• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

This paper aims to: explore writing strategies in bilingual writers; compare first and second language writing strategies; discuss the results of the study and its implications in teaching second language writing.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Writing Strategies: Differences In L1 And L2 Writing Author: Sophie Beare (c) Sophie Beare, Algonquin College, Ottawa, and Johanne Bourdages, University of Ottawa Abstract This paper aims to: explore writing strategies in bilingual writers; compare first and second language writing strategies; discuss the results of the study and its implications in teaching second language writing. Looking for related resources? Table of Contents Introduction Summary of the recent research on differences and similarities in L1 and L2 writing Writing strategies in L1 and L2 (Beare's 2000 study) Discussion References Introduction Recent research into the writing process of second language writers has produced a range of different conclusions. In particular, research done in the last decade in Canada, Iceland, Japan, and USA indicates two different views: Position One: The composing process in first language (L1) is different from the composing process in second language (L2) (Silva 1993). Position Two: Writers transfer their writing strategies from their first to their second language provided they possess second language grammatical proficiency (Berman 1994). Moreover, L2 writing strategies are similar to L1 writing strategies (Matsumoto 1995). My own research (Beare 2000) done with L2 proficient writers indicates that proficient bilingual (English/Spanish) ...read more.

Middle

The research was guided by two questions: What writing strategies are used in facilitating content generating and planning during writing by proficient bilingual writers? Are the writing strategies in L1 writing different from L2 writing in the context of content generating and planning? To provide an overall idea about their writing strategies in L1 and L2, the subjects were interviewed before and after their two writing sessions. They were required to write two essays: one in their first and one in their second language. The time given for each session was two hours. Think-aloud protocols were used during the writing sessions. Results and analysis The transcripts from the think-aloud protocols were analyzed. First, the utterances were colour-coded according to what the subject was saying. The categories for planning were based on a modified Haas' (1989) model. If the subject said, 'How do I develop this idea?' - the statement was classified as conceptual planning. If the subject said, 'How do I say that?' - the statement was classified as rhetorical planning. In answer to the first research question, it was found in content generating that the strategies used were writing drafts, brainstorming, rereading, asking the researcher a question, using the topic, using both languages interchangeably. ...read more.

Conclusion

c*****g (1989) points out that as proficiency in the language improves, the writer 'becomes better able to perform in writing in his/her second language, producing more effective texts.' (c*****g 1989: 118) Thus, if writers are highly proficient in their second language, especially knowledgeable about the rhetorical structure in their second language, and experienced in writing in their first language, the transfer of skills may be expected. Proficient writers do not translate from L1 to L2 (Matsumoto 1995). 'It is conceivable that whatever thought a writer generates before writing can be expressed in a variety of ways not tied to a particular language. It would follow that, to the extent that thoughts are transferable across languages, people should be able to apply the skills and knowledge that they have acquired in their first language writing to their L2 writing' (Berman 1994: 30). In conclusion, the above findings of the described research are applicable to the language groups under enquiry. Caution must be taken when one applies the findings to the second language learners who are still in process of learning and may not possess full proficiency of the second language; therefore, the expectancies of transfer of skills have to be modified depending on the context. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating how language has changed in children's literature; in relation to interaction between ...

    5 star(s)

    One of the general changes to note in language is the lexical choice, all the young student characters use more colloquial formations of certain words i.e. features are noticeable such as contractions, elision and ellipsis. They adhere to the prescribed rules of the 'teen-language' of the time period.

  2. Investigation into Gender Differences in the Language of Personal Profiles on Dating Websites

    As well as being ageist, this in itself could also be seen as s****t as the perceived worth of women is being seen as being based largely on superficial traits and appearance, whilst the more fundamental aspects of character

  1. Why the Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588.

    They were to carry 20,000 Spanish soldiers, food, drink, guns, gunpowder, cannons, horses, mules, and all other necessary equipment. Next, the Spanish warships would clear the straits of Dover of English ships and soldiers. If spotted by the English fleet they were to attack and destroy them in a battle.

  2. Innatist and Interactionist theories and their teaching implications

    Long (1983) suggests that modified interaction, similar to the child-directed speech in first language acquisition is essential to second learning. The modified speech acts as comprehensive input so as to enhance acquisition process. In interactionist's view, the modified speech does not mean simplified linguistic forms but the opportunity to interact

  1. 'Why did the Spanish Armada fail in 1588'.

    Thirdly, the Spanish were caught napping and cut their anchors, so now they had no means of stopping. They slowly drifted up the East Coast. The English followed them, sinking a few ships but not as many as they would have hoped. The Armada sailed harmlessly on right over Scotland.

  2. Barbados travel writing

    The Spanish came to the island in the 15th century, they spread European diseases such as Tuberculosis and small pox around the Carib settlers. They were soon wiped out and the Spanish decided to leave the island in search for the larger Caribbean islands.

  1. The defeat of the Spanish Armada.

    There are quite a number of reasons for it. First of all, and the most important was the communication. The messenger ships travelled at the same speed as the Armada, so they were nearly useless. Another great mistake that made the Spanish fail was the poor timing of the Duke of Parma, who did not show up.

  2. An investigation into the similarities and differences between written social interactions through the new ...

    She studied a total of 2185 transmissions. The results showed that few abbreviations, acronyms and emoticons were used, the spelling was reasonably good and contractions were not common. In her article entitled 'The Web Not the Death of Language', Kristen Philipkoski draws a conclusion to the study made by Naomi S.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work