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AS and A Level: Classics

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  1. Assess the respective contributions of Athens and Sparta and other Greeks to Greek victory over Persia in 480-79 B.C.

    Athens could be seen as the major contributor in terms of naval contribution. Themistocles persuaded the Athenians to use the new silver found at Laurium to build a great fleet instead of distributing it amongst themselves. (VII. 144) The Greek fleet was a key component to the Greeks victories over Persia at sea as the Athenians provided the Greek Navy with about half of the total ships they had. The fact that the Persian navy was beaten also meant that the invasion was slowly beginning to lose momentum as the navy provided support to the land forces and guarded supply ships crossing the Aegean. Without it, the land force was on its own.

    • Word count: 1496
  2. Free essay

    Assess the role that women play in The Odyssey

    This proves she is a good mother as she has raised this boy, with no father figure around and with all the troubles that have fallen on them. She also cares dearly for Telemachus and is heartbroken when she finds out that he has left to find out more information about his father, then when he returns home in Book VII, she is overcome with tears of joy and possibly relief that he has returned safely. Despite this, she does not stop Telemachus go on his journey which is key to his development as a character, and ensures that he will come of age and has matured in time for his father's return and the dealing of the Suitors.

    • Word count: 1466
  3. Bacchus in Ovid's Metamorphoses Book 3

    Both are youths of an androgynous age, not deprived of effeminate features. Ovid reminds us that such an appearance portrays both sexes, and thus attracts either: 'Legions of lusty men and bevies of girls desired him' This theme of transsexuality is explored in the preceding account of Teiresias in book 3. Jove is contradicted by Juno when he says women derive more pleasure from sex then men. The joke becomes a legal dispute (Juno was infamously deprived of marital rights) and Teiresias is made the judge. Teiresias himself 'experienced love from both angles' as he was turned into a woman for seven years when he struck two serpents mating in a wood.

    • Word count: 1561
  4. Discuss the contribution of material culture studies to the understanding of social identity.

    The common assumption underlying material culture research is that objects made or modified by humans, consciously or unconsciously, directly or indirectly, reflect the belief patters of individuals who made, commissioned, purchased, or used them, and, by extension, the belief patterns of the larger society of which they are a part." 2 Concerning Roman culture, Woolf defines it as "the range of objects, beliefs and practices that were characteristic of people who considered themselves to be, and were widely acknowledged as, Roman."3 It is believed that every man-made object required the operation of some thought and design.

    • Word count: 1931
  5. Velleius Gobbet

    In this section, he also talks about Augustus took the functions of the senate, the magistrates and the law. This is in complete contrast to Velleius' claims, who said that Augustus gave powers back to the republic, not taking them for himself. In section nine, Tacitus talks about a rift between people who thought Augustus was as true saviour and those who criticised his actions. This shows another contrast between Velleius' presentation of Augustus and this, as Velleius doesn't mention that there was a faction of people who criticised Augustus' actions.

    • Word count: 1215
  6. Odysseus Has No Feelings For The Women He Encounters In His Travels- Discuss

    He also listens to her advice about the underworld and about Scylla and Charybdis, which indicates respect for her. He does sleep with her- "I went with the goddess to her beautiful bed"- but this cannot be assumed to be out of affection, as it was under Hermes's orders that he did so. Similarly, he threatens to kill her, but as this is also under Hermes's orders, it does not indicate hatred. The fact that he does leave in the end is a fairly strong indication of how far his affection for the goddess goes, but again this could be put down to the persuasion of his men.

    • Word count: 1127
  7. Arden vs. Freddy - Creative writing.

    As Arden came down, gloating as he pounds his chest, mocking in a disrespectful manner, the Giants, lead by Kobe Bryant's son himself Freddy of the sharp eye. Arden walked up to Freddy like a mere child laughing as he said to him, "You stand no chance against me and my army of Raptors you fool, give up while you still have some pride left in you or I'll just have to take it all away."

    • Word count: 1168
  8. "Lysistrata is Funny As a Play but Not As a Character." Discuss.

    rippling muscles". Lampito is worried that they are "feel(ing her) over" as if they were about to sacrifice her. Not only is there visual humour here but also an element of satire. It is likely that, at the time that the Athena Polias at the time was called Lysimakhe, obviously a name very similar to Lysistrata in meaning as well as sound. There was also a priestess called Myrrhine at the same time serving the temple of Athena Nike. It satirises the priestesses' methods of preparing and testing sacrificial victims.

    • Word count: 1933
  9. Compare and Contrast the Characters of Agamemnon and Jason. Which Do You Think is More Deserving of Their Fate?

