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AS and A Level: Classics

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  • Peer Reviewed essays 5
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  1. To what extent does the architecture of Rome highlight the aims of the emperors?

    However, it should be taken into account that Augustus would record a positive account of himself and so this account is no doubt bias to present Augustus as pious and honourable. Yet it can be supported by Augustus' erection of temples such as the Temple of Mars Ultor, the Pantheon and the Temple of Apollo Palatinus which according to Cassius Dio's, History, 54.29.4, was constructed after Augustus had pledged a temple to his patron god Apollo should he be granted victory over Sextus Pompeius and Mark Antony.

    • Word count: 2220
  2. Vase painters were only interested in glorifying warAlthough it is true that the Greeks perceived war as a glorious display of heroism and a just way to settle disputes and face the enemy, the extent to which vase painters glorified the sub

    However the procession is illustrated as a particularly grand one; many gods and goddesses are lined up (labelled by Sophilos to enforce their prominence) ready to be received by Priam, all for the wedding and inevitable birth of the great hero Achilles, who, despite reminding us of the tragedies of war, will epitomise the glory of war. Kleitias' 'Francois Vase' (570 BC) depicts the Calydonian Boar Hunt; when a huge boar was sent by Artemis to ravage Calydon, because Calydon had not made appropriate sacrifices to her.

    • Word count: 2423
  3. Odysseus has no real feelings for the female characters he encounters on his travels. How far do you agree with this view?

    However, the first we hear of Odysseus that he is 'sitting disconsolate on the shore... tormenting himself with tears and sighs and heartache' and he is shown as being almost imprisoned on this island - 'he had to sleep with her in the vaulted cavern, cold lover, ardent lady'. This is far from the heroic and virile image that is built up of Odysseus previously, and despite the fact that he is on this extraordinary island with a beautiful Nymph, who even tempts him with immortality ('stay and share this home with me, and take on immortality'), he longs to reach his home, saying it is his 'never-failing wish'.

    • Word count: 2403
  4. To determine the indicator range of some acid-base indicators

    Indicators are commonly used in acid-base equilibrium in order to determine the concentration of a solution. In the titration, the equivalence point, which is the point at which equal quantities of acid and base have reacted, needed to be determined. As the suitable indicators change color obviously or reach end point, near the equivalence point, the end point could signify the equivalence point. However, indicators would only be applicable within the indicator range. If the pH of the solution at equivalence point was out of this range, the indicator shows no change in color and hence failed to serve its function.

    • Word count: 2370
  5. Descartess Overall Argument for Mind-Body Distinctness in the Meditations

    the uncertainty of one's ability to discern if they are dreaming or not, and thus be able to truly determine what is real. Yet, Descartes refutes this falsity based on whether or not one is dreaming, by claiming that even ideas within a dream state are still derived from things that are real and not imaginary. Consequently, one cannot develop an idea of any new or distinct nature that is not already real, or at least comprised of something real (i.e. its color). Therefore, he ascertains that anything dependent upon the study of composite things (i.e. physics, astronomy, or medicine)

    • Word count: 2436
  6. Identifying an Unknown Carbonyl Compound

    Methanol, CH3OH 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine Sulphric acid, dilute, 1M H2SO4 Ethanol Petroleum As all organic compounds have harmful vapors and con be toxic by absorption through the skin. Some are flammable. We must: 1. keep the stoppers in the bottles as much as possible 2. keep the bottles away from flames 3. wear safety spectacles and gloves 4. carry out experiment in good ventilation Requirements - Part A Apparatus Safety spectacles � 1 Bunsen burner � 1 Tripod � 1 Gauze � 1 Bench protection sheet � 1 Beaker, 250cm3 � 1 Boiling tube � 2 Test-tube � 2 Glass stirring rod

    • Word count: 2342
  7. Charging and Discharging a Capacitor at Constant Rate

    Apparatus * Variable resistor 0 - 50 k? 1 * Microammeter 1 * Digital voltmeter 1 * 2200�F capacitor 1 * Battery box with 2 dry cells 1 * Switch 1 * Stop watch 1 D. Theory Charging capacitor at constant rate Fig.a Current falls with time Fig.b Current can be kept constant The capacitance C of a capacitor is defined as the charge Q stored in it per unit voltage. Thus, for a capacitor at a p.d. V with charge Q, the capacitance is C = Q/V.

