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AS and A Level: Environmental Management

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Five pointers to help you succeed when studying environmental management

  1. 1 “Sustainability” or “sustainable development” is key to every environmental management question. This was defined by the Brundtland Commission in 1987.
  2. 2 Show that you are aware that environmental management is a controversial topic, and that there is often a wide range of opinion about what the issues are and what the best strategies might be.
  3. 3 Questions about resource management may be improved by referring to theoretical classifications of resources such as finite or infinite resources, human or natural resources, stock or flow resources, renewable or non-renewable resources.
  4. 4 People and their activities have affected the physical environment. But the physical environment has also affected people and human activities. This is often overlooked.
  5. 5 Cost benefit analysis is an important idea. The best answers make use of actual data and figures to indicate costs and benefits.

Common errors

  1. 1 Students often mix up the greenhouse effect, the ozone hole and acid rain. They are different problems with different causes and effects.
  2. 2 It is not very precise to talk about “global warming”. It is better to refer to “global climate change” as not all areas are predicted to get warmer, and “climate change” includes changes in rainfall and other variables not just temperature.

Three important environmental management facts

  1. 1 The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated in 2007 that global climate change is happening and it is 95% certain that this is due in part to human activity.
  2. 2 The concept of “peak oil” was first proposed by M.King Hubbert in 1956, but has recently become more widely used. Many experts believe the peak of global oil production has already occurred or will occur around 2020.
  3. 3 It has been estimated that about half of the Earth's mature tropical forests have been destroyed since 1947 (a loss of between 7.5 million and 8 million km2 ). Some scientists have predicted that by 2030 there will only be 10% of the 1947 forests remaining.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 5
  • Peer Reviewed essays 1
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    The growth in international tourism is providing many LEDCs with new opportunities of economic development, but few derive full benefits from their primary resources for tourism. Discuss this statement.

    3 star(s)

    However leakages are the main limitation of tourism in LEDCs. These can come from foreign developers and hotel owners taking profits, foreign works sent over by the companies and hotels sending money back to their own countries, payments for goods imported for tourism, to repay loans and travel costs taken out by foreign airlines. For example Antigua in the Caribbean loses 96 cents out of every dollar in order to pay for food from Miami and Florida, and even though the country has over half a million tourists each year, bringing in �200 million, much is lost to foreign developers

    • Word count: 1020
  2. Marked by a teacher

    The impact of human activities on the environment

    3 star(s)

    Other sources of nitrate and phosphate ions such as sewage and excess fertlilisers can also cause eutrophication. When the excess algae and plants die the bacteria make them decay severely and reduce the oxygen content of the water. This leads to the deaths of many aquatic animals. Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of the oxygen removed from the water by bacteria in a given time and is therefore an indicator of the amount of pollution by organic matter in water.

    • Word count: 1791
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Greenhouse Effect Research Assignment.

    3 star(s)

    In between these two extremes, there is the theory of the "Enhanced Greenhouse Effect". This theory explains that human activity is enhancing the Greenhouse Effect, because we are continually adding heat-trapping greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by way of factory emissions, vehicle emissions, etc. Such gases include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane and ozone. The table below shows some examples of natural and man-made sources of some 'Greenhouse Gases'. Greenhouse Gas Natural sources Man-made sources Carbon Dioxide Organic decay; Forest fires; Volcanoes Burning fossil fuels - car and factory emissions, electricity generation Methane Wetlands; Organic decay; Termites Natural gas & oil extraction; Biomass burning; Rice cultivation; Cattle; Refuse landfills Nitrous Oxide Forests; Grasslands; Oceans; Soils; Soil cultivation; Fertilizers Biomass burning; Burning of fossil fuels Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

    • Word count: 928
  4. Marked by a teacher

    How do humans affect the environment?

    3 star(s)

    One-way which we harm the environment is through our polluting. Polluting is a very important issue when discussing the environment and factors, which affect it. One form of pollution, which affects the environment, is air pollution. Air pollution involves the air being polluted by gases, dust and smoke from vehicles and industry. This type of pollution causes many problems such as a variety of lung diseases including cancer, bronchitis and emphysema, all of which can be lethal to both animals and humans alike. Some pollutants, which cause these diseases, are lead compounds, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, which are all released by vehicle engines.

    • Word count: 1426
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Coastal Management strategies need to consider not only physical processes but also factors associated with human geography.

    3 star(s)

    Human geography is related to people and the way people interact with their surroundings. Examples of this would be the movement of people, the management of areas where people live. Coastal management schemes are very important because a large amount of the worlds population live and work on the coast, coastlines can be a very important way for an area to boost their economy; usually through tourism. There are two types of coastal management one is soft engineering which is ways of managing the coast with out using structural techniques.

