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AS and A Level: Global Interdependence & Economic Transition

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What do I need to know to get a top mark?

  1. 1 In order to understand this topic it pays to learn which countries are MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries), LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) or are somewhere in between (NICs - Newly Industrialised Countries)
  2. 2 To understand the current global economic situation it is worth learning more about the past. Study the history of global economic development, including colonialism and slavery, in order to understand the present.
  3. 3 Whatever your point of view, it is important to recognise that there are positive and negative aspects to globalisation.
  4. 4 Although this is largely an economic topic, it is important to understand the social, political, environmental and cultural aspects of globalisation too.
  5. 5 Learn the definitions for key indicators such as GDP, GNP, GNI, HDI, PQLI.

Common student errors that you should ensure you avoid

  1. 1 Some students seem to think that GDP per capita is the income that each person in a country actually has. It is just the total value of the goods and services produced by a country in a given period divided by the number of people in the country.
  2. 2 Don’t forget that even the richest countries contain some very poor people and the poorest countries contain some very rich people.
  3. 3 Just because China produces many industrial goods, does not mean that it is a More Economically Developed Country. It is better to call it a Newly Industrialised Country.
  4. 4 Some students continue to use the term “Third World” to describe less economically developed countries. This is now out of date and is probably best avoided.
  5. 5 The wealth of a country is not necessarily based on quantity of natural resources which it has. It is much more complicated than that!

Key global interdependence and economic transition facts

  1. 1 The USA is the world’s largest single-country economy, followed by China. If the European Union is taken as a single entity, it has a larger economy than the USA.
  2. 2 Economic growth in China has averaged more than 10% per year over the past 30 years.
  3. 3 The global economy was by the UNDP estimated to have value of over US$ 60 trillion in 2010.
  4. 4 The UNDP also estimated that there were over 10 million US$ millionaires in 2010, while more than 3 billion people earned less than US$ 2 per day.
  5. 5 The BRIC countries are Brazil, Russia, India, and China. They are major NICs which are thought to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development, without yet being classed as MEDCs.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 7
  • Peer Reviewed essays 2
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Referring to both pharmaceutical and tobacco companies, explain how transnational corporations can influence the health of people in countries at different stages of development.

    5 star(s)

    In LEDCs, medicines can be very expensive and in some countries in the world, in sub-Saharan Africa for example, people's incomes may be so minuscule that they may not even be able to afford food let alone medicine. Pharmaceutical companies make two types of drug: branded and generic. Branded drugs are three to thirty times more expensive than generic drugs and so in LEDCs they are out of the majority's reach, but they are patented and their chemical composition cannot be copied for twenty years; this means that should another company wish to reproduce the specific drug so it can be made available at a cheaper price for the market in LEDCs, it is not possible due to the patent.

    • Word count: 2086
  2. How likely does it seem that the Millennium Development Goals will be met by 2015?

    The main issue facing the achievement of this particular MDG is the economic strength of certain countries, and in addition the climate and geographical features of each country need to be taken into consideration. It is clear that some countries will be able to reach their aims by the year 2015, while other will be left behind. Global economic depressions affect many countries, in particular the LEDC's, the 2009 global economic depression cost sub-Saharan Africa's people �12.8 billion, which as a result makes certain MDG's very hard to achieve.

    • Word count: 2218
  3. Assess the extent to which Trans National Corporations (TNCs) have a positive impact on both developed and developing countries. (15 marks)

    One of the main impacts TNC's have on both developed (MEDC) and developing (LEDC) countries, is the exchange of ideas and knowledge from different countries. TNC's have their headquarters of research and development in their country of origin, and many manufacture their products in developing countries (LEDC's). This has created new possibilities to people in LEDC's. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is basically defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory in another country.

    • Word count: 2094
  4. The Development of the Modern Travel and Tourism Industry

    However, it is not just the air transport that has been revolutionised by technological developments. The channel tunnel was opened in 1995 and increased competition for the cross-channel ferry service. The changing in socio-economic factors has added to the development of the modern travel and tourism industry. These factors include: * Changes in car ownership * Increasing leisure time * An increase in disposable income * The impact of the national economy In the last 50 years, car ownership has increased dramatically.

    • Word count: 2296
  5. To what extent is an unfair world trade system the root cause of the widen development gap between the very rich and very poor?

    growth and expanding group of poor Page 9-10: Section 3: China's resource race, focusing on Peru's copper mountain Page 11: Bibliography To what extent is an unfair World Trading System the root cause of the widening development gap between very rich and very poor countries Introduction: The world trading system is the way in which countries buy and sell their resources to each other, however there is some question as to the fairness of rules and regulations and how they effect both LEDC's and MEDC's.

