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AS and A Level: Classics

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  1. Medea betrayed her father to help Jason capture the Golden Fleece. Doing so was a great sacrifice. She doomed herself to forever being a foreigner at a time in history when being foreign could be a very dangerous thing.

    (1) Though Medea has lived in Corinth for a while, she is still seen as an outsider. The fact that she has a Greek husband and has given him sons does little to stem the prejudice against her. Could this distrust on the part of the Greeks contribute to her rage? Nurse: she glares with a bull-mad glaze (Or is it a lioness with her whelps) When anyone comes or speaks of helps. (29) Greeks were of the opinion that all Asians, like Medea, were wild and emotional, especially the Persians, who they'd once defeated in war. Comments like this reflect this stereotype. It's almost like the Nurse is saying, "Well, you know how those people are."

    • Word count: 747
  2. Vase painters were only interested in glorifying warAlthough it is true that the Greeks perceived war as a glorious display of heroism and a just way to settle disputes and face the enemy, the extent to which vase painters glorified the sub

    However the procession is illustrated as a particularly grand one; many gods and goddesses are lined up (labelled by Sophilos to enforce their prominence) ready to be received by Priam, all for the wedding and inevitable birth of the great hero Achilles, who, despite reminding us of the tragedies of war, will epitomise the glory of war. Kleitias' 'Francois Vase' (570 BC) depicts the Calydonian Boar Hunt; when a huge boar was sent by Artemis to ravage Calydon, because Calydon had not made appropriate sacrifices to her.

    • Word count: 2423
  3. What were the issues facing sculptors of metopes? How successfully did the sculptors of the metopes at Olympia address these issues?

    Although, as a sculptor, there would have been a large amount of scope for imaginative designs (making scale and figure involvement somewhat easier), actually making these metopes relevant and clear would have been an incredibly challenging task. The sculptors of these metopes at Olympia successfully addressed this particular issue by sometimes sculpting a scene either before or after the labour had been done, not only to make the whole creation of that metope easier for the sculptor, but this time composition helps us to identify which labour it is more efficiently.

    • Word count: 757
  4. Describe the main temples on the Altis. Which in your opinion is the most impressive and why? The Atlis is the home to the two largest temples at Olympia, the Heraion and the temple of Zeus, Also home to the Philippeion.

    This gives evidence of the Greeks not understanding the existence of load bearing until after the temple was built. Unlike the temple of Zeus where the architect, Libon, builds the Doric columns with great precision to form a rotational system: for example, the distance between each column centre and the next was half the height of the column. This contrast between the two temples shows the large change in knowledge and fashion, however both impressive considering there time period difference. The Heraion is situated in the North West corner of the temenos giving the temple protection by the powerful terris walls of the Altis.

    • Word count: 1605
  5. "Achilles and Hector have more in common with each other than they do with their own people." Compare and contrast these Homeric Heroes.

    Hector becomes spiteful, "Don't put such notions in people's heads, you ignorant fool." Such words as these suggest a huge change in Hectors tone. From the Iliad we know that Hector is a caring and loving man - Book 6. However, we see here that Hectors pride gets the better of him, snapping at his fellow comrade in front of a whole Trojan assembly, all because he doesn't want to look weak as a warrior and give up resulting in a lack of Kelos. Achilles shows his suffering throughout the Iliad as he prolongs his sulk and anger.

    • Word count: 944
  6. Odysseus has no real feelings for the female characters he encounters on his travels. How far do you agree with this view?

    However, the first we hear of Odysseus that he is 'sitting disconsolate on the shore... tormenting himself with tears and sighs and heartache' and he is shown as being almost imprisoned on this island - 'he had to sleep with her in the vaulted cavern, cold lover, ardent lady'. This is far from the heroic and virile image that is built up of Odysseus previously, and despite the fact that he is on this extraordinary island with a beautiful Nymph, who even tempts him with immortality ('stay and share this home with me, and take on immortality'), he longs to reach his home, saying it is his 'never-failing wish'.

    • Word count: 2403
  7. How important is Odysseus disguise as a beggar to the success of The Odyssey?

    Athena demonstrates her role as an active leader in her protection of Odysseus and his family by helping Odysseus with minor things such as his disguise, enhancing his physical appearance or making sure the suitors' arrows miss Odysseus at one point in the massacre, as well as giving Odysseus the grounds to be a hero in his own right by leaving vital decisions up to him. The mastery of such a skill as disguise is an accomplishment that demonstrates the self-discipline that only Athene, the goddess of wisdom and strategy, would value.

    • Word count: 1379
  8. To what extent do you think Aristophanes has serious targets in Wasps and to what extent is he simply trying to make the audience laugh? Give reasons for your views

    Cleon himself is represented in two contrasting lights by his supporters and his opposes. On the one hand he is illustrated as a mighty figure who has created a fair and appropriate society. This is the stance taken by Philocleon who believes that Cleon is the creator of a perfect system of law and therefore providing his beloved courts. On the other hand this view is fought against by Bdelycleon who makes the argument that what Cleon is truly doing is denying the judges their reasonable payment and tempered them into believing that they hold immense respect and authority.

