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AS and A Level: Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks

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  1. The Development of English in the Anglo Saxon and Norman periods.

    Old English was a Germanic language, and contained few words alien to the original native stock. Like the other Germanic languages of this period, it contained a few words of Latin origin picked up on the Continent, long before the invaders came to Britain, through trade with the Romans. The Anglo-Saxons did not very readily accept foreign words into their speech, and there are very few words in English which can be attributed to borrowing from the British speaking and Latin speaking inhabitants whom the invaders found in possession of the country.

    • Word count: 963
  2. The Man from the Board tells the story of Mr. Isaac Jacobs who is a coloured teacher. He lives in a white neighbourhood which is forbidden

    At the time the rules were restricted of where you could live. But it turns out another way and what Jacobs expected of the conversation wasn?t what he experienced. Bredenkamp greets Jacobs and even though Mr. Johannes Bredenkamp is a man from the Board he seems to be very polite towards Mr. Isaac Jacobs. E.g. p. 67, l. 21: ?Excuse me?? (?) He extracted one and ran his fingers down a column. ?Jacobs, Isaac Vernon?? His manners are expressed in his choice of words and ?excuse me? is a polite saying. Bredenkamp shows an interest in his hobbies and enjoys hearing about Jacobs? life phiosophy and job as a teacher.

    • Word count: 974
  3. How is power asserted in Barack Obamas acceptance speech?

    and make them remember; ?who still questions the power of our democracy.? After each one of the phrases he uses a verb ?doubts?, ?wonders? and ?questions.? He also repeats ?It?s the answer? at the beginning of the first three sentences. This acts like a triadic structure for both repetitions, and they also work as questions and answers. Another word he repeats a lot is ?we?, this is a first person plural pronoun which makes it seem like the whole of America is in it with him, and they need to help to change the country.

    • Word count: 571
  4. With detailed reference to Text I(boat hire terms) and to relevant ideas from language study, explore how written language is used to assert power.

    There is then a list of constraints which are numbered again asserting power. The use of the deontic modal verb ?must not? is used to place a large constraint on the customer, this gains control and power. ?The hours of operation are between 9am and 6pm?. The use of the emboldening for key information highlights not just how important it may be but this again places constraints on the reader. Furthermore, the uses of deontic modal verbs continue to place constraints on the reader. ?Alcohol must not be consumed by any passenger before or during use of the boat?.

    • Word count: 703
  5. AAEV is also known, as African American English, it is a dialect of American English used by different African American in certain setting and circumstance.

    Within the short YouTube clip there was some properties of AAEV that was discussed from some African American people from North Carolina. One property that was identified ?the love of language/ setting?. For example, ?say honey child?, was an example of a commonly use phase. It is explain that in the African American community has the love of language and listing to different styles of language brings the uniqueness in ones community or group.

    • Word count: 502
  6. Discuss some of the reasons why English pronunciation has changed

    Furthermore, some speakers replace the ?th? with the ?f?; this is a feature of Estuary English called ?th-fronting?. One reason as to why English pronunciation has change is due to social factors. People often change the way they speak depending on the context and who they are talking to. For example, if you are being formally interviewed, you are more likely to speak with emphasis on each word to come across as more eloquent or articulate. This is known as ?upward convergence?- where one makes the language sound closer to Received Pronunciation. In support of this, a study in Norwich by Trudgill (1983)

    • Word count: 717
  7. Vanessa Feltz. How does the journalist use language to express her ideas about Miss World?

    The use of the noun Dinosaur as a metaphor is key in initially understanding her ideology surrounding the topic. It suggests that the competition in question, like dinosaurs, can be seen as a significant landmark in historical importance yet holds no place in the modern developing world. This is followed by the modal verb ?should? which reinstates and conveys how strongly viewed the statement is amongst the writer. It also unveils a certain degree of Vanessa?s ironic humor. The word dinosaur is used to describe the women who compete in Miss World.

    • Word count: 1052
  8. Text Comparision of Two Rcipes for Curry. Text I was produced in 1747 and was taken from the the art of cookery made plain and simple by Hannah Glass. Text J was produced in, 1998 by Ainsly Harriot

    They could simply take the book or a copy of the page into a supermarket and buy the ingredients as they are also provided with the precise quantities, e.g 400g of can coconut milk. Text I was produced before the standardisation of measurements, so it is less precise. There are clear lines separating the different sections of text J, which makes it easy for the cook to understand what section, they are in. For example if they take the recipe shopping they need to look at the middle section then when they get home they move onto the next.

    • Word count: 1084
  9. Compare two poems about eating in public. Eating out and The Sweet Menu

    which reflect her monotony, discomfort and awkwardness. Moreover, the couplets soon die out at the end of the poem (Humble, I?ll have whatever you?re having, dear.?), which could indicate a new identity being born. Collectively, this use of couplets could suggest a dysfunctional relationship between the parent and child and a desire for connection but failure in doing so. Furthermore, the writer uses Caesura (?to recover. Later?) which creates a sense of a disjoint relationship and uncomforting environment giving the audience an impression of the writer being angry and disappointed.

