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AS and A Level: Global Interdependence & Economic Transition
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What do I need to know to get a top mark?
- 1 In order to understand this topic it pays to learn which countries are MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries), LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) or are somewhere in between (NICs - Newly Industrialised Countries)
- 2 To understand the current global economic situation it is worth learning more about the past. Study the history of global economic development, including colonialism and slavery, in order to understand the present.
- 3 Whatever your point of view, it is important to recognise that there are positive and negative aspects to globalisation.
- 4 Although this is largely an economic topic, it is important to understand the social, political, environmental and cultural aspects of globalisation too.
- 5 Learn the definitions for key indicators such as GDP, GNP, GNI, HDI, PQLI.
Common student errors that you should ensure you avoid
- 1 Some students seem to think that GDP per capita is the income that each person in a country actually has. It is just the total value of the goods and services produced by a country in a given period divided by the number of people in the country.
- 2 Don’t forget that even the richest countries contain some very poor people and the poorest countries contain some very rich people.
- 3 Just because China produces many industrial goods, does not mean that it is a More Economically Developed Country. It is better to call it a Newly Industrialised Country.
- 4 Some students continue to use the term “Third World” to describe less economically developed countries. This is now out of date and is probably best avoided.
- 5 The wealth of a country is not necessarily based on quantity of natural resources which it has. It is much more complicated than that!
Key global interdependence and economic transition facts
- 1 The USA is the world’s largest single-country economy, followed by China. If the European Union is taken as a single entity, it has a larger economy than the USA.
- 2 Economic growth in China has averaged more than 10% per year over the past 30 years.
- 3 The global economy was by the UNDP estimated to have value of over US$ 60 trillion in 2010.
- 4 The UNDP also estimated that there were over 10 million US$ millionaires in 2010, while more than 3 billion people earned less than US$ 2 per day.
- 5 The BRIC countries are Brazil, Russia, India, and China. They are major NICs which are thought to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development, without yet being classed as MEDCs.
- Marked by Teachers essays 7
- Peer Reviewed essays 2
Referring to both pharmaceutical and tobacco companies, explain how transnational corporations can influence the health of people in countries at different stages of development.5 star(s)
In LEDCs, medicines can be very expensive and in some countries in the world, in sub-Saharan Africa for example, people's incomes may be so minuscule that they may not even be able to afford food let alone medicine. Pharmaceutical companies make two types of drug: branded and generic. Branded drugs are three to thirty times more expensive than generic drugs and so in LEDCs they are out of the majority's reach, but they are patented and their chemical composition cannot be copied for twenty years; this means that should another company wish to reproduce the specific drug so it can be made available at a cheaper price for the market in LEDCs, it is not possible due to the patent.
- Word count: 2086
Accommodation & Catering 37 2. Tour Operators 37 3. Travel Agencies 38 4. Transport 38 5. Visitor Attractions 38 6. Tourist Development and Promotion 39 C3 - AN EVALUATION OF THE KEY FEATURES OF COMMERCIAL AND NON COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS TO ILLUSTRATE DIFFERENCES IN THEIR FUNDING AND THEIR BUSINESS OBJECTIVES 40 E5 HOLIDAY REPRESENTATIVE 43 C4 - I AM GOING TO CRITICALLY EVALUATE WHY MY PERSONAL CIRCUMSTANCES BEST MATCH THE JOB OF RESORT REPRESENTATIVE 45 CURRICULUM VITAE 47 A1 - A THOROUGH UNDERSTANDING OF THE REASONS FOR THE RAPID GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY AND THE FACTORS THAT WILL AFFECT ITS DEVELOPMENT IN THE FUTURE.
- Word count: 11113
Natural disasters and a lack of resources are the main causes of global poverty. To what extent do you agree with this statement?4 star(s)
By the end of the 19th century, European powers controlled 85% of the world. The most well known Empire being the British Empire, covering nearly a quarter of the Earth's total land surface, including countries such as India, Malaysia and Uganda. Colonialism was so significant by stunting the host countries development. Taxation was imposed on the local people, plantations created and raw materials such as crops and minerals, were sent from the colonies to Europe. A good example of this involves France colonising Senegal. Many senegalese farmers were forced to grow groundnuts and send them back to France.
- Word count: 1583
Cold environments may be developed in a sustainable manner. To what extent do you agree with this statement?4 star(s)
Even though the tourist industry has encouraged many young farmers to diversify out of rural and primary activities, many people still leave. Aside from that, the tourist industry brings with it unwanted pollution and litter and also causes footpath erosion. The tourist industry is also a potential hazard to the mountains and villages because the winter sports activities taking place there may cause avalanches. In the tundra or arctic regions, development has not been sustainable either, also both environmentally and socially.
- Word count: 688
The amount of leisure time available to the majority of people in the UK increased steadily up to the early 1970s, but has levelled of since then. The main reasons why leisure time increased up to the 1970s were increasing amounts of annual holiday entitlement, and a gradual reduction in the weekly working hours for most of full time workers. Since the 1970s other factors have had a greater influence on the availability of time, such as: * Flexible work patterns * The use of manual labour- saving devices in the home.
- Word count: 841
Sustainable Tourism - Kenya is in Africaand is becoming a popular holiday destination with tourists and the number of advantages have increased and also the number of disadvantages.3 star(s)
As a result of this the animals get scared. I recommend that they do a couple of things to ensure the safety of tourists and to keep the trips sustainable. First I think there should be strict rules as to where the drivers may go and when, at certain times some animals will become a lot more agitated and may even attack the safari vans. Drivers should remain on the tracks in doing this they are not scaring the animals or killing the environment so it remains sustainable.
- Word count: 1535
People realised that to look at development, people need to look at factors which affect the quality of life; social indicators such as health, education, and well-being and political factors such as people's personal freedom. It is all good and well to say that development is more that just economy, but when it comes to measuring development it is becoming increasingly difficult. Traditionally, measuring development was easy simply using quantative methods, but with many more factors determining a countries development, it has become very difficult to use quantative methods to actually determine developments, for example, how may one apply a quantative method to aspects of daily life such as freedom of speech?
- Word count: 997
There are three main impact areas. One of these is the depletion of natural resources, such as water. In dryer regions like the Mediterranean, the issue of water scarcity is of particular concern. Because of the hot climate and the tendency of tourists to consume more water when on holiday than they do at home, the amount used can run up to 440 litres a day. This is almost double what the inhabitants of an average Spanish city use. Golf course maintenance can also deplete fresh water resources.
- Word count: 919
This led Chinese firms to westernize. For example each work unit had a director or manager with a clear responsibility (a change to the old 'revolutionary committees' set up during the cultural revolution). They also started to hollow out work to improve technological infrastructure and acquire modern 'know-how' which can then be transferred into domestic firms. Many businesses calibrate through this success by the use of Joint Ventures, having accepted more efficient management and business strategies of global firms. Good examples of these are United Technologies and Caterpillar that have been a great success.
- Word count: 1544