    • Word count: 2486
  8. czech republic

    Language Czech is the only official language of the Czech Republic, and it is spoken by about 96% of the population. Besides this, other languages can be heard here, particularly Slovak, German, Polish and Romany. Czech Symbols The Czech Flag The Large National Coat of Arms The Small National Coat of Arms The Flag of the President of the Republic: with a motto 'The Truth Prevails' The National Seal The National Colors: red, white and blue- the arrangement called the tricolor.

    • Word count: 2032
  9. According to the Res Gestae and Suetonius' Life of Augustus, how effective were Augustus' reforms to the Roman army and senate?

    The Res Gestae does, however, provide and insight into how Augustus himself saw life and times in the Roman empire. The second main source is Suetonius' Life of Augustus which is an account by a historian and biographer who lived and wrote about 100 years after the death of Augustus. He had access to the imperial archives so his accounts can be seen as mostly accurate. Nonetheless, the book is filled with gossip and rumours which cannot be taken entirely seriously.

    • Word count: 2142
  10. What was the function of hadrians wall

    Trajan to link certain existing forts together- so possibly the Wall acted to protect this road which would have been important for the movement of troops and supplies along it. The wall would have been needed as at the time it was built the tribes North of where the Wall is situated were rebelling and were therefore a threat to the Romanised South. There is also archaeological evidence to suggest that the wall was built to defend from attacks from the North, all of the defences are North facing and in the majority of cases the main buildings within the

    • Word count: 2353
  11. How far is it possible to explain the differences between the Parthenon and the Temple of Zeus at Olympia?

    The capital of the Ionic column has attribute paired scrolling volutes that are laid on the moulded cap of the column, or leap from within it. Even back then antiquity, its architectural refinements were legendary, especially the subtle correlation between the curvature of the stylobate, the taper of the naos walls and the entasis of the columns. The stylobate is the platform on which the columns stand. It curves upwards slightly. Entasis refers to the slight tapering of the columns as they rise, to counter the optical effect of looking up at the temple.

    • Word count: 2366
  12. Were coins used in the Roman Empire more for propaganda purposes or as a monetary means? Examples of how coins were used during Neros reign and how some literary sources link to them.

    These achievements included famous victories in battle or personal events such as marriages within the imperial family. Coins minted in the time of the Emperor Nero, the fifth and last of the Julio-Claudian emperors who ruled from 54 to 68 AD, are a key example of the use of propaganda. If we examine some of his coins we can get a sense of his power and how he was portrayed. Many of his coins show that he liked to be portrayed as powerful, as he is depicted wearing his armour, showing his importance as a figure in battle.

    • Word count: 2433
  13. The Moving Image

    Soon after Homer arrives announcing that he loves her and wants her to come home to her family. It works; she comes out of the car and goes home. After a long think she decided she needs a break to get away from everything for a short while, she needed to clear her mind. So the next day she goes away for a while, and leaves the rest of the family behind. Bart and Lisa went to stay with their aunties, whereas Maggie is left with Homer. During the short period of time when Homer was responsible for Maggie, he manages to lose her!

    • Word count: 2116
  14. Select one important episode/figure (human or divine) from The Odyssey and show what contribution it makes to the poem as a whole.

    She has been described in relation to her actions in The Odyssey towards Odysseus as, "the goddess of success" 1 This can be shown through Odysseus' voyage home and the help he receives from Athene, we see that she has power over the Gods, as well as respect, and a great power with mortals. Athene is known throughout Homer's epic as the 'Goddess of flashing eyes' where he uses repetition to remind the listener of the character's traits. This description suggests intelligence and an all-knowing and seeing being, however it also expresses the cunning that Athene displays constantly throughout The Odyssey.

    • Word count: 2439
  15. The significance of women in the Imperial family

    However modestly she presented herself, Livia's life was showcased by Augustus from the first for political purposes in a way no earlier Roman woman's had ever been. In 35 BC, he persuaded the Senate to permit statues of Livia and to his sister, Octavia, to be set up in Rome and granted them sacrosanct honors. This freed both women from many legal restrictions, including management of their own property. Livia was, or became, an extraordinarily wealthy woman and disposed of it with care.