    • Word count: 674
  10. work, Im going to be deeply analysing a transcript of online conversation to help me define the similarities and differences between online and spoken language

    However, the longer your message was, the more expensive it became ? therefore, abbreviations and acronyms were used and slang was born! For example, some of the common acronyms were ?ASAP (as soon as possible) ?IMO? (in my opinion) and BTW (by the way), all of which we still use today! Likewise, there were also lots of abbreviations like ?coz? (because) ?dnt? (don?t) and ?l8r? (later). Online language is used today because it?s a quick and easy way of talking to people all around the world.

    • Word count: 1579
  11. Transcript Analysis of Atheist vs. Religious Debate - Richard Dawkins and Bill O'Reilly

    At the beginning of the interview, O?Reilly uses an interrogative, ?Do you believe in God?? to make the audience feel more included in the discussion and to introduce the topic, before going on to tell us about the percentage of people in different countries that do not have a belief in God. He puts a lot of emphatic stress on the statistics regarding Great Britain ? ?44% do not believe in God in Great Britain.? He emphasizes ?44%?, as it is differs greatly from the statistics for America (12% do not have a belief in a higher power), and emphasises

    • Word count: 1656
  12. The situation presented in the transcript is between that of a teacher and student. Whereas Lauren enforces her tough persona, the teacher struggles to maintain his authority

    Lauren?s impudence portrays the stereotypical behaviour of ?chavs? as bad-mannered people humorously here, showing defiance through the opposites of interrogative and declarative speech. Stereotypes are presented through their sociolect, the teacher?s sociolect is mainly Standard English, Lauren?s sociolect and idiolect is mainly Non-standard English. Lauren?s stereotype mainly uses elision; this is seen by ?innit, though.? The use of elision suggests disrespect but also shows she is slowly gaining control. Her growing dominance later allows her to gain covert prestige. This is seen when Lauren?s speech converges with the teacher to imitate him, but the teacher can?t do this as he is taking a professional approach towards Lauren.

    • Word count: 1850
  13. Phonological Errors in Children's Language Development

    Although this maybe the case; children already know how to speak. At the babbling stage, babies are around 6-12 months old and will start to make repeated-consonant vowel sounds. Babbling is the process of where a CVCV structure is formed through vowel & consonant functions that come with it. The first one is the babbling reduplication where there is a repetition of CVCV structure & the variegated babbling where babies make a different combinations of CVCV structure like ?daga? opposed to the ?gaga? of the reduplication.

    • Word count: 634
  14. Comparing "The National Security Strategy of the United States (The Bush Doctrine)" and Arundhati Roy's "Excerpts from War Talk".

    But Roy?s argument was a combination of the empathetic and logical explanation of the international policies that were executed in the history of the United States. But we ask in this case: who argued their point clearly? Although George Bush?s arguments were clearly outlined, they were vague and poorly argued. However, Arundhati Roy has argued her point well, pointing out the imperialistic and strategic bases of the Bush and Corporate administration of the ?greatest force? of which is the American Empire.

    • Word count: 1265
  15. Charles Dickens - Bleak House Analysis

    Therefore it somehow implies the meaning to ?the scene of London? which we are introduced to afterwards. In the first few sentences there are several names (proper nouns), all signalled by capital letters ?London, Michaelmas Term, Lord Chancellor, Lincoln?s Inn Hall, November, Holborn Hill). This helps create the very dependable and realistic world Dickens presents in his fiction. The readers believe that this is the same London which we could visit today (sense of realism). The proper nouns also emphasise very specific and concrete nature of the world Dickens creates for the readers (giving an insight to their understanding).

    • Word count: 1262
  16. Hershey's. Comparison of two articles on the chocolate company.

    The attitudes of both texts help create a strong sense of similarities and differences. Both texts A and B display a strong sense of confidence in the message they are conveying. Text A and B both display this confidence through their bold vocabulary and strong uses of language. However, text A uses its vocabulary and language in a positive retrospect, rather than the negative energy given off by text B?s ability to use language to highlight the issues behind the company. In text A?s advertisement, the dark chocolate is given a luxurious value through the strong words ?smooth, rich & good for you.? This bold triad formed saying gives the female audience a sense luxury in eating the chocolate due to the reassurance given by that single slogan.

    • Word count: 964
  17. How far can babies be said to using language during the first year of their lives?

