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AS and A Level: Classics

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  • Peer Reviewed essays 5
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  1. Peer reviewed

    Antigone is a saint, whereas Medea is a devil incarnate" do you agree?

    4 star(s)

    It was Creon who made the law forbidding anyone from burying the body of Polynices, Antigone's brother, and when he finds out that she has gone against his word he puts her to death, yet while it is clear that Creon is in the wrong, he is not particularly the evil tyrant that Antigone makes him out to be. When he is interrogating Antigone he does give Antigone a small chance to escape her punishment (Q), which Antigone ignores, she also does everything she can to aggravate Creon, she arrogantly basks in her crime she doesn't act in a remorseful manner at all when she could have avoided harsh punishment.

    • Word count: 1549
  2. Peer reviewed

    To what extent are the characters in Ovid metamorphes real and not stereotypical

    4 star(s)

    She, too, was transformed into a bird. Daedalus was an inventor, and he despised being in exile, so he decided to create wings for himself and his son, Icarus to escape. As they made their flight across the sky, he warned the boy however the na�ve boy carried away with the freedom of his wings flew too close to the sun, and his wings melted. He was engulfed by the sea and drowned. In his memory, the sea where he drowned bears his name.

    • Word count: 1155
  3. Peer reviewed

    Who was the real tragic hero of the Agamemnon?

    3 star(s)

    Agamemnon in some ways has a good fitness of character; he is noble through his status but constantly proud and selfish. He is also very "true to life" as he ascended from god and he treasures his protection and is always loyal to the gods (to a point). Agamemnon is always consistent in himself throughout the play. He stays very arrogant through the play and he proud in himself but also very foolish, this leads to his downfall in the end.

    • Word count: 1712
  4. Did Kleon deserve his reputation as an uncultured and power-hungry demagogue?

    The constitution of the Athenians by pseudo-Aristotle is a key source for looking at Athenian politics. Within this source, Kleon is mentioned to have "led the people", whilst Nicias led the upper classes. He is described within this passage to have "corrupted the people more than anyone else by his violence" by shouting abusive language, and acted with ill taste, addressing the Ekklesia in a scruffy, untraditional manner, with his "garments tucked up". Being described as a Democrat, he highly contrasts with Nicias the other leader at the time, which was more of an "oligarchic" leader.

    • Word count: 1783
  5. Describe the main temples on the Altis. Which in your opinion is the most impressive and why? The Atlis is the home to the two largest temples at Olympia, the Heraion and the temple of Zeus, Also home to the Philippeion.

    This gives evidence of the Greeks not understanding the existence of load bearing until after the temple was built. Unlike the temple of Zeus where the architect, Libon, builds the Doric columns with great precision to form a rotational system: for example, the distance between each column centre and the next was half the height of the column. This contrast between the two temples shows the large change in knowledge and fashion, however both impressive considering there time period difference. The Heraion is situated in the North West corner of the temenos giving the temple protection by the powerful terris walls of the Altis.

    • Word count: 1605
  6. How important is Odysseus disguise as a beggar to the success of The Odyssey?

    Athena demonstrates her role as an active leader in her protection of Odysseus and his family by helping Odysseus with minor things such as his disguise, enhancing his physical appearance or making sure the suitors' arrows miss Odysseus at one point in the massacre, as well as giving Odysseus the grounds to be a hero in his own right by leaving vital decisions up to him. The mastery of such a skill as disguise is an accomplishment that demonstrates the self-discipline that only Athene, the goddess of wisdom and strategy, would value.

    • Word count: 1379
  7. To what extent do you think Aristophanes has serious targets in Wasps and to what extent is he simply trying to make the audience laugh? Give reasons for your views

    Cleon himself is represented in two contrasting lights by his supporters and his opposes. On the one hand he is illustrated as a mighty figure who has created a fair and appropriate society. This is the stance taken by Philocleon who believes that Cleon is the creator of a perfect system of law and therefore providing his beloved courts. On the other hand this view is fought against by Bdelycleon who makes the argument that what Cleon is truly doing is denying the judges their reasonable payment and tempered them into believing that they hold immense respect and authority.

    • Word count: 1226
  8. Is Telemachus the last moral outpost in a sea of corruption in Ithaca?

