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AS and A Level: Global Interdependence & Economic Transition

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What do I need to know to get a top mark?

  1. 1 In order to understand this topic it pays to learn which countries are MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries), LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) or are somewhere in between (NICs - Newly Industrialised Countries)
  2. 2 To understand the current global economic situation it is worth learning more about the past. Study the history of global economic development, including colonialism and slavery, in order to understand the present.
  3. 3 Whatever your point of view, it is important to recognise that there are positive and negative aspects to globalisation.
  4. 4 Although this is largely an economic topic, it is important to understand the social, political, environmental and cultural aspects of globalisation too.
  5. 5 Learn the definitions for key indicators such as GDP, GNP, GNI, HDI, PQLI.

Common student errors that you should ensure you avoid

  1. 1 Some students seem to think that GDP per capita is the income that each person in a country actually has. It is just the total value of the goods and services produced by a country in a given period divided by the number of people in the country.
  2. 2 Don’t forget that even the richest countries contain some very poor people and the poorest countries contain some very rich people.
  3. 3 Just because China produces many industrial goods, does not mean that it is a More Economically Developed Country. It is better to call it a Newly Industrialised Country.
  4. 4 Some students continue to use the term “Third World” to describe less economically developed countries. This is now out of date and is probably best avoided.
  5. 5 The wealth of a country is not necessarily based on quantity of natural resources which it has. It is much more complicated than that!

Key global interdependence and economic transition facts

  1. 1 The USA is the world’s largest single-country economy, followed by China. If the European Union is taken as a single entity, it has a larger economy than the USA.
  2. 2 Economic growth in China has averaged more than 10% per year over the past 30 years.
  3. 3 The global economy was by the UNDP estimated to have value of over US$ 60 trillion in 2010.
  4. 4 The UNDP also estimated that there were over 10 million US$ millionaires in 2010, while more than 3 billion people earned less than US$ 2 per day.
  5. 5 The BRIC countries are Brazil, Russia, India, and China. They are major NICs which are thought to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development, without yet being classed as MEDCs.

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  1. Has Ecotourism made a Significant Improvement to the Tourist Industry?

    is a type of tourism that attempts to minimise the negative effects of traditional mass tourism, be these economic, social or environmental. Ecotourism generally takes place in remote areas, with a low density of tourists. Facilities were initially at a basic level, but are now becoming more comfortable. Ecotourism often involves the exploration of ecological areas and ecosystems such as game parks, nature reserves, coral reefs and forest parks. However, there is planning and control of tourist developments. There is increased involvement of local and regional communities in the development of ecotourism.

    • Word count: 2002
  2. When you have two groups of people from the same place migrating to a new area, will you have two different ways of life emerge, or will the two have the same ways of living?

    The difference between the roots of the colonies is what create a divergence in their way of life in the future of the colonies The promise of the Jamestown seeding was in its gold and the passage to the Indies. The Virginia Company was financing the expedition, expecting to liquidate the company's assets for to capitalize on their profits. Instead, the Virginia colony prolonged its longevity by finding a gold in the form of Tobacco. Tobacco was labor intensive and required a vast amount of land.

    • Word count: 761
  3. Blackpool: the Las Vegas of Lancashire?

    The building of the Preston and Wyre railway in 1840 provided cheap excursion trains to Blackpool from industrial Lancashire, making Blackpool a destination for thousands of visitors from Lancashire and Yorkshire. By the late 1800s Blackpool's visitors were predominately the working classes from Lancashire and Yorkshire rather than the gentry. Blackpool was seen as 'the Playground of the Industrial Revolution': a town that grew rich on traditional Wakes Weeks (Blackpool Borough Council, 2003). The development of the resort's entertainment attractions began in the 1890s to provide facilities for the 35,000 resident population together with approximately 250,000 annual visitors (Blackpool Borough Council, 2003).

    • Word count: 3479
  4. 'A marketing slogan or a geographical reality?' Critically assess the validity of these interpretations of the term 'Sunbelt'.

