the spectator so that the sense gets lost.’ This is the technique that Brecht believed in, and so utilised in his plays, not least The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui. His theory was that a play should not make you put yourself in the position of the characters on stage, but make you think about their actions. It was because of this that Brecht would use chalk to make characters appear pale, if they were to do so. For instance in this play, when Brecht states at the beginning of scene 5, that Dogsborough is ‘white as a sheet’, the Actor playing Dogsborough would ideally physically appear pale. This is so that the audience would be thinking about the character’s appearance, and hence actions, rather than what they were feeling or thinking.For the purpose of conveying his theory that the audience should not put themselves in the characters’ positions, but rather think about their actions, Brecht employed the ‘Verfremdungseffekt’ which means that actors speak to the audience, or that they show that they are acting, and not impersonating the person they are playing. He was famous for holding up signs telling the audience to not stare romantically, when it seemed as though they were becoming too involved in the play, emotionally.The Play itself is a montage of self-contained scenes. The principle of montage was that a play showed one thing after another and where each scene existed for itself; the links between events were purposely severed, creating a series of isolated incidents that the audience had to work to connect to each other. In this play the connection between events is aided by Brecht’s use of placards between scenes.The Montage theory had been developed by Russian and American film makers, perhaps most explicitly by the Soviet film director, Sergei Einstein.Brecht’s plays are crafted in such a way as to ensure that the breaks are always offset by carefully structured elements to establish their continuity and build bridges across the gaps. Therefore, montage can be seen as a crucial element in challenging the audience to think, to make connections, and to realise the need for action beyond theatre. The Play contains both a Prologue and Epilogue. The Prologue contextualises the play for the audience, introducing each character, and explaining the events that are about to be shown.Because Brecht didn’t want the audience to become involved in the play emotionally, and wonder the fate of each character, he chose to let the audience know before the play commenced, who would die, who would be successful and the story of each character in general. Prior to the prologue, the audience are also informed of the six main events of the play, again through the use of placards. These stated; ‘New developments in dock subsidy scandal’. . . ‘The true facts about Dogsborough’s will and confession’. . . Sensation at warehouse fire trial’. . . ‘Friends murder gangster Ernesto Roma’. . . ‘Ignatius Dullfeet blackmailed and murdered’, and ‘Cicero taken over by gangsters’, and their purpose was again to ensure that there was no element of surprise in the play, and so no opportunity for them to become involved emotionally in the drama, as they’re aware of the outcome of particular events.The Epilogue wasn’t added by Brecht until after the Second World War. It emphasised the final and most important lesson; that we must be forever vigilant in ensuring that life and breath are not given to those such as Hitler, and that although we may’ve survived the era of a hellish ruler once, unless we’re wary, there’s nothing to stop it happening again: “But don’t rejoice too soon at your escape-/ The womb he crawled from is still going strong.”The prologue and Epilogue act as brackets to the play, concluding it in a way that reinforces the technique of ‘epic’ theatre adopted by Brecht to present it. He wished the play to tell a story and tech the audience, rather than them become involved in the drama emotionally, and leave feeling purged of emotions, without having learnt anything or acquiring the determination to behave differently towards certain situations or people.The differences between Brecht’s technique of choice; ‘epic’ theatre, and the more traditional ‘dramatic’ theatre, are illustrated below; Dramatic TheatreEpic TheatrePlotNarrativeImplicates the spectator in a stage situation and wears down his capacity for actionTurns the spectator into an observer but arouses his capacity for actionProvides him with sensations experienceForces him to take decisions picture of the worldThe spectator is involved in somethingHe is made to face somethingSuggestionArgumentInstinctive feelings are preservedBrought to the point of recognitionThe spectator is in the thick of it, shares the experienceThe spectator stands outside, studiesThe human being is taken for grantedThe human being is the object of the enquiryHe is unalterableHe is alterable and able to alterEyes on the finishEyes on the courseOne scene makes anotherEach scene for itselfGrowthMontageLinear developmentIn curvesEvolutionary determinismJumpsMan as a fixed pointMan as a processThought determines beingSocial being determines thoughtFeelingReason In drawing up this list Brecht challenged traditional ways of classifying texts. As an AS drama group, we carried out certain exercises on narrative structure, to identify ourselves with that used in the play. For instance, we each acted out a scene, illustrating an everyday activity such as waking and getting up. We then narrated these scenes first in the first person narrative, then in the third. This enabled us to identify with how Brecht wished his actors to perform, as by narrating our own actions in the third person narrative, we were detaching ourselves from the parts we were playing, and so were not thinking emotionally ‘what should this character think and feel now’, but rather thought, how should this character appear. This also enabled us to understand how the process of taking photographs of scenes and trying to identify what was occurring within that scene, helped Brecht decide if his actors were performing correctly.The Verfremdungseffekte were designed to expose the familiar; Brecht’s actors were to present things in their concrete reality so that the audience would be encouraged to think about what had given rise to situation depicted, in this case Hitler’s, or Ui’s rise to power, and therefore consider ways to change those conditions in the future.The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui is divided into 15 scenes, some of which are subdivided into several sections identified by letters. These 15 scenes are then divided almost equally into 2 acts. This symmetry gives the play a degree of continuity, enabling it to flow smoothly.Scene 8 displays a structure unique from that of other scenes throughout the play. It is the scene in which the innocent ‘fish’ is on trial for potentially burning down ‘Hook’s’ warehouse. He is being tried before a corrupt judge caused by the manipulation of the judicial system by Ui and his ‘underlings’. This scene is divided into seven parts, ‘a’ to ‘g’. Each of these parts is shorter in length than that preceding it, hence quickening the pace of the play and building tension within the scene. The shortening sections also highlight Fish’s plunge into a prison sentence, that which he is undeserving of.