    Telemachus had offered them hospitality, which they've chosen to take advantage off. Perhaps his politeness and preoccupation with maintaining a good reputation had rendered him incapable of kicking them out? Perhaps he's worried this would goagainst the God's wishes and couldn't take control of the situation until he knew that he had Athene's blessing? They don't reciprocate the level of respect that Telemachus awards them and, in any age, this would be perceived as extremely rude, arrogant and short sighted. Despite his age, Telemachus isn't influenced by the behaviour of the irreverent suitors.

    • Word count: 1041
  9. Chem Lab Report (Paper Chromatography)

    2.> The measurement error of the distance travelled by solvent and/or amino acid. 3.> The shape of chromatographic paper is not exactly square-shaped, so that one side of the paper may be lifted and the speed of the solvent travel in one side is faster. 4.> The different proportion of chemicals (?measured by measuring cylinder) may be used between the researchers and us, and the temperatures may also different, thus Rf values obtained are different. 2.> Why do Rf values change when a different solvent is used? Each amino acid has different polarity and each solvent has different polarity, too.

    • Word count: 1051
  10. Investigation of the effect of changes in ionic concentration on the e.m.f of a cell

    Therefore, in this case, the Cu(s)/ Cu 2+(aq) half cell was taken as the reference half-cell. In the beginning of the experiment, it was assumed that the copper wire was the negative pole. As the e.m.f measured in all cases showed a positive value, the assumption was correct and copper was the anode in the electrochemical cell. The following was a table showing the details of the electrochemical cell. Cu(s)/ Cu 2+(aq) half cell Fe2+ (aq)/ Fe3+ (aq) Polarity Negative (anode) Positive (cathode) Electrode Copper wire Nichrome wire Reaction Oxidation Reduction Half equation Cu(s)

    • Word count: 1691
  11. Identification of carbonyl compounds by preparing their derivatives

    To determine whether the carbonyl compound was a propanal or pentan-3-one, the carbonyl compound should be tested before the addition of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. It could be tested by Fehling's solution and red precipitate would be formed for propanal (an aldehyde) but no precipitate would be formed for pentan-3-one (ketone). CH3CH2COH + Cu2+ + OH- CH3CH2COO- + Cu2O +3H2O It could also be tested by Tollen's reagent. Silver mirror would be formed for propanal but not for pentan-3-one. CH3CH2COH + Ag(NH3) 2OH CH3CH2COO- NH4+ + Ag + NH3 + H2O Testing with acidified potassium dichromate solution was also possible.

    • Word count: 1475
  12. How far does the Agamemnon reflect the Perfect Tragedy?

    In the play there is no unity to the time or place, it is supposed to take part in real time, and in the Agamemnon the Watchman sees the beacon many days before Agamemnon returns from Troy. The main idea that it must all take place at one time means that the Agamemnon is not fully a perfect tragedy. In the plot there is no real outcome to the play, Aeschylus' work is fully shown in the trilogy, the Oresteia.

    • Word count: 1981
  13. In Euripides Play, how important is it that Medea is a foreigner, not a Greek woman?

    She killed her brother to stop him from following them. She then got married to Jason and bore him 2 children, they lived a happy life in Corinth, because they were banished from Iolcus due to Medea killing Pelias. The main role of women in Greek society was to look after the home and take orders from men, Medea is not like this. Medea was a foreigner and this is vital to the overall plot in the play. Without her being a foreigner the play would not work properly as there would be no contrast to the way Medea viewed Greek society.

    • Word count: 1909
  14. Preparation of a Halogen Compounds

    In this experimemt, the variables are: Controlled variables Independent variable Dependent variable * Temperature * Concentration and Volume of silver nitrate solution used * Drops of Haloalkane/Halobenzene added, * Volume of Ethanol used * Species of Halogen compound used * Time for the first appearance of precipitate Requirements Apparatus Safety spectacles � 1 Bunsen burner � 1 Tripod � 1 Gauze � 1 Bench protection sheet � 1 Beaker, 250cm3 � 1 Thermometer � 1 Test-tubes with corks � 5 Test tube rank � 1 Protective plastic gloves � 1 Measuring cylinder � 1 Stopclock � 1 Chemicals ethanol, C2H5OH

    • Word count: 1664
  15. Change seen in "Away", "The Island' and Unicef

    As the text continues Gow places Gwen in many situations of conflict, the most substantial of these includes argument with her daughter Meg. This confrontation is extremely ironic as Gwen is ignorant of her qualities however easily identifies them in others. An example includes "Your developing a nasty streak, your becoming a snide, nasty snide girl" from Act 2 scene 3. This also shows the audience how reflection is often all that is needed for change, however in the case of Gwen a lack of, may cause no change.