    • Word count: 1226
  9. What were the problems facing architects when designing the layout of buildings on the Acropolis?

    The gateway was 'refurbished' after the Persian wars under the watchful eye of Phidas and its architect Mnesicles. There had previously been another building before the Persian wars and this had to be considered when designing the Propylaia. To overcome the problem of the steep gradient of the hill the Propylaia was designed over two levels. This ensured that roof was not going to run into the floor, therefore making it easier for people to pass through. Another important design feature of the Propylaia is the ramp which runs through the middle. This provided safe and easy access for the many animals that passed through the gateway for sacrifice at the many events that occurred through out the Athenian calendar.

    • Word count: 963
  10. Exekias and the Amasis painter are renowned artists of their time, with well known pieces such as Ajax and Achilles playing a game and Dionysus sailing (both by Exekias) and the weavers, wedding procession and Dionysus and the two maenads (all by the Amas

    The space has been well filled by using all the elements of this process. Strands of wool hanging from their hands fill the gaps. The Amasis Painter has made them more aesthetically pleasing by making them wavy, it also makes it more realistic. Although Exekias shows mythological scenes there are some everyday activities, for example Achilles and Ajax playing a game (black figure amphora). Even though Achilles and Ajax are great warriors they are playing a simple game. Exekias has paid attention to every single detail.

    • Word count: 941
  11. Augustus' foreign policy

    Indeed, the military status of Augustus at 23 BC is the same he had at 31 BC, but the important difference was in the image it created. Now, Caesar's heir was more than everything a supervisor of the order and protector of the republic. Having such responsibility he decided to strengthen the existing borders of the Empire before expanding them. Evidence for this is Augustus saying in Res Gestae that he stationed more than 300,000 soldiers in the provinces as a way to protect the Empire against dangers.

    • Word count: 715
  12. The republic under Augustus

    In Suetonius 28 we read that Augustus was afraid that dividing the power would jeopardize the national security. Truly, with 500 000 soldiers Rome had too many ambitious generals with too little wars to fight and each of them could become the next Sulla or Marius. Hence is the decision of Augustus to reduce the troops to 300,000 (Res Gestae 3) and therefore get rid of people with ambiguous loyalty. The First Settlement from 27 BC gave Augustus more powers than he was supposed to hold - proconsular power in an extended province and 10 years of consulship.

    • Word count: 915
  13. Is Telemachus the last moral outpost in a sea of corruption in Ithaca?

    Telemachus had offered them hospitality, which they've chosen to take advantage off. Perhaps his politeness and preoccupation with maintaining a good reputation had rendered him incapable of kicking them out? Perhaps he's worried this would goagainst the God's wishes and couldn't take control of the situation until he knew that he had Athene's blessing? They don't reciprocate the level of respect that Telemachus awards them and, in any age, this would be perceived as extremely rude, arrogant and short sighted. Despite his age, Telemachus isn't influenced by the behaviour of the irreverent suitors.

    • Word count: 1041
  14. Chem Lab Report (How much energy can we get from margarine)

    to enable the burning wick to heat up the can of water directly. The wick should be positioned as to minimize heat loss to surroundings and to ensure uninterrupted burning. 8.> Stir the water gently with the thermometer. When the temperature of the water rises by about 10 - 15?, take the final temperature and at once blow out the flame. 9.> Reweigh the bottle cap and remaining contents when cool. 10.> (Optional) Some other groups of students may perform the experiment with low fat margarine or slimmers' spread.

    • Word count: 994
  15. Chem Lab Report (Paper Chromatography)

    2.> The measurement error of the distance travelled by solvent and/or amino acid. 3.> The shape of chromatographic paper is not exactly square-shaped, so that one side of the paper may be lifted and the speed of the solvent travel in one side is faster. 4.> The different proportion of chemicals (?measured by measuring cylinder) may be used between the researchers and us, and the temperatures may also different, thus Rf values obtained are different. 2.> Why do Rf values change when a different solvent is used? Each amino acid has different polarity and each solvent has different polarity, too.

    • Word count: 1051
  16. A Contemporary Comparison of the Rules of Etiquettes in Nonverbal Communication

    In some countries, it is expected for people to stand close to one another, while large private space is preferred in others. Argentineans are generally very sociable and they tend to stand close to one another when speaking. Likewise, Chinese people generally feel comfortable to stand in close proximity to one another. In an interview, Dr. Song, who had resided in China for 30 years, said that "the Chinese are very conscientious of politeness. Standing apart in a conversation is taken by them as an avoidance of directness."

    • Word count: 631
  17. 5 people you meet in heaven

    He taught Eddie to look at a story from two points of veiw, he was stunned. He taught Eddie that every life is connected, that when one dies, another grows. That birth and death are part of a whole. The next person Eddie encounters in heaven is his captain, his commanding officer in the war. Eddie and his captain were together in the war for a very long time. They had been through alot together in the war, and Eddie had looked up to him greatly. He had soon learned that the captain had died trying to protect his soldiers, Eddie was devastated. He talked to Eddie about sacrifice.