    • Word count: 808
  6. Peer reviewed

    With reference to either Waste management in urban areas or Transport management in urban areas, discuss the extent to which sustainability can be achieved.

    4 star(s)

    Transport management is different in both LEDC and MEDCs; however the problems of high levels of traffic in the countries such as rush hour, slow movement of traffic and air pollution remain the same. Traffic is seen as an issue in the UK due to traffic levels rising by 11.4 per cent since 1997. With more traffic on the roads there are many problems that threaten today's society and future generations, such as air pollution. Air pollution due to the traffic levels can cause health problems such as asthma and environmental issues such as the greenhouse effect causing climate change which may impact on the world in the future.

    • Word count: 824
  7. Ecosystems at Risk - the Great Barrier Reef

    This extreme biodiversity is the reason The Great Barrier Reef was heritage listed on the UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation) World Heritage list back in 1981. The biodiversity on the reef is triggered by the enormity of symbiotic relationships the reef samples. For Example: * The 'Pontoniine' Shrimp will position itself at a prominent outpost on the reef where fish will queue up to be cleaned. The shrimp will remove all mucus and parasites from the fish.

    • Word count: 2465
  8. Notes on Managing Climate Change.

    > For human systems i.e. the economy, mitigation could involve an upfront cost, to reduce atmospheric pollution to 'safe' levels. Adaptation might mean costs were more gradual and spread over time. > For natural systems like ecosystems, mitigation could limit damage. Some ecosystems may not be able to 'adapt' and could lead to death and my cause extinction. Wealthy countries may have the adequate resources to adapt to climate change. Poorer countries do not (low adaptive capacity). Ways to increase adapt capacity: I. Reducing poverty to meet costs of adaptation II.

    • Word count: 1032
  9. Free essay

    How is Human Activity affecting the Tundra Environment ?

    Current President Obama is of the opposite view and his reasoning stems from the view that drilling would have a very negative impact on the environment and permantly damage the National park .The venture in his opinion would not guarantee sufficient oil supplies to make a big impact on the US economy or the global market price . Despite Alaskan Governor Sarah Palin's claims that the drilling would only affect 8Km2 most environmentalists and the general public agree it would have a much bigger impact .

    • Word count: 1450
  10. Will big business save the earth? Business sector has always been the key contributors to the environmental problems we all face nowadays.Will big business save the earth? Business sector has always been the key contributors to the environmental p

    In my opinion, with the consideration of all these factors, unfortunately, the big businesses will hardly save the earth in the foreseeable future. To start with, there is a wide gap between the expectations of what the big businesses should be doing and the fact that what the big businesses are actually doing because of their attitude towards the environmental issues. Ideologically, as these big businesses are the major contributors to the current environmental problems and are powerful enough to reverse the situation, they should act as the strongest positive forces for environmental sustainability by accountably minimizing their pollutants emission and proactively promote environmental conservation so as to lead the communities to the road of further environmental protection.

    • Word count: 1932
  11. A Proposal to Investigate Solutions for Preventing Air Pollution in Bilkent University

    PROBLEM DEFINITION: The main causes of air pollution in Bilkent University arise from factory and motor vehicles. a) Effect of the Factory: The most large-scale cause of air pollution is smog. Therefore, if there is an uncontrolled factory releases which is the crucial factor of air pollution. For instance; in Bilkent University, there is a manufacturing plant named Tepe Factory which release their chemical waste to the air unconsciously. That's why the serious part of the air pollution exists in Bilkent University since the negligence of this factory.

    • Word count: 1131
  12. Natural resources and growth. Although, natural resources influence economic growth, but the relation between prosperity and countries with abundant resources is not as easy to predict.

    For instances, the video listed the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) nations in the Middle East have gained great wealth and political voice since the cartel, a group of sellers who join together to limit supply, formed in the 1960s. Cartel members united to enjoy the increase the price since so many other economies depended on of their product. On the contrary, continent with an abundance of natural resources such as Africa tend to have a lesser amount of economic growth and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources due to the consequences of specialization, conflicts within societies as different groups and tribal fight for their share or the tug of war between people and government.

    • Word count: 999
  13. Town Expansion The Tourism Killer. We will see how tourism is changing and why cities must stop their expansion. First we will see how cities are creating more and more tourists facilities. In a second step we will see that tourism has beneficial effects

    This situation creates an opportunity for local businesses. In those cities there are mains streets, which gather the essential businesses for visitors. Therefore those streets "have to be able to respond to the expectations and needs of the growing numbers of tourists who are attracted to their rich and varied array of cultural, business, entertainment, shopping, sports and other attractions; furthermore, they need to continuously renovate and improve such facilities in order to maintain their share in the competitive tourism market and the benefits resulting from it."(http://www.gdrc.org) in other word cities have expand more and more to face the concurrency of other cities.

