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AS and A Level: Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks

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  1. If Facts by themselves never prove or disprove anything, what else is involved in the proof of a statement

    As illogical or logical, depending on the situation, as it may sound, psychology comes in with biology/science that comes in with history that then comes in with anthropology and archeology in a never-ending cycle. For example, psychology studies human behavior, biology studies, in part, the human body including the brain and how it functions, which is then psychology. It also however studies diseases and their origin, bringing in history. Moreover, we know history because of the studies of anthropologists and archeologists, and so it goes, and again, we know, and we have proof.

    • Word count: 1357
  2. "Words are more treacherous and powerful than we think". Evaluate the extent to which the characteristics Sartre claims for words affect - negatively or positively - the different areas of knowing

    The only way to achieve the truth is through choosing your own path, defying traditional ideals that moral decisions involve objective decisions about what is right and wrong. Instead existentialists believe that "no objective, rational basis can be found for moral decisions."1 S�ren Kierkegaard, who is considered one of the fathers of existentialism, believed that its imperative for a person to commit themselves whole-heartedly when striving to acquire the truth about their lives. Personal involvement and action is of utmost importance when searching for the truth, and thus a person whom has involvement in a situation will always have greater level of knowledge than an observer whom is objective and isolated from the situation.

    • Word count: 1084

    that are inappropriate and/or no longer accepted. Some of the commonest terms, e.g. deep structure, foregrounding, have little or no experimental support. Linguistics has rather different objectives, moreover: to study languages in their entirety and generality, not their use in art forms. Stylistic excellence - intelligence, originality, density and variety of verbal devices - play their part in literature, but aesthetics has long recognized that other aspects are equally important: fidelity to experience, emotional shaping, significant content. Stylistics may well be popular because it regards literature as simply part of language and therefore (neglecting the aesthetic dimension)

    • Word count: 1249
  4. Resources for Dealing Directly with Specialist Language Style

    One of the most effective ways is to turn the resource into a trivia game. By putting students into groups of four, calling out a word from the Elizabethan English list and asking students to respond with the words meaning from modern English, students are given the greatest opportunity to learn the words' meanings. Students are also given a cooperative, motivated and enjoyment focused learning environment. The use of iambic pentameter, while adding much to the meaning of Shakespeare's texts, is extremely difficult for students to read. If the beats and punctuation of writing are read incorrectly, it could change the meaning and interpretation of much of the play.

    • Word count: 1159
  5. Language development in exceptional circumstances: Auditory Impairment

    To begin with I will confirm my definition of deaf infants as those who have congenital hearing impairments with a severity of 90db or more. As a result of auditory impairment these children, who have very little residual hearing cannot hear the speech of people around them. (Berko-Gleason 2001: 248) Children born to deaf parents learn sign language as a mother tongue or first language and it becomes a natural method of communication. Infants learning sign as their first language pass through similar syntactic stages at the same points in their development as children exposed to spoken language.

    • Word count: 1802
  6. Bone Dreams by Seamus Heaney - An Analysis

    The word "ribbed" is suggestive, with its subject matter of bone, to a rib-cage. The bone takes on a significance which is greater than its intrinsic worth - which is nothing - because the speaker equates it with treasure; it is, "flint-find", a "nugget of chalk", the word nugget being quite often associated with gold, and therefore he says it has a value in itself. "Flint" suggests history, a link to the stone-age and the find is, in fact, described as being, "as dead as stone".

    • Word count: 1988
  7. To what extent are beliefs, thoughts and knowledge restricted or helped by the language which can be used to express them?

    This simply allows a more natural process, as I am able to match a name to an image. A person who is really interested in something or someone will have such passion for this thing that they will use as many positive and detailed descriptions as possible. This can be due to people's thought processes and perhaps the individual is really keen on allowing someone else to get the full picture (understanding) of their idea that they will want it to be as accurate as possible. However, in some languages, such a thorough portrayal can be described by the use of only one word.

    • Word count: 1622
  8. Distinguish between pidgins and creoles and explain how their distinctive grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary have emerged in different parts of the world due to the processes of colonialization.

    European expansion and colonization during the 16th-19th centuries was a primary catalyst for many of the pidgins known today. Their colonization had seen the appearance of new varieties of English worldwide. Some of these remain local languages of relatively low social status while others have become codified, standardized and adopted by newly independent states as an official or main language. Prominent languages such as French, Spanish, Portuguese, English and Dutch were the languages of the Colonizers. They traveled and set up ports in coastal towns where shipping and trading routes were accessible.

    • Word count: 1421
  9. In my essay I will be writing about when Michael Palin reaches Africa on day 53.