    • Word count: 567
  18. To determine the indicator range of some acid-base indicators

    Indicators are commonly used in acid-base equilibrium in order to determine the concentration of a solution. In the titration, the equivalence point, which is the point at which equal quantities of acid and base have reacted, needed to be determined. As the suitable indicators change color obviously or reach end point, near the equivalence point, the end point could signify the equivalence point. However, indicators would only be applicable within the indicator range. If the pH of the solution at equivalence point was out of this range, the indicator shows no change in color and hence failed to serve its function.

    • Word count: 2370
  19. Investigation of the effect of changes in ionic concentration on the e.m.f of a cell

    Therefore, in this case, the Cu(s)/ Cu 2+(aq) half cell was taken as the reference half-cell. In the beginning of the experiment, it was assumed that the copper wire was the negative pole. As the e.m.f measured in all cases showed a positive value, the assumption was correct and copper was the anode in the electrochemical cell. The following was a table showing the details of the electrochemical cell. Cu(s)/ Cu 2+(aq) half cell Fe2+ (aq)/ Fe3+ (aq) Polarity Negative (anode) Positive (cathode) Electrode Copper wire Nichrome wire Reaction Oxidation Reduction Half equation Cu(s)

    • Word count: 1691
  20. Identification of carbonyl compounds by preparing their derivatives

    To determine whether the carbonyl compound was a propanal or pentan-3-one, the carbonyl compound should be tested before the addition of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. It could be tested by Fehling's solution and red precipitate would be formed for propanal (an aldehyde) but no precipitate would be formed for pentan-3-one (ketone). CH3CH2COH + Cu2+ + OH- CH3CH2COO- + Cu2O +3H2O It could also be tested by Tollen's reagent. Silver mirror would be formed for propanal but not for pentan-3-one. CH3CH2COH + Ag(NH3) 2OH CH3CH2COO- NH4+ + Ag + NH3 + H2O Testing with acidified potassium dichromate solution was also possible.

    • Word count: 1475
  21. How far does the Agamemnon reflect the Perfect Tragedy?

    In the play there is no unity to the time or place, it is supposed to take part in real time, and in the Agamemnon the Watchman sees the beacon many days before Agamemnon returns from Troy. The main idea that it must all take place at one time means that the Agamemnon is not fully a perfect tragedy. In the plot there is no real outcome to the play, Aeschylus' work is fully shown in the trilogy, the Oresteia.

    • Word count: 1981
  22. In Euripides Play, how important is it that Medea is a foreigner, not a Greek woman?

    She killed her brother to stop him from following them. She then got married to Jason and bore him 2 children, they lived a happy life in Corinth, because they were banished from Iolcus due to Medea killing Pelias. The main role of women in Greek society was to look after the home and take orders from men, Medea is not like this. Medea was a foreigner and this is vital to the overall plot in the play. Without her being a foreigner the play would not work properly as there would be no contrast to the way Medea viewed Greek society.

    • Word count: 1909
  23. Descartess Overall Argument for Mind-Body Distinctness in the Meditations

    the uncertainty of one's ability to discern if they are dreaming or not, and thus be able to truly determine what is real. Yet, Descartes refutes this falsity based on whether or not one is dreaming, by claiming that even ideas within a dream state are still derived from things that are real and not imaginary. Consequently, one cannot develop an idea of any new or distinct nature that is not already real, or at least comprised of something real (i.e. its color). Therefore, he ascertains that anything dependent upon the study of composite things (i.e. physics, astronomy, or medicine)

    • Word count: 2436
  24. Identifying an Unknown Carbonyl Compound

    Methanol, CH3OH 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine Sulphric acid, dilute, 1M H2SO4 Ethanol Petroleum As all organic compounds have harmful vapors and con be toxic by absorption through the skin. Some are flammable. We must: 1. keep the stoppers in the bottles as much as possible 2. keep the bottles away from flames 3. wear safety spectacles and gloves 4. carry out experiment in good ventilation Requirements - Part A Apparatus Safety spectacles � 1 Bunsen burner � 1 Tripod � 1 Gauze � 1 Bench protection sheet � 1 Beaker, 250cm3 � 1 Boiling tube � 2 Test-tube � 2 Glass stirring rod

    • Word count: 2342
  25. Preparation of a Halogen Compounds

    In this experimemt, the variables are: Controlled variables Independent variable Dependent variable * Temperature * Concentration and Volume of silver nitrate solution used * Drops of Haloalkane/Halobenzene added, * Volume of Ethanol used * Species of Halogen compound used * Time for the first appearance of precipitate Requirements Apparatus Safety spectacles � 1 Bunsen burner � 1 Tripod � 1 Gauze � 1 Bench protection sheet � 1 Beaker, 250cm3 � 1 Thermometer � 1 Test-tubes with corks � 5 Test tube rank � 1 Protective plastic gloves � 1 Measuring cylinder � 1 Stopclock � 1 Chemicals ethanol, C2H5OH

    • Word count: 1664

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