    Without slaves, cotton and tobacco prices plummeted and the south fell into debt. In 1932 cotton prices were at an all time low of 6.5 cents, but by 1935 prices had risen and stabilised at 11.09 cents. This was all thanks to the Agricultural Adjustment Act initiated by President Roosevelt who had plans to equalise development throughout the United States. "The Agricultural Adjustment Act had strengthened southern planters. Unlike southern manufacturing they could afford to drop their guard and welcome federal intervention" (Schulman 1991, p.20). William Faulkner believed that this 'drop in their guard' led to the downfall of the cotton region and the beginning of the Sunbelt.

    • Word count: 1193
  5. Bangladeshs economic situation.

    and development partners, helped other natural disasters. It is expected that the economy will turn to it's normal growth the balance of payment position also improved with sufficient amount of foreign reserve. Private sector is the engine of growth and it's needs to develop on its own initiative. Govt. is trying to implement for privatization of SOES, the board of investment has been set up to attract FDI specially in the areas of export processing zone. A well functioning financial system is necessary for sustainable development.

    • Word count: 1438
  6. Dartmoor Nationa lPark In 2002.

    Throughout the park there are many A and B class roads. These include the A38 which runs from Exeter to Plymouth, the A30 which runs from Exeter to Launceston, the A386 which runs from Sourton to Plymouth, A382 which runs from Bovey Tracy to Whiddon Down, the B3212 which runs from Moretonhampstead to Yelverton, the B3357 which runs from Tavistock to Dartmeet, the B3193 which runs through Teign Valley, and the B3387 which runs from Bovey Tracey to Widecombe. Sketch Map Of The Dartmoor National Park Land Issues Facing The Dartmoor National Park Unlike many other countries in the world, such as the United States Of America, the government doesn't control the National Parks within the United Kingdom and Wales.

    • Word count: 1660
  7. The Peak District - What problems does tourism bring.

    Particularly heavy wear is caused by sponsored walks and by horse riding on unsurfaced bridleways. Damage and Disturbance to Wildlife Wildlife may be disturbed by the level of use on some of the 200 square kilometres of moorland which is open to the public. Moorland birds (and sandpipers on the banks of streams and reservoirs) nest and roost on the ground and are therefore specially sensitive. Orienteering, mountain biking and hang gliding are likely to cause unexpected disturbance. Litter Litter of all kinds is both unsightly and can cause pollution, damage to livestock and wild animals.

    • Word count: 807
  8. The Environmental impact of tourism is always harmful - Discuss.

    Also the increase in tourism has meant an increase in the long haul travel which is now seriously contributing to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Problems created are going to be more severe in the ELDW than in the EMDW . Many of the tourist souvenirs are made by the locals are made of ebony and the trees are cut down faster than replaced. However tourism has not always been harmful to the environment and can benefit an area where the marine life has been re appraised and is beginning to be viewed as valuable.

    • Word count: 1703
  9. Summarise the impact of tourism on Jamaica.

    I will then summarise everything I have said in the report and will conclude the report. ? Why is tourism important to Jamaica? Jamaica is a Less Economically Developed Country (LEDC), even though it is a major world producer of bauxite, and gains its second largest source of money in the tourism industry. Tourism brings many jobs and money (�200 million); however this does not stay in Jamaica. Tourism is both labour extensive and is economically good for the country.

    • Word count: 1022
  10. The Gambia.

    The development of hotels has had a definite increase with statistics recording around 660 tourist in 1965, than a very big increase from 1975 with over 25, 000 and the latest records show an even larger increase with 112,986 tourists in 1998/99. This is a very large number of tourists considering that the population is only 1,367,124 (approx). The main increase is due to the all inclusive hotels were guest pay one price up front for all their food, drink and entertainment in the hotel.

    • Word count: 928
  11. `How important does the coal trade appear to have been in the development of the port of Whitehaven from 1700 until 1900?'

    Another reason that it was a good place for an inlet is because it would have been a way of bringing business and money to the town of Whitehaven so they would get something back in return for building the harbour. From looking at the harbour I could see that it was quite small, not very wide, not very deep and wouldn't be suitable for bigger boats. This would be a problem for Whitehaven harbour, as by the 1870's steam ships were replacing the sailing ships.

