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AS and A Level: Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks
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Sociolect basically, means language spoken by a social group, social class or subculture. In this regards it differs to the dialect of that area slightly. Every person in that peer group has their own idiolect.
It is manifested when that person chooses the word phrases or idioms which are unique to an individual. The idiolect you speak is influenced by many factors, for example the area you live in, where you are from and who is in your peer group. These could happen simultaneously which will make your idiolect even more unique. I believe that your idiolect is mainly changed by your geographical location. My idiolect has been changed drastically through the years I have been living. Even though I was born in the UK the first language I was taught was Farsi, this was minor setback however I was able to overcome this issue.
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in ways believed to benefit the nation as a whole when in actuality government action only causes more harm and partition among the people. Although they shared similar ideas, King wrote with greater style. Henry David Thoreau wrote "Civil Disobedience" in 1849 after being jailed for not paying a poll tax. Thoreau states that "That government is best which governs not at all" (Thoreau). He holds remorse over the fact that the government has jailed him for not paying a tax.
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This commentary will examine an article written by Andrew Bolton, titled Doomed to a fatal delusion over climate change which was published in the Herald Sun on the July 09, 2008.
Bolton's use of statistics is effective in positioning the audience to accept his word as the truth. Statistics are seen to be hard facts that are quantifiable and verifiable and provide proof for the author's argument. This can be seen in Bolton's article on line 34, paragraph 9, where he stated "The truth is Australia on its own emits less than 1.5 per cent of the world's carbon dioxide." The author has used statistics to lend credibility to his argument by implying that he is supported by official factual research. The reader is therefore likely to accept his words as fact rather than opinion.
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The 20-Mile Fall is an article that was written for Time Magazine describing the events prior and during Joe Kittinger's record breaking jump out of a hot air balloon at over 98,00ft
The start of the article gives the reader some context about Joe and tells them what he is like. Th e use of a proper noun "Air Force" to describe him gives him credibility as being in the Air Force is well respected. In addition he use of premodifictaion "steel-nerved" shows that he is the best man for the job and creates a hero atmosphere around him. The use of a scientific semantic field, "altitudes", "atmosphere" and "above sea level", helps the reader picture themselves being there and is used to exaggerate his accomplishment, making it seem more amazing.
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Holiday Brochure Essay. Both informal extracts describe the appeal of who they are representing, Wales and Jersey, and use various techniques to get the reader interested in visiting.
Text A shows this informality quite obviously with humour which is often embedded in parentheses . "(It's the 7th most common pub name)" is an example of this and the humour helps relax the reader and makes the brochure more appealing. Also, the use of contractions, "That's" and "There'll" helps with the formality as this is seen more commonly in spoken language rather than formal texts. The tone also reflects Wales so the brochure uses the informal tone to portray Wales as being a fun and lively place to be. So therefore this reflects the targeted audience which are fun and lively people, more willing to appreciate the informal tone.
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This has lead to a mish-mash of different phonologies of both American and Australian/British pronunciations - a clear sign of a still-evolving linguistic national identity, as Australians have yet to decide whether to sever our phonological ties with Britain and embrace American influence or not. The influence of our American allies has also introduced many morphological changes and our constantly-evolving culture and identity has risen to face the change. A great example is actually from an Australian political party, which, in anticipation of the possible domination of American English across the globe, decided to spell their party name Labor, as opposed to the British and Standard Australian English spelling of Labour.
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Description of Australian English. Not all of Australian English is informal, let alone ragged-trousered. Generally, only some elements of the Broad and General accents
Generally, only some elements of the Broad and General accents (and the lexicon and syntax, etc.) can be considered informal, though definitely not "ragged-trousered". However, that is not to say the General accent (and its relative subsystems) aren't informal, but simply that the level of informality of the average speaker of English in Australia is on par with the informality of an average British or American English speaker. In fact, many elements that contribute to the "informality" of Australian English can be traced to an American origin, especially discourse particles like "like", "y'know", as well as expressions such as "dude", "wassup" or "whatever".