    • Word count: 1266
  14. Positive and negative effects of the Three Gorges d*m project in China.

    being generated, so it is very good for the environment and the atmosphere. The dams HEP will provide 14% of china's future electric-power. The HEP that will generate is the same as 18 nuclear power stations. There are few natural resources left, and this energy will help people living in poverty. The HEP will reduce 50 million tons of coal burning, carbon dioxide and emissions will reduce by a 100 million ton. Also, the new cities that people will have to move to will be more up to date. They will have an entire infrastructure a modern city needs to function well.

    • Word count: 1572
  15. Free essay

    What are the energy problems the USA is facing, and why its energy insecurity is growing.

    California alone benefits from having 16% of the USA's oil reserves, but only 3% of its gas reserves, however it does produce 5% of the USA's total electricity. In 2007 the USA consumed 21.3% of all global primary energy supplies and 23.8% of the world's oil, the fact that the USA obtains most of its oil from overseas, particularly from the Middle East threatens its energy security, as it is relying on elsewhere to provide it for them, global sources of energy are unevenly distributed, many are located in politically unstable parts of the world, this often leads to the potential disruption of supplies.

    • Word count: 859
  16. The Importance of Tourism in the European Mediterranean Area and its Impacts.

    It is important that tourism and economic activities take into consideration the balance of the sea ecosystem because its protection is linked to the quality of sea-side people life and to the continuation of the tourist importance of the area. The central problem of Mediterranean tourism is that the growth must be compatible with the environmental quality and with local way of life. In this way the hotel-countries and other ways of hospitality can contribute to give life to the countries and territories and to diversify and to enrich the tourist offer.

    • Word count: 1447
  17. Sahel Desertification - Informative coursework. The most effective solution to the desertification in the Sahel is to grow perennials in areas and recultivate a strong and efficient green belt.

    People in the Sahel are a victim of desertification in these dry lands. The misconception that the Sahel is widely vulnerable to the Sahara desert is widely accepted by all. People think that the Sahara blows strong winds into the Sahel and yearly washes away tons of hardworking farmer's efforts. In reality the misconception is partly false. Although parts of Northern Africa and Mauritania are exposed to the Sahara, Niger and the pastoral zone to the north of Tanou has very good vegetation including bushes, trees etc. These parts of the Sahel are equipped with a green belt that shields them from the Sahara.

    • Word count: 1031
  18. How American and British towns and cities are preparing for peak oil

    British local authorities are now starting to consider the potential impact of peak oil on their services and communities. The preparations they have made are as follows: Woking Borough Council in Surrey has achieved major cuts in the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of its buildings largely by converting to combined heat and power (CHP), that is, small, local gas fired power stations, which provide both electricity and heats to buildings nearby. CHP is highly efficient because it exploits the large amounts of heat that are normally wasted in electricity generation to provide space heating and hot water.

    • Word count: 683
  19. The Impact of Man on the Environment.

    Unicellular ones are made up of only one cell, for example bacteria. Multicellular organisms are made up of many cells, for example animal, plants and fungi. Non-cellular organisms are not made up of cell, such as viruses. Abiotic factors Abiotic factors are all the non-living things in our surroundings. They include the following factors: * Climatic factors, such as rainfall, temperature & humidity * Physiographic factors such as slope of land, exposed. * Edaphic factors such as soil conditions, drainage, aeration, soil texture, pH conditions. These are physical conditions. Despite the worldwide growth in industrialisation, environmental movement and awareness, the degradation of Earth has still not stopped.

    • Word count: 4079
  20. Nowadays, climate change is a hot topic and has been the subject of intense debate. Climate change is actually refers to an increase in average global temperatures caused by the human activities and natural disaster. However, human activities exist as the

    The heat will consequently melt the sea ice and mountain glacier of the polar region. Animals that habit in this area may be directly affected by the changes of the climate. Since their habitat has been destroyed, they are no longer able to stay at there anymore. This forces them to migrate in order to survive, as the animals unable to adapt to the changes of the environment, they may perish. According to the researcher, Bill Fraser, he said that there was a sharp declined of the Ad�lie penguins on Antarctica in 30 years.

    • Word count: 1279
  21. Assess the role that nuclear power might play in the future energy security of countries such as the UK

    It seems that likelihood of losing such supplies is growing evermore. For example: since the 1970s the Middle East (from where the UK and USA imports most of its oil) has undergone periods of extreme political turbulence; most recently with the occupation from allied forces post the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York. Importing oil from such politically unstable regions is simply unsustainable in a western environment, with such a huge demand for energy; and such dire consequences if such demands are not met. Furthermore, demand for energy is constantly growing in developing countries such as India and China, as their economies grow larger, and living standards and consumerism increases.

