appropriate measures and to submit proposals to minimise hazards or to remove the danger at source
- Cooperate to help the employer to ensure that the working environment is safe
- Be trained/receive instructions on the measures to be put in place
- Take care as far as possible of their safety and health and that of others persons affected by their acts in accordance with the training and the instructions given by the employer
Health and safety executive
Health and safety executive Is the national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness, it acts in the public interest to reduce work-related death and serious injury across Great Britain's workplaces. This organisation is responsible for regulation and enforcement of workplace health, safety and welfare of those who enter the work place, they are private company that examine organisation to see if the employees are working under the correct conditions and work in a safe environment.
Health and safety executives follow these internal operational procedures:
- Enforcement decisions
- Major incident
- Work-related deaths
This affects food retailers because they do promotion of health and safety, they also encourage, of regulations and enforcements of workplace health and safety welfare. The health and safety executives do inspections and investigation on food retailers how they are doing, these inspections are done to keep the environment health safe and to help prevent hazards and injuries from occurring.
European agency for health and safety
The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work is an agency of the European Union with the task of collecting, analysing and collecting relevant information that can serve the needs of people involved in safety and health at work. In food retailers it is used to promote culture and reduce the risk of injuries, they use their campaigns to increase awareness of health and safety workplace, whereas they also try to present risk occurring. According to food retailers they must provide correct and clean product for example like meat that they sell so that they do not cause any diseases when they get to the end consumer.
Local authority inspectors
Inspections are conducted to maintain a level of high expectation and serve two main purposes. Firstly to ensure public, and publicly funded, services are accountable to government and taxpayers for the quality of what they deliver and secondly, to support with the continuous improvement of those services. This affects food retailers because they will be inspected, where they will check if they are going to improve health and safety, and they are also there to reduce injuries in workplace by examining the market by examining their workplace. They also investigate accidents and complaints in these workplaces
Local authority inspectors mainly work for the health and safety executives.
Conditions or practices for maintaining health and preventing disease, especially through cleanliness.
Food safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 2005
This regulation is for the hygiene of foodstuffs, except for the requirements that relate to temperature controls. The Regulations apply at all stages of food production except primary production. Anyone who owns, manages or works in a food business - apart from those working in primary food production such as harvesting, slaughtering or milking - is affected by these Regulations. The Regulations apply to all types of food and drink and their ingredients. But some businesses - generally manufacturers of products of animal origin, such as dairies or wholesale fish markets - follow their own product specific regulations. These regulations are listed below.
- make sure food is supplied or sold in a hygienic way;
- identify food safety hazards;
- know which steps in your activities are critical for food safety;
- Ensure safety controls are in place, maintained and reviewed.
At food retailers services means that the work carried out is done in hygienic ways, the council in the local areas is in charge of making sure this is carried out. So markets and the food specialist need to take this in consideration when carrying out work.
This impacts food retailers
- make sure food is safe to eat
- make sure you don’t add, remove or treat food in a way that makes it harmful to eat
- make sure the food is the same quality that you say it is
- make sure you don’t mislead people by the way food is labelled, advertised or marketed
- keep records on where you got food from and show this information on demand
- withdraw unsafe food and complete an incident report
- Tell people why food has been withdrawn or recalled, e.g. a leaflet or poster
- display your food hygiene rating (if you sell food direct to the public)
European Union Regulations (EU Directives)
EU directives lay down certain end results that must be achieved in every Member State. National authorities have to adapt their laws to meet these goals, but are free to decide how to do so. Each directive specifies the date by which the national laws must be adapted. EU directive set new laws and see when they must be met, from the business point of view it means that they must meet the requirements within that certain time period. In the food retails food products must be labelled because of the rules in European Directives 2003 and in 2006 ensure that all consumers are given comprehensive ingredient listing information and make it easier for people with food allergies to identify ingredients they need to avoid.
Food Safety Management System Based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a system that helps food business operators look at how they handle food and introduces procedures to make sure the food produced is safe to eat. This impacts food retailers because HACCP gives guidance to food retailers how they should keep things tidy and keep everything under control for example how to cook meat properly so customers don’t get food poison also HACCP helps small food businesses put in place food safety management procedures and comply with food hygiene regulations.