    • Word count: 2183
  16. Oedipus the King VS. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" by Ambrose Bierce is a 19th Century mystery story

    (Sophocles, 1880) The underlying assumption in this story was that the citizens were meant to learn from the mistakes made during the tragedies. Citizens were supposed to learn the appropriate manner of being a good human being. Will the fantasy overtake their minds leaving them with one option to return to reality and death or will the power of unwritten law, the willingness to ignore the truth, and the limits of free will? Bierce carefully divides the narrative, "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge", into three parts.

    • Word count: 2289
  17. How important is the episode in Phaeacia compared to the rest of the poem? "The Odyssey," written by Homer

    At a first glance, the reader may suspect the intentions of the Goddess Calypso to be unfavourable to Odysseus. When Hermes approaches her and tells her the message, she understandably does not want to suffer the loss of him. She has grown to like Odysseus but in her selfishness for not wanting to lose him, she does not consider that Odysseus has a family of his own and a home he longs to return to. The first time when we see Odysseus in this chapter is when he is crying, " but the days found him sitting on the rocks or sands, torturing himself with tears."

    • Word count: 2706
  18. The narrative epic, 'The Odyssey' composed by Homer between 750 and 650 BC recounts the nostos or homeward voyage of Odysseus

    You need not bear this insolence of theirs, you are a child no longer. Have you heard what glory young Orest�s won when he cut down that two-faced man, Aig�sthos, for killing his illustrious father? Dear friend, you are tall and well set-up, I see; be brave-you, too-and men in times to come will speak of you respectfully. 350 Now I must join my ship; my crew will grumble if I keep them waiting. Look to yourself; remember what I told you."

    • Word count: 2273
  19. How far do you agree that Sophocles "Oedipus the King" is nothing more than a detective story? In your answer, you should consider events in the play and the themes which Sophocles explores.

    Instead, he proves to be the start of many bad things to come. Recognition in a plot means a change from ignorance to knowledge. This is very true about Oedipus' character when the recognition comes as a result of him being told, "Polybus is no kin of yours" This is the catalyst for all the events that follow and lead to his dramatic downfall. A complex plot structure includes both the reversal and recognition, like the play "Oedipus the King" does. "Oedipus the King" has a simple plot structure making it most effective and easy to understand.

    • Word count: 2682
  20. Compare and Contrast the characters of Hektor and Paris and draw close character analysis of both of them.

    Hektor is also the son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba as he is brother to Paris. Hektor is referred to as "the mightiest warrior in the Trojan army". He is also referred to as "tall Hektor", as "beloved of Zeus" and as "the slayer of men". Although these references are insightful, they are vague. To understand these characters true personalities we must look closer at the text and the context in which they are present in. Paris's character is apparent and definable from the context in book three alone. We learn a lot about him and how he is perceived, not just by his family, but also his people.

    • Word count: 2648
  21. Do You Know "Achilles' Heel"?-- Analyzing the Relationship between Greek Myths and English Language

    The water washed every part of his body expect the heel in his mother's hand. It was precisely at his vulnerable point that Achilles was later killed in Trojan battle. Greek mythology is a set of legends about the gods, heroes, natural events and universal history of Hellenic civilization. The myths of Greece mostly come from Hellenic literature such as Homer's Iliad, Hesiod's Theogony and Sophocles' drama. From the Renaissance to now, Greek Myths is one of their required courses when the English people receive classical education. These stories and myths are so enjoyable that they impress themselves upon the English.

    • Word count: 2047
  22. The Odyssey by Homer

    From here on in we see why he is called 'resourceful'. As in Book 4 we leant of his endurance and deception. On his way back from Ethiopia, Poseidon decides to punish Odysseus more for the blinding of his son, Polyphemus, the Cyclops. He creates a terrible storm with the strongest winds. He is shipwrecked and about to drown when Ino tells him to remove his heavy clothing and gives him a magic cloth that will protect him should he need it.

    • Word count: 2415
  23. Euripides was accused by his contempories of being a woman hater. Why do you think this so, and how justified do you think the accusation was?