    • Word count: 1380
  22. My Environmental Footprint and ways I could minimise it.

    Eventually, it will bring huge impact to poor country such as Africa whereby there are no facilities to treat polluted water. People in Africa are suffering from dehydration due to lack of water resources while we are killing animals to satisfy our taste buds. On the other hand, the major cause of air pollution is the carbon dioxide emitted during processing and transportation of food production. In my opinion, simple changes can bring big difference to the world. Since human are not capable of controlling the constantly rising world population, people can actually change their eating patterns, to a nonmeat diet and reduce the amount of livestock, it will have positive influence on the environment by reducing the pollutions.

    • Word count: 1221
  23. Discuss the implications of global climate change in the future for the biogeography of any organism, group of organisms, or ecosystem/biome of your choice.

    sea level warming could lead to a gross destabilization of methane deposits on the sea floor and exponentially increase oceanic acidity (Lehrnkoster,). The rapid warming of oceans and coastal waters will result in the displacement of many marine organisms; there have already been incidences of coral reef organisms showing mortality from El Nino effects coupled with the extinction of several species of bivalves throughout coastal waters (Kennedy). Changing global temperatures therefore have a direct influence on both the distribution patterns and abundance of marine life. This paper will attempt to examine the implications of global climate change on marine ecosystems.

    • Word count: 837
  24. The main aim of hazard management should be to reduce the effects of hazards, not manage their cause. Discuss.

    Floods are examples of small scale hazards that can be prevented through technological means. Often, levees can be built to prevent a river from overflowing, such as the levees built along the Mississippi River in North America, or the Scheldt River in the Netherlands. Also, dams can be built to retain water in a lake, and can be used to control the water flow, thus preventing rivers from overflowing too quickly. A good example of a d*m that has prevented repeated flooding occurrence is the Hoover d*m along the Colorado River.

    • Word count: 1572
  25. There are no problems with cutting down the rainforest. The effects are always good for both people and the environment.Discuss

    We shall be mainly focussing on the part of Amazonia in Brazil and the dangers to its existence. We will also answer the question in the essay's title. The Amazon Rainforest is disappearing due to deforestation. The effects that negative to either the environment, or to humans are called Costs. An example of a cost is the unintended damage. Up to 30 other trees are damaged in the attempt to cut down just 1 tree. That means that millions of unknown insects and rodents are destroyed. These creatures may not be found anywhere else, and therefore a massive opportunity to discover new species are lost.

    • Word count: 539

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent can environmental analysis conducted by marketing managers ever be considered as objective and impartial?

    "Conclusion This essay has shown how organisational and individual level factors can influence the analysis process. From the assessment and evaluation done throughout this essay, it can be concluded that environmental analysis can never be considered objective or impartial. Although formalised techniques have been developed, environmental analysis cannot function without the "human" element of cognitive interpretation which is impossible to define in absolute terms. It seems therefore that environmental analysis would remain much more of an art than a science."

  • Evaluate The Impact Of Deforestation In Indonesia.

    "In conclusion the impact of deforestation of the tropical rainforest in Indonesia has both positive and negative effects. The main positive outcomes of the deforestation are the increased employment opportunities and incomes. This leads to reducing foreign debts and increasing the countries export earnings. There is more land available for settlement and farming to feed and house a growing population. All which lead to the economic development of Indonesia and an improved way of life for its inhabitants. However I feel that the negative effects of the deforestation far outweigh the positive. The majority of positive effects are only short-term gains, and are not sustainable in the way they are currently operated. When the forest is gone, possibly by 2005, Indonesia will lose one of its main sources of income. The cost to the environment will be enormous, not only will the trees be gone, but so will the animals, plants and birds. This process will be irreversible unless there are strict conservation laws, which are enforced, and a proper replanting and reforestation scheme."

  • It has been suggested that nuclear and/or wind power will fill the gap left by oil and gas. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such a proposal with reference to the UK and/or China.

    "Conclusion Each country demands differ and this makes certain types of energy sources suitable and equally some sources not appropriate. China and UK is a perfect example of this as one country wants high productivity levels where as the UK want more sustainable, cheap and eco-friendly options. Each type of multi energy sourcing has its advantages and disadvantages and these need to be evaluated. Each country will have different opinions upon the suitability of different energy sources depending upon what they expect and want. However, every country needs to be prepared for the time when oil supplies begin to run out and there isn't a definite option which is right or wrong. Everyone will have their own opinions and only time will tell who was right."

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