Good personal hygiene is one of the most effective ways to protect ourselves, and others, from illness. This means washing your hands, especially, but also your body. Good habits can help control body odour and bad breath. Also in a food retail market employees should have clean clothing and bodies also food retailers need to ensure their foods are clean because millions of people get sick from their fresh foods that they eat from supermarkets.
In an organisation for example supermarkets where they deal with fresh food for instance vegetables or fruits must be clean or cut or where protective gloves to avoid any contamination to their fresh foods also any dirty from their nails or hands can cause an infection. This impacts food retails they should be clean for example employees who work around the fresh food sector should have clean hands so they don’t spread any germs to prevent that they should wear gloves
Hair in a business should be clean and tied so it doesn’t fall on to the fresh food also protective head gear is needed so the personal hygiene is clean so customers don’t get infection or illnesses. In a food retail market employees should keep their hair out of contact on to food so customers don’t have a bad idea
Good food hygiene is essential for you to make or sell food that is safe to eat. It is very important for you and your staff to understand what good food hygiene is.
Good food hygiene helps you to:
- Obey the law
- Reduce the risk of food poisoning among your customers
- Protect your business's reputation
Good food hygiene is all about controlling harmful bacteria, which can cause serious illness. The four main things to remember for good hygiene are:
This also applies to food retailers so that they can avoid getting there customer food poisoned. They must ensure that the equipment is kept cleaned at all times so that it reduces the chance of bacteria to spread.
A land or buildings owned by someone, especially by a company or organization: The business is relocating to new premises for example There is no smoking allowed anywhere on the premises.
A fixed, step-by-step sequence of activities or course of action (with definite start and end points) that must be followed in the same order to correctly perform a task. For example food retailers have a fixed step-by-step procedure for their employees for stacking, cooking, cleaning, storing products etc. so employee has their own procedures to each task
Nearly every business or organisation has their own uniform for example Asda’s has their own uniform for their butchers or people who work on the fresh food sector. In food retailers people who cook or bake have their own clothing for clean food hygiene so no bacteria or germs are spread.
Basins and sinks
Basins and sinks should be clean and dust free, this impacts on food retailers because they need to have clean shelves or basins so their customers don’t get ill or sick also they will have a better reputation because customers will be happy.
Contamination is one of the most common causes of food poisoning. It happens when harmful germs are spread onto food from other food, surfaces, hands or equipment. This impacts on food retails because they have to keep bacteria away from their food for example
- Don't let raw meat, poultry or unwashed raw vegetables touch other foods.
- Never prepare ready-to-eat food using a chopping board, utensil or knife that you have used to prepare raw meat, poultry or unwashed raw vegetables unless they have been washed and disinfected thoroughly first.
- Clean worktops and utensils with hot water and detergent and remember to disinfect those surfaces that have come in contact with raw meat, poultry and unwashed raw vegetables.
- Always wash your hands thoroughly after touching raw meat, poultry and unwashed raw vegetables, and before you touch anything else.
- Always cover raw meat and store it on the bottom shelf of the fridge where it can't touch or drip onto other foods.
- Root vegetables such as potatoes, leeks and carrots often have traces of soil on them which can contain harmful bacteria, so wash them thoroughly before use. Don't forget to wash other fruit and vegetables too, especially if they are going to be eaten raw.
- Keep dishcloths clean and change them regularly.
The chemicals you use at work may include products you buy to use in your core business, or in maintaining your equipment, or in general cleaning. The term chemical could also include hazardous substances you create as part of your work processes e.g. dust created by cutting wood or stone. This impacts food retailers because the law requires you to control the use of chemicals at work. To do this you need to assess the risks in your workplace and implement and maintain effective control measures.
Equipment is a necessary item for a particular purpose. This impacts food retails because they have to use equipment properly and safely like Asda or Tesco butchers should use knifes properly so they keep their staff safe from any accidents.