    The Greek audience and modern alike will like Alcestis, as she is a sweet natured and noble woman. She most certainly would have won the hearts of the Greek audience. As she is such a noble character and the measure of her kindness toward her husband is so great, Euripides had to bring her back. So the heroic Heracles wends his way to Hades' kingdom and brings her back. In 'Electra', again the title role, at the beginning of the play, comes across as a very sorrowful young woman.

    • Word count: 2464
  24. Fate and Ignorance in Oedipus Rex.

    Showing to the characters on the stage the inexorable unfolding of a truth we knew from the beginning." (Badger, 1). From the very start you know that Oedipus is a supposedly good detective, as he had solved the riddle of the Sphinx years before the play takes place (Daniels and Scully, 17). However, knowing this, one would expect Oedipus to realize that there are many questions that he has failed to answer. For example, such obvious things as "Where did the scars on my ankles come from?" or, "Am I marrying my mother?" (Daniels and Scully, 25). These were simple things that he could have looked into.

    • Word count: 2604
  25. Compare and contrast the portrayal of the Gods in Virgil's Aeneid and Ovid's metamorphoses.

    Firstly, we must take into consideration that Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, were the only main models of epic for Virgil and Ovid. There is a strong element of Homeric influence on the Virgilian gods, for example, Juno has been likened to the Homeric Hera, as she portrays many of her characteristics. That is, Juno displays a deep hatred for the Trojans, due to the judgement of Paris, and her husband's high regard for the Trojan youth, Ganymede; more significantly, she dislikes the Trojans because they will destroy her beloved Carthage.

    • Word count: 2776

The study of the classical world and its civilisations is a fascinating subject which will introduce you to Greek and Roman societies. You may find yourself studying mythology, archaeology, drama, literature or society and you'll be asked to investigate and evaluate sources and explore the nature of the cultures involved. In studying the ways in which these societies were organised and how their citizens behaved will give you an insight as to how they've influenced our lives, behaviours and systems.

Classics or Classical Civilisation requires you to develop skills of interpretation, evaluation and expression as well as the ability to present your answers in a concise and clear manner. To enable you to master these skills Marked by Teachers has collated a wide range of essay examples, many of which have been marked and annotated by Classics teachers with many years of experience.

A level Classics is a valuable qualification to gain and the skills you'll develop are a strong preparation for studying Classical Studies atuniversity, as well as further study in Law, Philosophy or History.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Assess the leadership qualities of Lysistrata in Aristophanes 'Lysistrata'

    "In conclusion Aristophanes has shown Lysistrata's good leadership qualities such as organisation, manipulation and persuasion, her own passionate way of speaking and her ability to incite passion in others in a well rounded manner that makes her both identifiable to the other women and stand out as an independent, outwardly thinking leader. Helen Edwards Classical Civilisation Lysistrata 1"

  • Compare and Contrast the Portrayal of Clytemnestra in Agamemnon and Electra

    "In both plays we only see her through the eyes of others, she isn't actually strongly characterised. Her psychological reasons for the murder are the point and not her emotional state. Considering this, both Agamemnon and Electra reach similar conclusions concerning Clytemnestra's situation. She has ample grounds for hating her husband but no-one holds her justified in killing him in either play, "your words are just; yet in your 'justice' there remains something repellent." Electra disposes of her mother's defence in detail and leaves the audience feeling that Clytemnestra's murder of her husband really was not warranted. How different the plays are in their depiction of her character depend on how the reader chooses to interpret Clytemnestra's maternal professions; either genuine and loving or devious and selfish. Zoe Stimson"

  • To what extent does the architecture of Rome highlight the aims of the emperors?

    "In conclusion, it is clear that the architecture of Rome highlights the main aims of the vast majority of emperors of the time period studied. Almost all emperors sought to appease the people with the construction of buildings for public entertainment such as theatres of the Flavian Amphitheatre. Many also sought to present themselves as pious through the construction of religious sites or some sought to appease the masses by improving the infrastructure of Rome. However, some emperors such as Nero due to their personality or style of rule did not do as much for the people as emperors such as Titus or Claudius seeking only to glorify themselves or improve their own standard of living before others."

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