    • Word count: 1590
  16. The Effect of Reactant Concentration on the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

    Then pour the amount of Sodium Thiosulfate using a measuring cylinder to the conical flask, the amount will vary depending on the sample. 4. Rinse the measuring cylinder in water under the tap to clean it of excess sodium thiosulfate. 5. Pour the water from the measuring cylinder into the conical flask (already containing the Sodium Thiosulfate), the amount of water will vary depending on the sample. 6. Draw a cross on a blank piece of paper. 7. Place the conical flash containing the water and Sodium Thiosulfate mixture directly on top of the cross on the paper. 8.

    • Word count: 1100
  17. The Odyssey passage analysis: Descent into Hades. The passage is found in Book XI from lines 10 60 and it acts as an introduction to the underworld and is also a crucial phase in the heros journey

    Near the end of passage, Odysseus describes the awakening of the spirits from the netherworld "many men/wounded by bronze spears, who'd died in war,/still in their blood-stained armour" The visual imagery generates a very unpleasant tone towards the atmosphere created in the supernatural realm. It alludes to the Trojan War, and the many soldiers who lost their life. As the passage ends, there is another context of weaponry which signifies the end of Odysseus's descent into the underworld, "And then I drew the sharp sword on my thigh/and sat there, stopping the powerless heads/of all the dead from getting near the blood"(55 - 57)

    • Word count: 1512
  18. Odysseus - admirable character

    That is why Odysseus "looks godlike", "enveloped in mist" or "invincible", surrounded by magic. However, not all of the gods like Odysseus. Poseidon, the sea god, tries to prevent him from going back to Ithaca - "he roused the stormy blasts of every wind". No human being would sustain the god's anger, but Odysseus overcomes the storm. Poseidon sends him "mountainous" waves and "tremendous gust"; the power of the god overflows the Trojan hero who is just about to die when Ino, The White Goddess takes pity on him. At the end Poseidon is made to give up and Odysseus is the winner of their fight.

    • Word count: 1156
  19. Pedro Parama Time Line

    'Have you ever heard the moan of a dead man?' 23-24 Pedro's mother's ghost comes to inform about his father's death 'And you mother? Who killed you?' 25-30 Father Renteria does not want to pray for Miguel's death. However, he needs financial support from Pedro Paramo. 30-32 Marie Dyada wants Father Renteria to save Eduviges Dyada who died of sorrow. Father Renteria refused since they are poor. 'Let's leave things as they are. Let us put our hope in God' 32-33 Juan meets Damiana Cisneros from Media Luna.

    • Word count: 1086
  20. Alternative Fuels

    Record the final temperature of the water. 7. Weigh the final weight of the spirit burner and record the mass. 8. Take note of the observations. 9. Repeat the steps 1 - 7 for each liquid fuels For Solid Fuels (Continue from step 6 liquid fuels): 7. Place one of the three nuts onto a needle and weigh it with the needle. Record weigh 8. Place 100cm3 of water in the 250cm3 beaker and record the temperature. 9. Set the nut on fire using the Bunsen burner. 10. Use the burning nut to heat the water as before. 11.

    • Word count: 1878
  21. Inorganic Compounds

    Many sodium and chloride ions are held together this way, resulting in a salt with a distinctive crystal shape. The three-dimensional arrangement or crystal lattice of ions in sodium chloride is such that each Na+ is surrounded by six anions (Cl-) and each Cl-is surrounded by six cations (Na+). Thus the ionic compound has a balance of oppositely charged ions and the total positive and negative charges are equal. Below are diagrams which help to further explain this type of bonding. Sodium Chloride is made and produced by the evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources such as brine wells and salt lakes and by mining rock salt (halite).