    When Agamemnon first arrives on stage he thanks the gods for his victory and safe return home. When Medea challenges Jason and attacks him for what he has done to her, despite all she has done to help him, he claims that although she did do some things, the one who helped him the most was Aphrodite. Both Jason and Agamemnon are either not arrogant or stupid enough not to thank the gods for their achievements. All four parties, Jason, Agamemnon, Medea and Clytemnestra have deceived their counterpart at some point. Agamemnon sends for Iphigenia without telling her or Clytemnestra what he plans to do.

    • Word count: 1671
  10. Classical studies

    Firstly it had to be a safe place for people to visit and stay for periods of time. Many revolutionary safety devices were designed and attached to the Colosseum, such as the podiums that were built with top rollers that prevented the wild animals and convicts from climbing on top and into the crowd. There is also the design of the exterior to consider. Despite the main activity going on inside the theatre, the design of the outside was equally if not more important. What it outwardly showed was very important to the Romans. The games were responsible for ridding the city of criminals and dangerous animals, it had to symbolise great power and splendour.

    • Word count: 1222
  11. Free essay

    TMA 03 - Classical Studies

    To ensure the colosseum was safe and firm, eighty walls surrounded the area and supported vaults - which were extraordinarily strong - for the passageways, the stairways and the tiers of seats. Although people on the upper most tiers were quite a way from the arena, the continuous rows of seating gave an unobstructed view. The three tiers of arcades are fronted by columns and entablatures. Arranged in a logical sense of Doric on in the first storey, Ionic on the second story and Corinthian in the third.

    • Word count: 1256
  12. jane austin

    The courts must then ask whether the defendant was the legal cause of the victims death; causation in law. The conduct of the defendant may not be the sole cause of the death but be deemed a substantial and operating cause. The courts may view this question as one of morality, for example can the death be rightly blamed upon the accused? In the case of Pagett the accused was trying to escape armed police and used his girlfriend as a shield as he fired at them, the police returned fire killing the woman.

    • Word count: 1772
  13. How far should Oedipus as represented in the Oedipus Rex be regarded as an insolent tyrant who not only deserved but aggravated his own fate?

    The gods have seemingly been conspiring against him since before he was born for him to have such a terrible fate. However, he is guilty of aggravating his fate, continually damming himself in his speeches and continually pushing people such as the Oracle and the Shepard, who do not want to give up their information because of fear of what might happen if they do. The phrase 'insolent tyrant' is going too far as he clearly wants to help his people and in the end leaving the city making a big sacrifice in order to help his people rid themselves of the plague.

    • Word count: 1473
  14. To what extent do you agree that Phaedra and Hippolytus are in control of there own destiny in the 'Hippolytus'?

    However, as we'll see the answer is not that simple, as Hippolytus has ultimately brought this fate upon himself due to his obsession with purity and his scorning of Aphrodite. Phaedra has a lot less control over her own destiny with her original feelings for Hippolytus being cause by Aphrodite and the revealing of these feelings being constructed by the 'Nurses' character which ultimately leads to the situation were she believes the only solution is to kill herself and to vilify Hippolytus in the process in order to maintain her dignity.

    • Word count: 1416
  15. Compare the portrayal of Dido in the Aeneid to that of Calypso, Circe and Nausicaa in the Odysseys. Which figure creates the most pity in the reader?

    and the fact these relationships have to be discontinued or unexplored seems unfair to the so called 'temptresses' and therefore causes the reader to evoke sympathy for the characters. These women, although play identical roles, are in very different circumstance and are very different characters and therefore the level of sympathy we feel for them varies and I believe it is fair to say that it is Dido we feel the most sympathy for: An important feature of why we feel so much sympathy for Dido is the fact we learn so much of her background.

    • Word count: 1037
  16. "Justice is a theme of all great literature" Is justice more important in the Odyssey or the Aeneid?

    The Aeneid opens however and we're told that the poem is based on the founding of Rome and the main string of 'justice' seems to be coming from one scorned goddess, who simply doesn't want her favourite city to be destroyed. The balance she tries to restore is simply an act of revenge rather than actual justice, and rather than convincing the other gods it's the right thing to do, she simply bribes Aeolus. Justice is however looked upon a little while later as Venus goes to Jupiter and asks why the Trojans are being made to suffer after doing nothing wrong.

    • Word count: 1181
  17. A103_TMA03 Classical Studies

    Whereas safety, space and visibility relate to the construction of the Colosseum, there is also the design to consider. Though the main activity went on inside the theatre, the design of the outside was very important. What it outwardly conveyed was important to the Romans. As the games were responsible of cleansing the city of criminals and dangerous beasts, it had to symbolise great power and splendour. The grand scale of the Colosseum was impressive but not overpowering, it was important that it was welcoming but large enough to entertain audiences in there thousands.

