What is meant by the term Urbanisation?
.) What is meant by the term Urbanisation? Urbanisation is the process in which the number of people living in cities increases compared with the number of people living in rural areas. A country is considered to be urbanised when over 50% of its population lives in urban places. In the UK the movement of people from rural to urban areas followed the industrial revolution as people were needed to work in the factories in the CBD. It took place throughout the 19th and Early 20th Centuries in Europe and North America. By 1950 most of the people in these two continents lived in urban area. However their urbanisation was relatively slow, allowing government's time to plan and provide for the needs of increasing urban populations, in Less Economically Developed Countries urbanisation serves to be a much bigger problem and it is here where the world's largest cities are. A range of economic, political, social, cultural, and environmental factors affect urbanisation. Government policies in many developing countries promote industrialisation and international capitalist economies. Urbanisation is encouraged socially and culturally through the media, and environmental factors such as the seasonality of agricultural work, may encourage urbanisation during the agricultural off-season. Urbanisation is caused by a number of factors; one example in an LEDC is that people move to the city
For my Travel and Tourism coursework I have chosen Marbella as my European destination
AO1 - Marbella Ronda is a beautiful town that lies within the Serranía de Ronda mountain range 48km away from Marbella at an altitude of 739 meters. The town is split into two different sections by a 100 meter deep gorge called El Tajo and is joined by the Puente Nuevo (which stands for New Bridge). The bridge was built in 1751 and took a total of 42 years to build; this is a key tourist attraction that brings many tourists to Ronda year in year out. Iglesia Mayor de la Encarnacion is a historical church in Marbella that was originally built in 1505, however most of the building was raised in 1712 and is now claimed to be the city's most important church which makes it popular for tourist visits. Alcazaba Wall (Marbella town's castle) and the 16th century town hall in the centre of town are two of Marbella's nicest buildings; these are opened up for visits and excursions and therefore help to attract more tourists to the area. Constitution Park, La Alameda Park and Arroyo de la Represa are three of Marbella's main local parks. Constitution Park which was once a garden of private residence is now used for concerts and plays throughout the summer whereas the Alameda Park and Arroyo de la Represa park are mainly used by the old Spanish locals and tourists to relax and talk in the quiet tropical gardens. For my Travel and Tourism coursework I have chosen Marbella as my
The AutoMobile Irfan Khokhar The automobile was not invented by Henry Ford but he brought it mainstream and developed ways of producing it more efficiently and cheaply. He built his first car in 1896 at home in his garage. Symbolic of the American century to come, the door of the shed was too small and bricks had to be removed to make way for the car but this was the start of a new trend and a prospering industry, which was primed at the peak of the boom. The automobile had come to seem a necessity, rather than an economic luxury. People were willing to sacrifice food, clothing, and their savings in order to keep the family car. A famous promotional quote said by Henry Ford: "Americans can have any kind of car they want, and any color they want, as long as it's a Ford, and as long as it's black." There were also many knock-on effects after the mainstream production of the automobile these are some: Economic Effects of the Automobile: Growth of other industries was promoted, especially petroleum, rubber, and steel because of the new production demand. A national system of highways was created. Automobiles required better roads. After WWI, federal funds became available for building highways and a major industry was born. Created new service facilities. Filling stations, garages and roadside restaurants sprang up. Motels (the word itself is a blend of 'motor'
Changes Made By The Industrial Revolution.
Changes Made By The Industrial Revolution In mid 18th century Britain, 7 million people lived in small rural villages. Farming was the main occupation for workers at this time. Apart from London there were no cities and no factories. Woollen cloth, coal mining and iron were main industries. The years between 1750 - 1850 are known as the First Industrial Revolution. In this period of time, the population of Britain trebled to 21 million people. In 1850 coal mining, iron and steel, cotton, wool and shipbuilding were now the most important industries. Between 1850 - 1880, Britain was the world's leading industrial country, sometimes called 'The Workshop Of The World'. By 1880 USA, and Germany began to challenge Britain and with the industry still growing, now producing cars, bicycles, electrical engineering and chemicals, this was now called The Second Industrial Revolution. In the early 18th century woollen cloth was the most important industry in Britain. But because the population grew so rapidly the demand for cloth was more. The domestic system could not cope with this demand and therefore lost its place to the cotton textile industry. Old looms were replaced by new machines, which were much faster and more reliable. Richard Arkwright's water frame made a huge change in the industry. From now on spinning was to be done at mills (factories) built by the sides of fast
Singapore as a destination for tourism
Singapore Singapore, a vibrant, multi-cultural, sophisticated city-state where tradition and modernity, East and West, meet in comfortable companionship. Brief History As you may already know, Singapore became and Independent Republic in 1965. Going back to the 14th Century, this small but strategically placed island was known as 'Singa Pura' or in translation, 'Lion City'. During the 18th Century, The British saw this island as being very convenient for them to feed, refit and protect their mighty fleet, as well as forestalling any advances by the Dutch in the region. Sir Stamford Raffles soon established Singapore as a trading station. The policy of free trade attracted merchants from all over the world to Singapore. By 1824, just five years after the founding of modern Singapore, its population had grown from 150 to 10,000 inhabitants. Shortly after becoming an English colony, during the 19th Century, its population had grown from 150 to 10,000 inhabitants! Over three million now live in this overpopulated, tiny island. And so that is how Singapore came to exist. Singapore Today However, Singapore today had emerged into a thriving Centre of commerce and industry. Singapore is not just one island, but it is a main island with over 60 surrounding islets. The main island has a total of about 640 square kilometres. In just 150 years, Singapore now boasts the
Is London a successful megacity?