    • Word count: 2402
  6. The Development of the Travel and Tourism Industry and the Factors Affecting it Today

    regular use of at least one car 1983 77% of British Workers have 4/5 weeks holiday a year 1987 Number of holidays abroad exceeds 20 million for the first time, whilst domestic holidays fall 28.5 million the lowest number since 1955 1989 Private car ownership reaches 20 million 1992 EU Directive on package holidays 1992 Department of National Heritage created now known as the Department of Media, Culture and Sport 1995 Le shuttle and Eurostar carry first passengers through the Channel Tunnel 1997 70 per cent of all households in the UK have regular use of at least one car

    • Word count: 2423
  7. The relationships between the physical environment and economic activities are no longer important. Discuss.

    Arguably, humans still cannot conquer wilderness - settlement in Japan is restricted to the coast and the vast majority of mankind live close to coastal areas. Is this, however, more an issue of tradition than one of physical necessity? Certainly, conservative theory would suggest that people draw their identities from tradition, which can have important economic implications. Las Vegas typifies the 'bright lights' view of the USA - yet having outgrown its aquifer it surely shouldn't exist. Where there are serious economic incentives, the physical environment pales into very little.

    • Word count: 2028
  8. Why there is a need for world development?

    Countries such as the U.S.A, Canada, England, Australia and New Zealand fall into the category of first world countries. Countries mostly in the Soviet Union, such as Russia, Estonia, Turkmenistan etc, fall into the category of second world countries. Countries such as Somalia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, iraq, Zimbabwe etc, are classified as third world countries. These classifications are made under the basis of: Economic growth, increased use of resources, modernization, technology, political freedom, population growth, life expectancy, health, education, urbanization, income distribution and energy consumption. Another classification is measured through wealth: More economically developed countries (MEDC's) Less economically developed countries (LEDC's)

    • Word count: 2263
  9. Examine the causes and consequences of the rise in manufacturing in NICs

    Examine the causes and consequences of the rise in manufacturing in NICs This essay will attempt to outline the causes for the rise in the manufacturing sector in Newly Industrialising Countries (NICs), examining both the factors that pushed production away from now developed economies and the reasons the NICs were attractive to the manufacturing industry. The impacts of this shift on developed countries, the NICs and global consequences will also be discussed. Arguably the most dominant factor in causing the shift in the location of manufacturing industries is the peak from the 1940s and then rapid decline in the 1970s in the success of the Fordism strategy.

    • Word count: 2687
  10. Events Provision

    (www.mphshow.co.uk) This event can be categorised under the mega events typology group. The reason for this is that the event has the potential to attract over one million visitors. A further reason that this event can attract a vast amount of large visitors is that well-known motoring expert Jeremy Clarkson is hosting it. Due to the motor show being taken away from Birmingham, The MPH Show can be its ideal replacement and generate a high level of economic and tourism impact into Birmingham. Theorist such as Getz 1997 states, "Mega events, by way of their size or significance are those that yield extraordinarily high levels of tourism, media coverage or economic impact for the host community and destinations."

    • Word count: 2510
  11. Geography GCSE Welsh board Coursework

    Since 'mere' means 'lake', referring to Windermere as 'Lake Windermere' is tautologous, though common. Windermere railway station offers train and bus connections to the surrounding areas, Manchester, Manchester Airport, and the West Coast Main Line, and is about a fifteen-minute walk from the lakefront. Both Stagecoach and the local council provide frequent connecting buses from Bowness Pier; Stagecoach's open-top double-decker buses travel through the centre of town and continue to Amble side and Grasmere, while the council's wheelchair-accessible minibuses run around the edge of town. The area has something to offer visitors at all times of the year, in all seasons.

    • Word count: 2678
  12. tourism impact

    There is no doubt that tourism affects the coastal sites in a positive and negative way. Many people spend their annual holidays at the seaside. Coasts are fascinating places because of their wild life, scenery and opportunities for water sports, such as swimming, water skiing and wind surfing. A survey shows that Torquay attracts a high amount of daily visitors (6%), staying visitors (87%) and touring visitors (7%). The major amount of visitors consists of adults without young children and young people. From the survey one can see that the main percentage of visitors is 55+ with 63% but if you go to Torquay nowadays you hardly see any elderly people.

    • Word count: 2949
  13. Core and periphery of Brazil

    Unlike the North the South is fortunate to have a warm, temperate climate with a distinct cooler season along the coast. Development is easier in these Southern conditions, compared to the difficult climates of areas such as Sert�o, in the North, where there are frequent droughts. Also the Core's location is beneficial too, being near the coast; large ports are possible and ports such as Santos in S�o Paulo are very important for importing and exporting for Brazil. These ports are built close to mineral resources and industry, for products to be exported.