    Furthermore, a vital part of Motherese is using repetitive phrases such as; ?Oh dear, dear, dear? By doing this, the mother makes what she is saying more clear and by hearing the words repetitively, the baby will learn the words, associate meanings with words and possibly use them in the future. In addition, the caregiver can use alliteration and rhyme as this is more likely to maintain the words being learnt inside the child?s head. This may involve reading books that rhyme (as many young children?s books rhyme and therefore, aid speech development)

    • Word count: 638
  18. Analysis of speeches by Sadat and Bandler

    Sadat had been involved in many disputes with Israel, including the Six Day War against the country in 1967 as well as being responsible four years previous for initiating war on Egypt. By addressing the Knesset, Sadat was in danger of assassination both in Israel and at home in Egypt as he was contravening Arab policy of refusing to deal publically with the Jewish state which was established in 1948. To reflect this historical and political context, Sadat opened in an emphatically religious way with an Islamic tone by stating ?In the name of God, the Gracious and the merciful? before he even addresses his audience, to present a sense of religious unity among his audience.

    • Word count: 2150
  19. Restaurant Review and Menu. Compare the ways in which text 13 and 14 achieve their purposes.

    The structure of the text in the review is simply in columns due to the fact that it is a newspaper article, the graphology is also simple in this article, and it contains only one picture of the restaurant these simplistic features show that Norman is more interested in what he has to say about the restaurant rather than what he has to show, it also means that the audience will immediately pay attention what he has written which is what he is aiming for.

    • Word count: 1104
  20. In this paper I am going to talk about pidgins and creoles from the point of view of language acquisition.

    Slavery and colonization were a major force for the formation of pidgin languages. For example the slaves taken to America did not necessarily speak the same language but had to communicate with each other. To accomplish this, they invented a pidgin language with English as superstrate language. What is typical for pidgin languages is that their use is highly variable and due to the small vocabulary many concepts are expressed in whole sentences. By its definition a pidgin language is native to none of its speakers.

    • Word count: 1536
  21. English coursework essay and commentary- Curvy Models. Over the years body-image issues are plaguing girls across the country. and commentary

    However over the past few years the trend of stick-thin models has started to become unappetising. ?When I was younger I had a poor self-image, very low self-esteem, and yearned for a better body. I destroyed EVERY single mirror in the house as I couldn?t bear the sight of my body. I used to sit and count my ribs. I didn?t choose to be that way, it just happened. A few years later by the age of 19, I was 16 stone. From suffering Anorexia to becoming one of the biggest teens in Britain, it was a shock.

    • Word count: 1211
  22. English- Essay on Context in Relation to the film "A Beautiful Mind".

    This forms the idea of patriotic pressure, ?America?s future is in your hands?, evident in the opening scene with a Princeton University professor stating to the protagonist Jon Nash and his peers that ?mathematicians won the war?. The director?s placement and isolation of Nash in this scene, paired with the close up camera shot of his face, introduces unknowingly to the audience the first glimpse of his schizophrenic paranoia that culminates in hallucinations of characters and situations. A previous knowledge of the cold war is critical in understanding the hallucination named Parcher, his motives, and his actions when recruiting John as a ?code-breaker?, explaining that his ?conviction is a luxury of those sitting on the sidelines?.

    • Word count: 971
  23. I have written a review on the film Inception, with the purpose of expressing my opinions on the film clearly, to inform and also to entertain my target audience

    shows the reader my opinion of the film as the lexis all have very positive connotations thus creating a positive feel to the review as they are all similar in range of meaning and purpose, thus creating a textual cohesion as the purpose of my review was to inform the reader of my opinions on the film, by specifically choosing the above lexis I have stated clearly my opinions as they are all synonyms. The idea of creating a lexical field using synonymy was inspired through the same technique being used in my style model.

    • Word count: 762
  24. Analyse and comment on the way your idiolect changes depending on who you talk to and the context you talk in.

    Our personal idiolects are a result of individual and group experiences and of the environments we surround ourselves with. Transcript A is a clear example of our tendency to lose precision and accuracy when thinking quickly. It also shows our habit of using contractions such as ?gonna?. This makes it quicker to say and indicates that the register is less formal and is vernacular which suggests a sense of familiarity with the people the man is talking with. In addition to this, there is a constant battle to speak, which suggests that the man, Chris Evans, is the more dominant one, though the others want a chance to talk too.

    • Word count: 784
  25. In Briar Rose, the author Jane Yolen, introduces the audience to a variety of significant ideas that she portrays throughout the text

    The old German fairy tale Brair Rose is an appropriation of the Holocaust, a postmodern concept of using intertextuality within the narrative. The structure is unique in the way it switches between the original fairytale and the allegory of Gemma?s life. The structure is unique in the way it switches between the original fairytale and Gemma?s life. In order to add variety, different voices are used to portray different aspects of the story. Yolen adapts the language use to different speakers and situations in the novel. Briar Rose helps Gemma make sense of her own experiences, explaining them to herself.

    • Word count: 1426

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