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The voiced dental fricative [�] is replaced by the voiced alveolar stop [d] as Aboriginal languages do not have the [�] sound; the word 'that' would be pronounced as /d�t/ instead of /��t/. The labio-dental fricatives [f] and [v] are replaced by their bilabial stop counterparts [p] and [b], so an Aborigine would say /ba?t/ as opposed to /fa?t/ for the word 'fight.' Dropping of the [h] is also prevalent in Aboriginal speech in that the word 'hat' would be pronounced as /�t/.
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well (.) when would you Simon (.) that is the question often asked by the young newlyweds (.) to the err (.) puzzled immigrants you know (.) people unfamiliar with the nuances of this culture but with a thing for pickles A- =well tell us Kevin (.) when would you B- well the first question that needs to be asked is do your hosts need wine or pickles= A- =well Kevin if they need wine then its probably not a good sign [laughter] what they are truly in need of is medical attention= B- = well yes it surely wouldn't solve their problems (.)
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This quote also shows her improved technique in asking questions. Instead of simply implying that a question has been asked using intonation only, Gemma has acquired the use of question words, in the form of "where", however there is an obvious flaw in the construction, as she has not learnt how to use auxiliary verbs: "where has the man gone?"
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The advert uses clever typography to draw the audience in. It uses the paragraphs to make the shape of a wine bottle, and places a label in the middle where the wine label usually would be, which confuses the reader into thinking that the advertisement is about wine, which confuses the reader as the title implies that the advertisement is about pickles. Because of this when they finally look closer at the label and realise that the advert is indeed about pickles, it creates humour, as well as making sure that the consumer is hooked into the advertisement.
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betrayal and also considering the historical context of the novel as it was set at a time of conflict in Afghan community during the 1970s therefore by modernising it so it relates to the social context of today, as knife crime is almost a daily, fashionable occurrence in modern society, just like conflicts between the Pashtuns and Hazaras were during 1970s Afghanistan. The title 'Loyalty' Juxtaposes the actual monologue as it portrays an act of disloyalty, and in a sense betrayal.
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Due to this appearing in the Times, a well respected newspaper it is perceived as more reliabe than the Sun for example. Toby Scott begins with "as all runners know, there are only three kinds - runners who are injured, runners who are recovering from an injury and runners who are about to get injured", this phrase adds an element of humor into his article as he is playing with language. He uses running as an analogy and uses the three tenses for effect.
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Between the years 750 and 1016, the Vikings began attacking the northern and eastern shores of Britain, inhabiting these areas themselves, this created hostility between the Vikings and the Anglo-Saxons, and it was during this period when a lot of Scandinavian borrowing took place. Husband and law are examples from their original forms Husbonda and lagu. Between the period 1016 and 1050 the conditions were similar to that of the previous time era only the succession of King Alfred the Great united the Anglo-Saxons and encouraged the English language throughout Britain, and more word loans occurred.
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Roald Dahls Lexis: The BFG has many lexical features that are very similar in nature and style. He uses a very simple, basic and colloquial language throughout the book.
The purpose of the book is to be read aloud to children, this suggest the development into an oral tradition in families as a piece of children's literature. The BFG is ubiquitous and is read all over England and probably in most English speaking countries around the world. Words from the BFG are used as part of a specific lexis within families. I suggest that such use is phatic and acts as an affirmation of familial identity for children and parents.
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The history of the English language shows the influence of successive waves of wars, occupation and colonisation of England. Discuss.
Instead of perishing into extinction, English adapted different aspects of the many invaders of England. English phonology has been significantly impacted by the colonisation of England by the Anglo-Saxon tribes of Germany and the French. The consonant clusters (eg. /kn/, /gn/ and /sp/ and used in Old English, a language brought to England by the Anglo-Saxons, are still present today, while some may not be pronounced, for instance in the words gnaw and knowledge. Many of the consonant phonemes from Old English have prevailed to Modern English. Sounds such as /t/, /l/, /p/ and /b/ have barely changed in pronunciation.