    • Word count: 2060
  14. Does Kenya Get the Full Benefit From its Tourist Industry?

    You would expect the temperature in Kenya to be constantly high as it is an equatorial and so the sunlight hits the earth vertically and with more concentration than at latitudes away from the equator all year round, but the average temperatures in Kenya are relatively low compared to other equatorial African countries due to the variation in altitude. Only the low lying coastal areas of Kenya experience constant high temperature associated with equatorial locations. There are two rainy seasons; March - May and November - December and two dry seasons in between.

    • Word count: 2535
  15. For two Economic Models, briefly describe the Model, and carefully compare and contrast their application to any one developing country.Introduction - India

    There are over one Billion people in India, so those at university count for around 1% of the population. There is an expanding social benefits package within the economy, allowing people to retire at 55 with a state pension, however, this is not enough to live on alone at the minute. Unfortunately, like many developing countries, there are weaknesses within the system, and so it is open to corruption. However, the Government are putting a lot of time into closing the gaps and loopholes. Although all this looks promising, there are still around 27% below the international poverty line, this is far greater in some areas.

    • Word count: 2529
  16. The Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC)

    The development of MSC was initiated based on the following rationales: * The recognition that Malaysia was losing its comparative advantage in its traditional economic sectors; * The need to drive the economy towards higher productivity through technology and high value-added economic activities; * Knowledge Economy and converging technologies presented the best opportunities for socio-economic transformation. * The need for the adoption & application of ICT to enhance national competitiveness and to help bridge the Digital Divide. In order to accelerate the transition of Malaysia to information Age, the MSC provides an appropriate strategy to achieve the objective through collaborative approach - combining world-class companies and local companies.

    • Word count: 2480
  17. How Does Tourism Affect Hong Kong?

    Private costs are costs paid by economic decision makers. Private benefit is benefit received by economic decision makers. Social costs and social benefits are costs and benefits associated with the society. * Private Benefit + External Benefit = Social Benefit * Private Cost + External Cost = Social Cost This Social Cost and Benefit graph clearly shows the system of tourism. The private cost of tourism is the money spent by the government or private sectors to lure more tourists into Hong Kong.

    • Word count: 2776
  18. What makes a country wealthy?

    According to Purchasing power parity, Indian economy is at fourth number in the world with GDP of $3.36 trillion. In the end of first quarter of 2005-2006 India stood second fastest growing economy nation with GDP growth rate of 8.1. Indian economy mainly consists of agriculture, industries, handicraft and services. At this time, service sector of India is playing a major role in the growth of Indian economy. GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT GDP is used to show the actual condition of the country's economy.GDP is used to express the total value of the goods and services produced with in the domestic territory of a country during a specific period of time.GDP considers only the final value of goods and services consumed by the final users not the input of other goods in the final goods and services.

    • Word count: 2617
  19. Examine the ways in which the unique indigenous lifestyles found in wilderness areas are under threat

    Indigenous people are constantly having to adapt in order to survive, because their lifestyles are increasingly coming under threat. Improved technology and affluence in the industrialised world has made wilderness areas more accessible, so that they are increasingly sought after by resource developers. This leads to conflicts between indigenous people, wilderness quality, and the resource developers. Indigenous peoples' way of life and control of and access to their resources and environment has become more pronounced with the globalisation of the world economy. Indigenous peoples are paying a high price for tourism. In their drive for profits, transnational corporations which dominate the international tourist industry have, with the complicity of governments (particularly those of the Third World), have devastated the lives and lifestyles of indigenous peoples.

    • Word count: 2548
  20. Geography Coursework Keswick

    * Footpath erosion resulting from overuse. This is particularly the case around popular natural attractions. * Conflict with other landusers e.g. farmers and walkers How are these problems are being tackled? Footpath erosion - Improvements such as surfacing paths in local stone or re-routing certain paths have been undertaken to reduce the impact of erosion. An increasing number of litter bins have been provided throughout the village. What benefits are created by Tourism in the area? Social Benefits: * Jobs are created * Crime reduces due to higher levels of employment Economic Benefits: * Jobs are created.

    • Word count: 2329
  21. Human Environment

    Other countries that appear to have low population densities actually have very crowded major cities e.g. the USA and Brazil. GNP (gross national product) and other indicators can give a more accurate picture of HDI (human development indicator). GNP is a measure of how wealthy the country is and HDI takes a range of indicators into account. The development indicators are: Birth and Death rates: The number of births & deaths per year, per 1,000 people. Population growth rate: The difference between birth and death rate. Life expectancy: The age you can expect to live to.