Is London a successful megacity? London, the capital of England is home to 8million people. It is the UK's biggest city on all scales and over 300 languages are spoken within the capital. In 2012 the Olympic Games are to be held by London. London is located in the south east of England. London's population rapidly increased in the 19th century. In this time period the population grew from 1million to 6.7million which made London one of the worlds largest and most dominate city. This meant London was one of the biggest political forces, economical sector and trading area in the world. A range of factors led to the rapid increase of London's population such as the industrial revolution. This occurred in the 18th to 19th century and saw a massive increase in the output of resources especially sectors such as farming, mining, textiles, railways and the electrical grid. The first railway line which was built in 1836 which linked Greenwich to London Bridge was the start of a network of railways which followed soon after which was to change London and the surrounding areas for the better. Shortly after there was a train line to ever part of London such as Fenchurch, King's Cross and Paddington station which are still running now. This enabled huge growth in London and the surrounding area due to better connection routes now available to the who capital. Railways weren't just
With reference to a named country, evaluate attempts to manage population change
With reference to a named country, evaluate attempts to manage population change (15 marks) Thailand is located in south-east Asia, It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Cambodia and to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia. Mechai Viravaidya was a key influence in the change of population policy in Thailand, he came into government in 1973; he recognised that the fertility rate at the present time was not sustainable. In 1974 he set up the PDA or Population Development Association. It is arguable that at this time that Thailand was an LEDC where as now it is more commonly referred to as a Newly Industrialised Country (NIC), the faster transition through the demographic transition model may be a result of the change in population control. It was Mechai Viravaidya's plan to promote the use of contraception (formerly seen as a taboo subject) and family planning in order to control population development. The threat of Aids and HIV also became apparent to Viravaidya and the government; this gave him fresh impetus for his scheme. There were many successes of the program; this was attributable to a number of factors. Mechai's creativity helped to gain support such as free drinks after a vasectomy. This coupled with the willingness and openness of the Thai people allowed new ideas to thrive. The government gave Mechai the resources and support he
Why was Russia such a backward country in the end of the 19th century?
Luciana Machado 3.12.04 IB History - yr2 Why was Russia such a backward country in the end of the 19th century? The Tsarist state inherited by Nicholas II consisted of many weakenessesm, largely of political problems, social weaknesses and tensions, faults in the economy and other factors that all combined to make Russia a backward state. Russia's problems went as follow: The agrarian situation was a something that no matter how many changes acurred, yet they remained repressed and backward in several important aspects. The government in Russia had been bankrupt following the Crimean War and so transferred the large debt to the freed peasants. These debts were made worse by the inflated land values in the black soil and non-black soil provinces in Russia which also exacerbated the high interest payments on the peasants debts. The Emancipation Decrees of Alexander II also caused a stir as ex-serfs still bore a temporary obligation to their former masters until late 1881. Even though there was greater access to lands, the peasants became more empoverished, especially in the black soil provinces of the south where the holdings of ex-serfs fell by about 25%. The empoverishment grew also from the loss of many customary rights to woodland and to common pasture. The virtual doubling of peasant population from 68 million in 1859 to 125 million in 1897 resulted in many people
What are the advantages and disadvantages of an ageing population? What are the advantages and disadvantages of a youthful population? (Use a least one LEDC and one MEDC case study).
Population Structure What are the advantages and disadvantages of an ageing population? What are the advantages and disadvantages of a youthful population? (Use a least one LEDC and one MEDC case study). The population structure of a country is often usually matched by its stage on the demographic transition model. LEDC's in stages 2-3 generally have very high birth rates and declining death rates. Their population pyramid has a wide base indicating a large youthful dependent population. In contrast MEDC's, in stages 4-5, have low birth and death rates and a rectangular shaped population 'pyramid', indicating a large elderly dependent population. There are many disadvantages of an ageing population. Britain within the last 50 years has seen the percentage of elderly people (65 and over) double to 17% of the population and this figure will continue to rise to nearly 25% by 2040 (15million people). As people age, they become more dependent on the care of others. Traditionally, this care was provided by the family, and was not a problem with relatively low life expectancy. Nowadays with many people living into their 80's and 90's, the need for care presents a burden which many families cannot cope with. Increasingly care is provided in purpose-built accommodation (sheltered housing, retirement homes, etc) run by professional staff. Between 1985 and 1995 the number of people in
What have been Glasgow's urban problems
What have been Glasgow's urban problems? What have been the solutions? What are the recent changes? There are various geological factors that led to Glasgow's importance. One factor was that Glasgow was heavily resourced with iron and coal and these are the two main ingredients when producing steel. This steel is then used for many things such as railways (e.g. The Clyde Tunnel, 1963), bridge building (e.g. Kingston Bridge, 1970) and most importantly shipbuilding. Another factor that led to the importance of Glasgow is that it is situated on the River Clyde; a very deep and wide river. These two combined together, led to a large ship building industry producing in Glasgow and many businesses starting up in this kind of work. However Glasgow soon began to encounter various problems. One problem in Glasgow at this time was the living conditions. The worst part of housing in Glasgow was the Gorbals. They were damp, smelly, infested, and largely overcrowded and these poor conditions led on to various other problems such as: drugs, alcohol, prostitution, vandalism, racism, vagrancy, and vandalism. There was also a lot of illness and disease in these slums during this time, mainly due to the overcrowding, because things spread so quickly from person to person. Another type of housing in Glasgow was a tenement; these were the shady side of Glasgow's prosperity and were mainly