    • Word count: 4700
  12. What is development?

    Around 40,000 children (around 10x the number of people who died in the September 11th terrorist attacks on America) die every day in the Third World! 2 Since President Truman's speech over fifty years, the Third World has enjoyed considerable economic growth, at least in comparison to its pre-war state and some countries such as Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore have seen amazing success. Between World War II and the 1970's infant mortality, literacy and life expectancy improved considerably. However since the mid 1970's, progress has been on the decline and in some cases has actually decreased.3 Most Third World countries have been unable to grow into self sustaining and prosperous nations and have little opportunity to get themselves

    • Word count: 2401
  13. Nature of tourist industry Environment & Attractions: Tanzania.

    Environment & Attractions: Natural- > Climate: Tropical by coastal areas, but becomes more temperate and cooler in the highland areas. > Landscape: Highlands in North and South. > Wildlife, wild animals e.g lions, elephants, flamingos, chimpanzees, buffalo. > Rare bird species- bird watching > Sandy white beaches > Exotic islands > Coral reefs > Impressive mountain ranges > Tropical rainforests > Forest reserves Human- > Safaris > Game Parks/ National Parks/ Conservation areas- make up 1/3rd of Tanzania > African towns & fishing villages > 120 different ethnic cultures in Tanzania > Organised treks up mountains e.g Mt.

    • Word count: 698
  14. How public and private sectors have impact on each other in tourism industry?

    Thus, the second aim of this essay tries to set up the argument of the specific content of government intervention into tourism marketing, policy-making and planning. However, these inter-governmental level organizations are criticized as inefficient and bureaucratic in tourism development project. Accordingly, a set of count arguments would be arisen to debate if these responsibilities were better handled by private sector. Roles and Impacts of tourism organizations Today's tourism has expanded to international level that residents begin to travel to and stay in places outside the host country with various kinds of purposes (as cited in WTO: 1991).

    • Word count: 4119
  15. How important were the oil hikes of the 1970's in inhibiting Third Worlddevelopment?

    This "inaugurated a period of great turbulence in the world economy"2 causing a world recession from 1974-75 which was reckoned to be more widespread than the depression of the 1930's. The immediate effect was that most non-oil producing countries in the third world experienced a dramatic increase in their oil bills which in turn produced deficits in their balance of payments. Statistics confirm how big a problem these trade deficits were, as deficits were recorded to have leapt from $9,000 million in 1973 to $36,000 million in 1975 and total foreign accumulated debts of all the third world nations came to $120,0003 million.

    • Word count: 2612
  16. Outline the key principles of Neoliberalism and its actual and prospective contribution to wealth and welfare in developing societies.

    And their views on 3rd world derive from its continuing political engagement with the struggle against socialism. They also stress that the 3rd world had a kind of 3rd worldism, which contains an anti-west attitude. They seen the west as exploiters who exploits the benefits from the already poor 3rd world, and in some cases, they are right, and these attitude and facts alleged crypto socialist policies of 3rd world government. Counter-revolution was an abrasive now approach. When looking at the policy of the counter-revolution, we ought to see how it views the 3rd world problem, and what solutions do can the counter-revolution offers.

    • Word count: 1467
  17. Successful Property Development.

    He may also wish to sell the completed income producing investment. If he does so and the money he receives from the sale of the investment is more than the capital and interest he borrowed to build the scheme, he will receive a monetary profit. There are many sources of finance for developers but conventionally money will be borrowed from banks to buy the site and build a scheme with long term finance being provided by life assurance funds and pension funds.

    • Word count: 3699
  18. The real 'cost' of tourism is its impact on tourist recipient sites and regions.

    Facts in 2000 showed that there were 700 million travellers per year, 62% of which was solely for leisure. Its importance for national economies is illustrated by the fact that for 83% of countries tourism is one of the five top export categories and the main one for 38% of them. 11 Finally, a more in depth consideration is necessary to determine the, "most slippery concept of all," (Lea, 1988) that is the notion of development. The focus of this work is, 'whether tourism is an appropriate tool for national development', thus it is essential to define development in order to establish whether the country is successful in achieving this developed state that it is striving for.