    • Word count: 2040
  22. To summarise the marco environmental issues affecting Australian Tourism

    Therefore, I am asked to summarise the marco environmental issues affecting Australian Tourism and propose additional strategies that the Sport and Tourism of Australia's Department of Industry, Science and Resources may be able to promote its tourist industry and influence visitor's preference. As a result of the declining Australian international tourist industry, it became necessary to explore other strategies where its may be undertaken. Asia countries are looking forward with reasonable optimism to the next decade because it had been the leading growth area during the past decade.

    • Word count: 2234
  23. The Rangeof Commercial and Non-Commercial Organisations in Travel and Tourism.

    * The present secretary of the DCMS is Tessa Jowell. Funding of the DCMS * Funding comes from the taxpayer (income tax) * In addition, the Treasury decides what share each government department will get. Stakeholders * Stakeholders are anyone who has an interest in an organisation. The people who are hold an interest in the DCMS range from: * Government of the day. This is because DCMS carries out the policies. This relates to Tomorrows Tourism Today, which outlines plans for action and responsibilities for delivery for the DCMS and its key partners in five areas.

    • Word count: 2031
  24. What are the main features of a Savanna ecosystem?

    The rainy season coincides with the sun, when it is overhead and the dry prevailing winds have reduced. Unfortunately the length of the rainy season and the amount of rainfall are unpredictable. While the heavy nature of the rain can do a lot of damage. A climate graph of Nakuru. The vegetation of this part of Africa is called Savanna. This mainly consists of tall grasses, bushes and scattered trees. The Savanna soils are very good at storing water from the wet seasons, no matter how hot it gets in the dry season. In the south, where the average amount of rainfall is higher, there are more trees.

    • Word count: 2095
  25. Tourism in an LEDC Is Likely To Generate As Many Costs as Benefits - Discuss This View With Reference To Areas You Have Studied.

    My aim is to prove that tourism has as many drawbacks as benefits and cannot be solely relied upon for economic stability. Kenya is well known world wide for its extensive nature/game reserves, these spectacular natural features come under many threats, hunting, agriculture and tourism all take there toll on the fragile environment. Tourism in Kenya is a $600,000,000 industry and supports over 175,000 jobs. This is Kenya's largest source of income. The tourist industry thrives in Kenya, large amounts of visitors come to see the reserves, relax on the white sandy beaches and swim amongst the coral.

    • Word count: 2361

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Globalization can only result in technologies that harm the environment" - Discuss

    "Conclusion: Globalization has a dark side. But it can also bring tremendous opportunities and benefits. Technologies can also be beneficial to the environment; this is particularly true of the biotic pesticides and the new technologies of saving land and water. There are vast possibilities in terms of energy and material conservation, new environment-friendly products applications in non-crop agriculture such as newer possibilities of agro-processing and waste recycling. The real issue is not technology or globalization as a technological paradigm. It is institutions and rules that create powerful incentives and preconditions for sustainable development to take place. Equally important is the nature of incentives and deterrents for positive and negative behavior."

  • Tourism in an LEDC Is Likely To Generate As Many Costs as Benefits - Discuss This View With Reference To Areas You Have Studied.

    "In conclusion I feel that less economically developed countries will always have as many costs as benefits when developing though such westernised intensive industries such as tourism. It would be inappropriate to think that the western world would not have a negative effect on the countries and people in question. But it is up to the countries to decide if tourism will work in there favour. If not they can limit tourist input like many Asian countries have for example Korea. As tourist needs change I feel a more positive view on tourism will be taken and more will be done by both tourists and the local people to preserve cultures and environments. This will be aided by the new social need for ecotourism which will aid this steady recovery. The only threats I can see for tourism in less economically developed countries that will be a problem in the futer are low cost flights that are set t entice tourists back to old honey pots such as America and southern Europe. Though my personal view is that with social adaptation and the quest to improve cultural respect from the western world, we will see a great increase in measurements and management used to protect and aid recovery of less economically developed countries and there tourist economy. 1"

  • Explain How Economists Measure Living Standards In an Economy and Discuss The Possible Uses Which Could Be Made Of This Information

    "In conclusion, it is clear that these methods can only be used as a guide to showing the extent of deprivation and living standards. Real GDP per capita is a crude measure that does not take into account distribution and also factors such as literacy, life expectancy and quality of life. Other problems with the methods include that many aspects if living standards are left out and collection of data can be inaccurate. However despite these problems they can still be of immense use. They help in comparing between countries the living standards. This is important because it not only helps a country identify its own problems for which it can improve but shows the international community as a whole the problems and inequality faced by the developing world. This is important because it allows aid to be focussed to countries and areas if greatest needs. Overall it is clear that the best approach would be to take into account all the measures involved in calculating deprivation and possibly incorporate them to provide a more accurate and detailed analysis."

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