Inorganic Compounds

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Inorganic Compounds

Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

Sodium Chloride is a either a Colourless or white crystalline solid which is formed when sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) are mixed together to form Sodium Chloride (NaCl). It is held together by an ionic bond which is produced by electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. Sodium chloride is taken as a typical ionic compound. Compounds such as Sodium Chloride consist of a giant lattice of ions. Sodium chloride is described as having a giant ionic structure. An ionic compound such as sodium  is held together by an ionic bond. This type of bond is formed when oppositely charged ions attract. An ion or charged atom is formed when the atom gains or losses one or more . It is called a cation if a positive charge exists and an anion if a negative charge exists. Sodium (Na) is an alkali metal that loses an electron to form the positive  ion (Na+). Chlorine (Cl) is a nonmetal and tends to gain an electron to form the negative chloride ion (Cl-).

The oppositely charged  Na+ and Cl- attract to form an ionic bond. Many sodium and chloride ions are held together this way, resulting in a salt with a distinctive crystal shape. The three-dimensional arrangement or crystal lattice of ions in sodium chloride is such that each Na+ is surrounded by six  (Cl-) and each Cl-is surrounded by six cations (Na+). Thus the ionic compound has a balance of oppositely charged ions and the total positive and negative charges are equal. Below are diagrams which help to further explain this type of bonding. Sodium Chloride is made and produced by the evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources such as brine wells and salt lakes and by mining rock salt (halite). The balanced equation for the formation of Sodium Chloride is 2Na + Cl2 -> 2NaCl.

Production in Industry

Salt is a mineral that can be found in either liquid or solid form. It can be found in oceans, lakes, or rock beds buried deep in the earth. Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources, such as brine wells and salt lakes, and by mining rock salt, called halite.  Electrolysis is a method of separating bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. An ionic compound, in this case salt, is dissolved with an appropriate solvent, such as water, so that its ions are available in the liquid. An electrical current is applied between a pair of inert electrodes immersed in the liquid. The negatively charged electrode is called the cathode, and the positively charged one the anode. Each electrode attracts ions which are of the opposite charge. Therefore, positively charged ions (called cations) move towards the cathode, while negatively charged ions (termed anions) move toward the anode. The energy required to separate the ions, and cause them to gather at the respective electrodes, is provided by an electrical power supply. At the probes, electrons are absorbed or released by the ions, forming a collection of the desired element or compound.

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Salt is used in numerous ways including the flavouring and preserving of food and even as a form of money. This salt improves the flavour of food items such as breads and cheeses, and it is an important preservative in meat, dairy products, margarine and other items, because it retards the growth of microorganisms. Salt promotes the natural development of colour in ham and hot dogs and enhances the tenderness of cured meats like ham by causing them to absorb water. In the form of iodized salt, it is a carrier of iodine. (Iodine is necessary for the synthesis of our thyroid hormones which influence ...

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