How did colonialists justify their actions?

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How did colonialists justify their actions?

Colonialism arose from and ideology, or set of beliefs. The desire to colonise and dominate the world was also driven by philosophies, such as modernism, Mackinder’s heartland theory, evangelical Christianity and social Darwinism.

Modernism was a philosophy of ideas from the late nineteenth century about ‘modern society’. Modernists believed that the world could be improved by human intervention and achievement.

According to modernists, Europe was the continent most naturally able to give the rest of the world a lead, by colonising. Europeans could portray themselves as modern, civilised, superior and progressive when compared with indigenous peoples, like the Australian aboriginals, who they believed were none of these things.

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Early modernists also believe that the British were naturally intelligent and had a natural capacity for ruling over others. Believing in the superiority of the west, modernists assessed overseas for their own ability to contribute to development. This natural sense of suitability for leadership, combined with Mackinder’s theory, led many modernists in Britain to believe that Britannia not only could, but should rule the waves.

In 1904, Mackinder, a British geographer, developed theories about global power and the continents. He believed that whoever controlled Europe and Asia – the biggest landmass – would control the world. Mackinder ...

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