    • Word count: 1782
  22. Determination of the Partition Coefficient of Ethanoic Acid between Water and Butan-1-ol

    3. The funnel was stoppered and shook vigorously for 1 to 2 minutes. The tap was opened occasionally to release pressure in the funnel. 4. 20 cm3 of each layer was separated approximately into two beakers respectively. The fraction near the junction of the two layers was discarded. 5. 10 cm3 of the aqueous layer was pipetted into a conical flask and it was then titrated with 0.1000 M sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein. 6. 10 cm3 of the alcohol layer was pipetted into a conical flask using another pipette.

    • Word count: 1119
  23. Determination of Chlorine and Iodine in Water

    Procedure: The buret was filled with sodium thiosulfate, using a funnel to pour the solution. Underneath the buret 25mL of KIO was placed into a 250 mL beaker the exact volume was obtained by using a volumetric pipette then 50 mL of deionized water and .5 grams of KI were added and mixed together. 2 mL of glacial acetic was added and the solution turned yellow and was then titrated until the color was almost gone. 1 mL of starch was then added, this turned the solution blue to further reveal the un-reacted iodine and it was titrated until the blue disappeared and all the iodine reacted.

    • Word count: 1119
  24. Determining Freezing Point Depression Constant for Acetic Acid

    At the freezing point of pure solution there was a equilibrium of molecules joining and detaching from the solid but when a solute is added to the solution in the crystals remain as pure solvent so the solute cannot join. The solute comes into to contact with the crystal because it is part of the solution. When the solute is added the solvent cannot come into contact with the crystals and join the solid as fast as before because of the presence of the solute.

    • Word count: 1126
  25. In Euripdes Play Medea

    While it is hard, especially from a modern perspective, to in any way justify these acts, one can also see that she does not commit these crimes for no reason, she doesn't kill randomly and at no point in the play does Medea suggest she takes pleasure in the act of ending a life. It seems that instead she behaves as she feels she must to do what is necessary even if that involves killing those who oppose or harm her.

    • Word count: 1229

The study of the classical world and its civilisations is a fascinating subject which will introduce you to Greek and Roman societies. You may find yourself studying mythology, archaeology, drama, literature or society and you'll be asked to investigate and evaluate sources and explore the nature of the cultures involved. In studying the ways in which these societies were organised and how their citizens behaved will give you an insight as to how they've influenced our lives, behaviours and systems.

Classics or Classical Civilisation requires you to develop skills of interpretation, evaluation and expression as well as the ability to present your answers in a concise and clear manner. To enable you to master these skills Marked by Teachers has collated a wide range of essay examples, many of which have been marked and annotated by Classics teachers with many years of experience.

A level Classics is a valuable qualification to gain and the skills you'll develop are a strong preparation for studying Classical Studies atuniversity, as well as further study in Law, Philosophy or History.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Assess the leadership qualities of Lysistrata in Aristophanes 'Lysistrata'

    "In conclusion Aristophanes has shown Lysistrata's good leadership qualities such as organisation, manipulation and persuasion, her own passionate way of speaking and her ability to incite passion in others in a well rounded manner that makes her both identifiable to the other women and stand out as an independent, outwardly thinking leader. Helen Edwards Classical Civilisation Lysistrata 1"

  • Compare and Contrast the Portrayal of Clytemnestra in Agamemnon and Electra

    "In both plays we only see her through the eyes of others, she isn't actually strongly characterised. Her psychological reasons for the murder are the point and not her emotional state. Considering this, both Agamemnon and Electra reach similar conclusions concerning Clytemnestra's situation. She has ample grounds for hating her husband but no-one holds her justified in killing him in either play, "your words are just; yet in your 'justice' there remains something repellent." Electra disposes of her mother's defence in detail and leaves the audience feeling that Clytemnestra's murder of her husband really was not warranted. How different the plays are in their depiction of her character depend on how the reader chooses to interpret Clytemnestra's maternal professions; either genuine and loving or devious and selfish. Zoe Stimson"

  • To what extent does the architecture of Rome highlight the aims of the emperors?

    "In conclusion, it is clear that the architecture of Rome highlights the main aims of the vast majority of emperors of the time period studied. Almost all emperors sought to appease the people with the construction of buildings for public entertainment such as theatres of the Flavian Amphitheatre. Many also sought to present themselves as pious through the construction of religious sites or some sought to appease the masses by improving the infrastructure of Rome. However, some emperors such as Nero due to their personality or style of rule did not do as much for the people as emperors such as Titus or Claudius seeking only to glorify themselves or improve their own standard of living before others."

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