    • Word count: 1250
  18. Free essay

    In which of the two epics are the female characters more carefully described and more relevant to the narratives? [The Odyssey and The Aeneid]

    Much longer, and she would've probably been Odysseus's absolute puppet master. Calypso is important to the narrative because she's the first person we see in contact with Odysseus. She helps to give us our first impression of him. This impression shows Odysseus to be heroic in his longing to get home. Calypso is a divine character, and she is described as such; when the Giant-killer arrives at her home, she is "singing with her beautiful voice", but when Hermes tells her she is to let Odysseus leave, her personality quickly changes, and she becomes very upset at the prospect.

    • Word count: 1835
  19. Similes in the Odyssey: Books 5-7

    This would have helped the Greek audiences understand the fate of Kalypso, by comparing it to a common image many of the Greeks would have witnessed. Homer also uses a simile to portray the fate of Odysseus' raft. Odysseus has to endure Poseidon's anger as he tosses his raft "about the current now here, now there;/as the North Wind in autumn tumbles and tosses thistledown along the plain, and the bunches hold fast one on another,/so the winds tossed her on the great sea , now here, now there/and now it would be South Wind that push her between/them,/and then again East Wind and West would burst in and follow".

    • Word count: 1057
  20. Overall how good is the movie troy?

    Wolfgang Petersen knows how to direct an epic film, and now Troy makes him the undisputed king of epics. Troy is one of the most impressive looking films I've ever seen. It was filmed in Mexico with about five hundred extras, which makes how authentic it looks even grander. Troy has two distinct tones; it's a love story between Paris and Helen (as well as Achilles and Briseis) and a war story. Petersen takes a movie that is so clearly multidimensional, and combines the different stories flawlessly. Troy really succeeded at entertaining me, and truly curiosity about the time period.

    • Word count: 1822
  21. An examination of why lines 370- 447 form a key passage in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex

    This originality was and still is the reason behind the success of this play. This essay examines the character development of the protagonist, and the motif of ignorance and dramatic irony that it surfaces. This passage is a turning point in the audience's view of Oedipus' character, and foreshadows his approaching downfall. When Teiresias states that 'Oedipus will not forget [his] insults... when all men throw the same at [him] (372-373), it foretells the fact that the King would be treated the same way in the future as he treats the prophet in the present.

    • Word count: 1599
  22. Social Historical Background - Antigone

    Comedies joked about the gods and intellectuals, albeit in a respectful manner. The theatre in ancient Athens had the ability to teach moral lessons, inform of contemporary issues or amuse. It was a powerful tool and was used by governments/polis to influence people's opinions and keep their populations up to date with current affairs. For this reason the government encouraged all men to go to the theatre. Those who could not afford to go were even offered free grants. "Antigone" was aimed at an Athenian audience. The play showed the downfall of man and highlighted how bad Thebes was.

    • Word count: 1708
  23. The Role of Free Will in Oedipus the King

    This curiosity leads him to depart his safe homeland into a foreign land where he eventually meets his grievous end. Oedipus's copious curiosity is also presented when he stubbornly pursues his self-identity search. Jocasta warns Oedipus to terminate his investigation for "[his] own life's sake" (59). However, spurring from his curiosity, Oedipus still chooses not to consider her warnings thoughtfully. Not only do Oedipus's curiosities contribute to his downfall, Oedipus's hasty actions are also essential. Oedipus's impulsiveness acts as a guide that pushes him to meet his own disastrous destiny.

    • Word count: 1030
  24. Abandoned and Redeemed: Comparing the works of Ibsen and Sophocles

    He was abandoned and forgotten because his own parents were afraid that he would kill his father and sleep with his mother. This event was before the play, and is learned later on. Oedipus is soon discovered and given to a shepard in another city, the city of Corinth. Oedipus is raised in Corinth, eventually becoming the prince of the city. He has eventually become a very powerful and authoritative character, ruler of Thebes. He unknowingly marries his mother, who had long forgotten her cast-away son.

    • Word count: 1235
  25. How do the characters of Antigone in Anouilh's play Antigone and Medea from Euripides's play Medea cope with the competition from other more beautiful and socially successful women?

    When talking about the character's jealousy it is important to first determine who is the cause of these feelings. In both cases, we could say it is other, in the characters opinion 'rival', women. In Antigone's case, the jealousy is aimed mainly at her "radiant" and "beautiful" sister Ismene. Ismene is not only the more beautiful of the two sisters, but she is also more favoured and admired by the others. "Ismene surrounded by a group of young men..." 1 Here we can see Ismene gets most attention.

    • Word count: 1801

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