    He uses adverbs like 'soundlessly' to put his point across. Day 55 he is in Cairo, he gives me the impression he has been to Cairo before because he says ' Cairo seems more enormous and manic than I ever remember it.' When he is talking about Cairo he makes he seem a really nice place as he says' there are all sorts of hidden delights' but when he gets to the train station there is a bit of confusion about what platform the train to Luxor is on, whilst he is waiting Michael meets a English couple who are on their honey moon who just cannot take anymore of Cairo.

    • Word count: 1238
  10. Barbados travel writing

    I stepped off the plane into the sweltering heat, it was a sunny day and in the summer Barbados is not the ideal holiday destination. I walked across the sun-scorched tarmac into a makeshift wooden tunnel built to shade the sun-sensitive western tourists. I pushed through the heavy glass doors into the terminal, eager to get out of the heat and away from the hungry child. Only to find there was no air conditioning, and many more children equally unsatisfied with the plane food were inside.

    • Word count: 1939
  11. Thematic and Information Structures

    In the human it is estimated at some two or three hours. About one time in ten, a woman will deposit two egs, potential producers of nonindetical twins if both are ferlilized. There are records os two extraordinary cases were such twins did not have the same father-readily checked since the fathers were of different racial origin. At other times one fertilized egg, as the result of some unknown condition within the cell, will develop two embryos instead of one-in which case there will be identical twins. The first thing that has to be commented upon is the different implications of the beginning sentence in both versions.

    • Word count: 1112
  12. Jamaican English - In ANutshell

    as a form of speech with equal rights. Stressing their African descent, dub poets are quite aware of the fact that patois, not even in its roughest form ("basilect"), is not the original and indigenous form of speech which their black ancestors brought with them. In line with the policy of the British slave masters, African tongues in their original form were eradicated, to be replaced by English. The consequences of this cultural confusion are well-known: English and African words were mingled with African syntax, phonology and rhythm, and the Jamaican creole developed-an un-English English unintelligible to the slave masters, an effective act of resistance that was at

    • Word count: 1088
  13. Hearing English and trying to speak it yourself are the only tools you have at your disposal when you are learning your native language.

    At the extreme end of the scale we have the nativists. The nativists believe that 'children are born with an innate capacity for language development'. Meaning that children are though to be born already with the capacity to learn language. But this approach does not cover all the aspects of humans such as deaf people. So how does language acquisition work in the first place? First language acquisition is remarkable for the speed at which it takes place. All normal children, regardless of culture Develop language at roughly the same time, along much the same schedule.

    • Word count: 1152
  14. "If thought corrupt language, language can corrupt thought" Discuss

    But practically it doesn't. I do believe that man creates language to express our selves. Some might use it to corrupt other thoughts but isn't that why language is there. So we can understand each other and express our feelings, thoughts and to claim things, even though they are not true. Language according to the oxford dictionary is defined as: Language noun 1.Words and their use. 2.The words used in a particular country or by a particular group of people [from the Latin lingua=tongue] In a different dictionary it says that language is the system of human expression by means of words.

    • Word count: 1131
  15. " All other ways of knowing are controlled by language." What does this statement mean and do you think it is a fair representation of the relationship between perception, emotion, reason and language?

    Language aids us in our everyday life and is important for us humans; however, language has its limitations as well. This happens, as a universal language does not exist. According to linguistics there are about 5000 languages in use in the world. With this number of languages, the existing ambiguity in a language increases and creates more misunderstanding to human beings. We will now analyse how far a language controls perception, emotion and logic but will also refer to the limitation of a language.

    • Word count: 1961
  16. Theory of knowledge - Preservation of Language Through Diversity

    This shows that language promotes through culture thus bringing diversity. But of all the efforts made a major number of languages that have been carried from the past seem to decay day by day, people get attracted to the modern environment thus leaving behind their roots. The invasion of the colonialist established colonial languages such as English, French, and Portuguese as a trademark of their arrival in these countries; some of the examples are Kenya, South Africa, Singapore and Madagascar. Since the time of colonialism till today, the establishment of colonial language, especially English has caused other languages all over the world in severe danger of extinction.

    • Word count: 1322
  17. "If I can understand it, it's English. If they tell me it's English and I can't understand it, it's not!"Making detailed reference to two or more varieties, discuss whether this is an adequate description of the distinction between language and dialect

    LANGUAGE VERSUS DIALECT Deciding where a dialect of one language 'ends', and a new language 'begins' is not an easy task. The term dialect refers to spoken language, and is generally considered as a mutually intelligible form of a language that differs in systematic ways. Meaning that within a language, speakers may possess different characteristics. The fact that they are still able to understand one another shows they are variations of the same language. Dialects of a language possess the same underlying characteristics, with some systematic changes - mainly in grammar, syntax and lexis.