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Furthermore, the use of pre-modifying adjectives such as 'enjoyable' provides extra information and provokes a positive response from the reader. 'Alluring pubs', 'beautiful countryside' and 'voluptuous river' also uses pre-modifying adjectives to induce an image in the readers head, allowing us to visualise the scene with accuracy, and convey the diversity within Clitheroe, that there is something for everyone, and it therefore appeals to a wider audience. It also appeals to our senses, making us feel as though we are there too, fulfilling the purpose of the text, which is to inform the reader, and narrate his experience effectively.
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Compare unseen extracts from two guidebooks to London: Baedeckers London and its Environs 1900 and Time Out London published in 2007
This notion derives from quotes such as 'should keep themselves provided with small change' and 'should walk on that side for the purpose of hailing one', where the writer is advising the reader of something that in modern day times, is considered the norm and may be deemed condescending as this is common sense. However, in social context, travellers from outside London may have appreciated such suggestions due to their lack of expertise. The writer incorporates useful and relevant facts such as 'fare varies from 1/2 d.
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What methods does John Steinbeck use to develop the character of George and Lennie in the novella Of Mice and Men
The use of colour contributes to the beauty and Eden-like idyllic clearing and contributes to overall sense of perfection. The rich tone of the 'golden foothill slopes' conveys an image of the setting as luxurious and mystical. Steinbeck portrays the river as 'green' and 'deep' which creates an immutable and idyllic serene; yet however, the repetition of the adjective 'deep' implies that water is polluted or dirty, building an image of impending doom or danger. The permanent nature is threatened as the limbs of the sycamore are revealed to be in such a weak state, Steinbeck portraying not how strong nature is but how strong it used to be.
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This made me wonder 'How do the different media of painting, literature and film effect how a world is presented and how we understand it ?' Many time significant changes are made to the context of the painting, film or piece or literature. These changes are made to reach a target audience. A target audience could be defined as a cultures, races or nationalities. When there is a painting, movie or book created in one country it would display their point of few of a happening however, if seen in another part of the world it could be deeply offensive.
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As a child, I always thought of India as a developing nation and I envisioned broken streets and bathrooms everywhere. But as I walked into the hotel, I realized that this place was really professional, much like Toronto is, with clean roads, no bathroom stalls on the streets. The only issue I had was with the mosquitoes; they would visit us every night and became a nuisance! The next few days were similarly surprising and fun. The way they made every day an adventure.
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The dream initially was predicated on all individual being able to achieve their potential no matter what their background. However, in the 1950's context of The Talented Mr. Ripley and the late 1980's context of The Secret History, the dream has become only about the pursuit of wealth and power to the detriment of other more important values such as integrity and morality. The protagonists Tom Ripley and Richard Papen are seduced by the dazzling nature of the wealthy people surrounding them and consequently reinvent themselves to play a part in a world that doesn't necessarily have a place for them. As a result, both individual are faced with the dreadful consequences of their actions. In The Talented Mr.
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This is a direct antithesis of extract B where the questions posed and the response given has a structured feel and the choice of lexis is largely sophisticated ("product development" as opposed to extract A's "willy-nilly"). Although both pieces are clearly interviewing one person (so there are fluent adjacency pairs throughout), because the Extract A is a transcript of spontaneous interaction, the language will be largely informal, and have many voice-filled pauses ("it's er the latest raid er") and other paralinguistic features.
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But sadly for 1.43 billion people worldwide and around 5.3 million people in Australia this is a reality. I'm talking about Smoking, the leading cause of cancer in the world. An average smoker, smokes around 15-20 cigarettes a day. It's said that by smoking you can drastically shorten your life by around 7-9 years, that's about 8 minutes every cigarette you smoke, or 120 minutes a day, eventually equalling up to around 730 hours a year. Cigarettes cause more deaths than * Murder, * Car Accidents, * Work-related Accidents, * Drugs * & Alcohol combined It's fair to say that cigarettes are a killing machine, as smoking is the leading cause of cancer and diseases,
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