• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discus to the extent to which you believe Carlisle floods 2005 were the result of intense rainfall rather than the physical characteristics of the drainage basin

Extracts from this document...


Discus to the extent to which you believe Carlisle floods 2005 were the result of intense rainfall rather than the physical characteristics of the drainage basin January 2005 was a major even for Carlisle, as there was a major event. The rainfall was immensely high from the 6th to the 8th of January, during which two months of rainfall, although the previous days had high rainfall. During the flood, the rivers such as Eden, Kent and Derwent were the highest on record. The flood peaked in the upper parts of the Eden and Derwent catchments in the early hours of January 8th. In Carlisle, the River Eden peaked at an estimated 1520 m3/s at the Sheepmount Gauging Station at 140hrs on the 8th of January. ...read more.


Another factor that could have affected the floorings, were the physical features of the drainage basin. As the River Eden is situated in the midst of valley's, in the highlands in the north of England, there were many areas with steep slopes, which characterised the drainage basin, but there were lower gradients around Carlisle, meaning that the River Eden could have already been prone to its banks bursting, without the heavy rainfall. There was also alot of impermeable rocks on the highland, and near the Vale of Eden there was sandstone, with a fair amount of limestone, meaning that the water would of not been able to infiltrate or percolate through, which would lead to surface runoff and overland flow. ...read more.


The rain led to the overflow of the river, which caused surface runoff. We know this from the hydrological graph which showed the peak rainfall being 50mm, and the peak discharge being 55 mm. The graph also shows how the rainfall from the previous days affected the capacity of the soil, making saturated, meaning not a lot of water could have been percolated through the soil. There is a steep gradient in the rising limb, to show how quickly the rain was walling, and a steep falling limb, showing the rate of velocity of the water droplets flow, which is also descending very steeply. Although we can deduce from the evidence that the rainfall was the main cause the human and physical factors, also had parts in the major flooding of Carlisle in 2005, and it could not all be blamed on the rainfall. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

Good use of a lot of appropriate terminology. Quite well structured essay, though the content within this needs attention. There is a lack of understanding of the exact human and physical factors involved. Some are mentioned and the details of how they relate to this specific location are given. However, actually comparing and contrasting their relative importance is needed with more detail and clarity to fully address the title. The vague conclusion is evidence of this.

Marked by teacher Katie Price 05/04/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology essays

  1. Hydrology and Fluvial geomorphology. (Q&A)

    For your essay I suggest you take each of the factors mentioned in your question and explain how each one may affect the regime of the river. It would be better if you could actually give examples using named rivers.

  2. Describe and explain the physical and human causes of flooding and the possible solutions ...

    For high flood risk areas eg. San Gabriel, Los Angeles solutions have been put to use. The San Gabriel river basin is a high density basin. This means that the rock which the river basin is made out of is very hard and solid so water will not be able to infiltrate into the rock.

  1. Case Study: The Mississippi River Flood of 1993

    Build levees or floodwalls to contain rising stream levels. 2)Build reservoirs on tributary streams to store floodwaters for later release. Steps taken to adjust to flood events include: 1. Purchasing flood insurance though the National Flood Insurance Program; 2. Seek assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

  2. Explain how human activity can modify the hydrological cycle.

    A lot of water reaches the river in a short time so the rising limb is steep, and the lag time is shorter so peak discharge is therefore higher, see Figure 2 Glaciers and ice caps melting may be due to global warming which is an indirect affect on the hydrological cycle by humans.

  1. Edexcel Geography B Unit 3 Coursework

    2. There is a gradual increase in the hydraulic radius downstream in the River Holford. 3. There is a gradual increase in the average depth downstream in the River Holford. 4. There is a significant relationship between velocity and hydraulic radius downstream across the River Holford.

  2. How valid is the concept of grade in a river's long profile

    The sediments can therefore be transported over gentler slopes.' This explanation would tie in with the Hjulstr�m diagram depicting the higher velocities required to erode and transport pebble and cobble sized particles, found upstream, and the lower velocities required to erode and transport silt and sand sized particles, found downstream.

  1. Investigating the river Caerfanell

    Site 1 - Blaen y Glyn is a section of this river very close to the source, 400m above sea level. Site 2 - Pont blaen y Glyn is an area further down the valley, near the middle of the river, 260m above sea level.

  2. Examine how a glacier operates as a system (25)

    landscape rock particles are collected, also rock often falls onto the glacier from above and augments the size of the glacier; if only slightly. Similarly, there are many outputs of a glacier. As well as aiding the movement of a glacier, meltwater is an output of the system.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work