    • Word count: 1721
  18. Language as Truth

    I intend to support Lewis' views of language, and refute the community of liars by saying that there would be no need for language and communication if this community of liars were to exist. According to Lewis, when I am having a conversation with my friend Ari, and I make a statement about something, I make that statement with the intention of bringing about a response from Ari. Ari, in return, replies just as I had intended her to. Lewis says that within any suitable population, various regularities can be found in this rational verbal activity, where the production of sounds or marks depends on various aspects of the state of mind of the producer.

    • Word count: 1666
  19. Holocaust Survivor: Vera Gara

    As the torah says, "you must shine a light unto other nations," and Vera Gara accomplished this task. During the lecture, Vera Gara portrayed herself as a strong, fearless and powerful woman. In a society where women are still fighting for equality, Vera commemorated the 50th anniversary of Kristalnacht (the first night of war otherwise known in German as "the night of broken glass"), on Parliament Hill with more than 1800 people in attendance. Her strength as a woman enabled her to give the speech. Vera is a perfect example of how a woman can stay string despite circumstances.

    • Word count: 1707
  20. Interpreted language

    Language barrier tend to cause decline in productivity and frustration amongst the company, employees, and customers. Language (Cultural) difference cause barriers in the workplace and it can have a negative effect on the environment at the workplace. Due to growth in diversities in business, companies have to employ different cultures. Companies that fail to accommodate individuals are subject to discrimination lawsuits. Though companies set up different programs in order to combat this problem, cultural diversity continues to grow and issues continue. As organizations introduce diversity, the culture of the workplace will change. People make judgments based on what they already know of their own values and beliefs.

    • Word count: 1404
  21. The study of language

    Hayes (2000) argues that language, in many ways, is the most important of all our human abilities. It is through language that we can imagine other worlds and communicate abstract ideas and as such it is language, which makes human civilisation possible. Montgomery (1995) warns that although 'language provides the basis of community it also provides the grounds for division. Systematic knowledge about language and a practical awareness of how it works is fundamental to the process of building mature communities' Montgomery (1995 p56). Language is undeniably a very powerful human tool and can not be explained sufficiently simply via one academic discipline.

    • Word count: 1824
  22. Outline and Evaluate Chomsky's Approach to Language Acquisition.

    and a Universal Grammar (UG). Chomsky used three questions in his work with linguistics to set out the targets of the science. These three questions are stated in Chomsky's Universal Grammar, An Introduction by V. Cook "What constitutes knowledge of language? How is such knowledge acquired? How is such knowledge put to use?" (Cook, 1991: 2) In this essay Chomsky's second question is the most important one but the questions are linked. In order to discuss how people acquire knowledge there has to be an understanding of what the knowledge of language people have.

    • Word count: 1899
  23. "All of the other Ways of Knowing are controlled by language." What does this statement mean and do you think it is a fair representation of the relationship between perception, emotion, reason, and language?

    This suggests that the only way to convey, and express ones feeling about a subject, or action is through the conventionalized use of language. There are various forms of language such as, sign language, body language, and verbal (ex. English, Russian etc.) and scripted languages, all of which are "conventionalized" or have "understood meanings". For instance, body language is "conventionalized" and has an "understood meaning", because, for example my friend was crying, and I assumed that she was sad. I was not sure so I asked her, and she confirmed what I assumed.

    • Word count: 1994
  24. If Language isn't simply vocabulary, and isn't simply communication, how might you describe what it is (and how it works)?

    Of course, these assertions are not universal, and induce rather fierce debate, and the counter claims will be examined. The contention that our thoughts are limited by language is one that is hotly debated throughout the world today. In fact, the non-extreme version of this theory is widely supported. The language we speak can affect the way we think. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis was developed by two anthropologists who firmly believed in this notion. The concept is known as linguistic determinism, and is divided into two main categories; strong determinism and weak determinism.

    • Word count: 1826
  25. Child Language Acquisition

    and she is obtaining material needs (wanting a biscuit). Katharine has grasped the concept of pronouns. She uses the personal pronoun 'I' to refer to herself 'Now I'll do Jason', and she can even use 'we' as the collective term for her and her mum together 'We do Jason again shall we?' Sophie's sentences have basic structure to them, as she voices what she needs to say, in the simplest way to say it. They are quite short, and to the point. Her language acquisition is at the stage where she knows how to communicate, speak and use words in a simple sentence to voice what she wants.

    • Word count: 1027

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