    • Word count: 4355
  19. Tourism: what can be done?

    We can see that the seeds of misfortune were sown in 1996, when visitor volumes rose more than 40 per cent and Hong Kong became the leading outbound destination. The tourists have caused a huge mess in Hong Kong, such as in the parks, trails and other tourism infrastructures. As Pera and McLaren said, "Tourism introduces a consumer culture into communities whose societies and values may not be based on the economic power of the individual. Tourists' quest for 'authenticity' often leads to a prostitution of the local culture for the demand and enjoyment of the tourists."

    • Word count: 772
  20. The Board of directors of Barclays have asked me to submit a formal business report on Barclays by the 2nd of May. Included will be to analyse of the Macro Environment on Barclays bank and how the environment affects the organisation in the present.

    These factors affect customer needs and the size of potential markets. Some social factors include: * health consciousness * population growth rate * age distribution * career attitudes * emphasis on safety Technological Factors Technological factors can lower barriers to entry, reduce minimum efficient production levels, and influence outsourcing decisions. Some technological factors include: * R&D activity * automation * technology incentives * rate of technological change Source: http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/pest The Chosen organisation is Barclays, Which is a large organisation by nature.

    • Word count: 4031
  21. The issue of globalization has been an ongoing process that raised many questions in the world. It is indeed a complex subject that is examined in many different perspectives.

    Each stage is a condition that all countries experience and as a country progress to the next stage, it is a step closer to development. The first stage is a traditional society. A traditional society has a large proportion of the population devoted to agriculture. At this point, there are no economic growth or capital accumulation. The second stage is called the preconditions for the take-off. At this time, the country has more economic growth, limited social change, but no capital accumulation. Stage three is described as the take-off stage. This is when agriculture is commercialized and new industries appear.

    • Word count: 2042
  22. What do we mean by business environment?

    player got sent off or injured, difficulty in defending, urgency to score, etc. No one can declare a particular method or way of doing thing of organisation is the best. This is because each given set of circumstances requires different solution. Rules and regulation is must for an organisation. Without it, everyone will not be bothered to do what he or she supposes in a proper manner within the dateline. Let us take a look at this example, which is sound familiar for some of us. Being an APIIT student, everyone strictly prohibit the wearing of T-shirt, jeans, sneakers or slippers, as well as provocative and immodest attire.

    • Word count: 1817
  23. "Tourism has a great impact on environments, communities and economies - Using UK examples you have studied, suggest whether or not the proposed development of Carlyon Bay would be appropriate."

    One person's dream house is another person's nightmare." The planning permission for the 511 homes was granted in the late 1980s and the Ampersand Group bought the site, which stretches from the top of the cliffs high watermark, last year. Ampersand claim the project will be "ecologically imaginative" and have a "flowing design", it is also said to "blend in". Cornwall wildlife trust wants an environmental impact assessment to be carried out as the site has rare plants - heath milkwort, bell heather and eye bright yet Anderson argues it bought the planning permission before this was necessary.

    • Word count: 944
  24. How to make a good business?

    A client is our sir! We cannot forget about it. We cannot let him leave us. That is why it is very good to organize competitions or promotions. Happiness, competence and optimism will bring us success and a lot of money. Advertising appeared for the first time in Europe early in the 17th century and Britain was the pioneer. Nowadays we can observe a great development of different means of information transfer. The mass media are connected not only with the show business, entertainment and science but also with trade, the stock exchange and other fields of economics.

    • Word count: 5357
  25. Football - "Good for the economy bad for the environment" Assessing the statement with two contrasting leisure activities.

    Spectators may have needed to get from one country to another as their team progressed through the tournament. The matches were being played in ten different cities all over Japan. So rail, road and air links between these cities had to be able to cope with an increase in traffic. The areas surrounding the stadiums also had to be able to cope with the huge number of people attending the games - over 40 000 for each. This meant that road access had to be improved, and in some cases, as in Shizuoka, a new railway station had to be built near the stadium.

    • Word count: 1525

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