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AS and A Level: Production - Location & Change

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Scott Report and the Making of the Modern Countryside - 'How penetrating was the Scott report's analysis of rural problems and what were the consequences of its recommendations?'

    5 star(s)

    The integrity of each has been called into question as much as the Report itself. Questions have even arisen whether the alleged author Scott actually wrote the report. Each contributor's bias, some would claim, is clearly visible in the message the report conveys. Hudson, for example, the Minister of agriculture, wanted to push agricultural issues higher up the political scale. Stamp, the author of many geography book, wanted to promote the importance of topography. Scott on the other hand viewed agriculture as a precious piece of heritage and thus wanted it to be treated as such.

    • Word count: 2147
  2. Marked by a teacher

    This project is about the farming in the Bahamas. Areas we are going to cover are agriculture, subsistence farming in Bahamas, marketing of local crops, and also the result and effects of poor agricultural practices

    3 star(s)

    Slash and Burn Method * Using cutlasses a diminutive area of dense natural vegetation is cleared. The thickness of the natural growth tells the farmer that the soil and water supply is probably good. The plants cut down to stubble, with only larger trees remaining. The remains, is spread equally all over the plot, left to dry, and is then burnt. The ash adds nutrients to the soil. Ash adds potassium to the soil, a mineral needed by plants. Crops are planted in the ash-enriched soil. Although the burning enriches the soil, it has some detrimental effects.

    • Word count: 1491
  3. Case Study of Rural Rebranding by the Forestry Commission in Wales Coed-Y-Brenin Forest, Snowdonia

    This strategy was revised 2 years ago and is always a work in progress. This lasts until at least 50 years, where each new party has to follow this. Rebranding at Coed-y-Brenin and other forest areas in Wales They are a non-profit organisation and they are a primary producer of a primary resource. They are there to manage how the forest is run. These include how much would should be cut, where it should be cut and who is allowed to get it. They also buy more land and plant more trees there, increasing their land.

    • Word count: 950
  4. The Role and Importance of Agriculture In the Carribean. Organisations involved in its development. The role of soils and plant types.

    In addition to earning foreign exchange, the agriculture sector may also produce food and raw material for local consumption; this reduces the need to import similar products, resulting in the saving of foreign exchange. The foreign exchange earned and saved is used to purchase other goods and services which the country needs/want but does not produce. Imported products must be purchased using foreign exchange. In addition to trading, foreign exchange is also used to repay international debt. Contribution to GDP/GNP GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT - GDP GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT - GNP GDP and GNP are means of measuring the national income of a country.

    • Word count: 7924
  5. Free essay

    Summarise the advantages and disadvantages of extracting Alaskan oil

    Alaska also moved from being the most heavily taxed state to being the most tax-free. This shows the economy of the state had been boosted significantly since the construction of the TAPS. The construction of the TAPS also provided job opportunities for the local people. For this project, over 21 000 people were at work at the same time.

    • Word count: 431
  6. Explain threats to biodiversity

    These valuable ecosystems are degrading fast under the pressure of many human activities. For example Coastal development, sedimentation, overfishing, global warming, and marine pollution each pose a threat to coral reefs. One threat to the Coral Reefs is Overfishing. Fisheries in the Caribbean are often open access with few regulations and the location and distribution of the fish can be highly predictable. This means that the Caribbean Coral reefs are particularly at risk to overfishing. Especially in parts of the Eastern Caribbean as there is often more fisheries competing in a larger area.

    • Word count: 630
  7. Stadium report. A stadiums presence has a vast range of effects on those in the immediate locality. Social, economic, environmental and hedonic effects are the main criteria this report will address. My argument follows the lines of there being both po

    Indeed, there are limitations to this method; essentially the fact that most of the data collected has originated from websites of the press and, more importantly, the respective stadiums' occupiers and constructors. This indicates a possible bias in the findings. This method is, however, the only viable one, largely due to the inaccessibility of primary data for reasons of copyright and protection. Analysis Stadium construction generally imposes positive social externalities on the area involved. The construction of the New Wembley Stadium was part of an overall plan to regenerate Brent in North-west London.

    • Word count: 1930
  8. What are the main characteristics of high-tech (high technology) industry? (b) Describe and explain the locational requirements of different types of manufacturing industry.

    (b) Describe and explain the locational requirements of different types of manufacturing industry. India is a location which now meets the locational requirements of the car industry. Ford Company is now manufacturing in the Indian city of Madras. Its labour intensive car industry has become a tremendous job creator and a crucial driver of economic growth. The main locational requirement being a large pool of skilled workers. 0nly about half of the almost 4,000 people employed by Ford India in Madras are blue-collar workers and even they are highly trained. There is a workforce of 10 million across Bangalore, Delhi and Madras working in factories making cars, motorcycles, tractors and trucks - or in sales and service centres.

    • Word count: 1608
  9. Account for the rise and subsequent decline of consumer industries in MEDC's

    The 1960s, or the "age of mass consumption", was the period of time in which, consumer industries saw their greatest growth. This was largely due to an increase of technology and a higher disposable income, meaning goods could be produced for a lower cost and that more people could afford to buy things in addition to necessities. People in MEDCs had a larger disposable income because everyday goods like food and clothes were being manufactured (or grown) abroad in LEDCs and could be transported to MEDCs for much cheaper than before, therefore people could buy these goods for less money (relatively), in addition to this wages in general were rising because of a strong economies in MEDCs.

    • Word count: 1188
  10. Examine the changing importance of transport costs on the location of industry

    Weber explained that an entrepreneur would situate their factory in the "least cost location" in order to achieve "profit maximisation", Weber theorised that transport costs were equal to weight x distance that the product would have to be transported. Weber explained that when a product lost mass during production (for example the extraction of iron from iron ore) then the factory would be situated near the source of raw material because in this location it was cheapest to transport the goods - you weren't transporting material that was going to be thrown away.

    • Word count: 1470
  11. Free essay

    Economics Development Commentary

    Brazil seems to be planning an export oriented development plan where it is going to concentrate on exporting ethanol. An export oriented development plan is when a country chooses to concentrate on exports opening its industries to worldwide competition and eliminating most protectionism policies (polices taken to protect local industries). In the case of Brazil the country is choosing one industry in particular to concentrate on its exports. As the price of oil rises and with increasing concerns over the world's climate, there is a constant search for alternative sources of energy.

    • Word count: 822
  12. Discuss the use of Parathion and its affects on the wider social and environmental world.

    withdrew the use of Parathion in 1992 on some agricultural crops like fruit, nuts and vegetable. However it is now in use to contain pesticide on alfalfa, barley, corn, cotton, sorghum, soybeans, sunflowers and wheat. History of Parathion The history of Parathion dates back to as early as World War II. A German chemist Dr. Gerhard Schrader, employed in 1940 by a chemical company IG Farben, (a division of Bayer AG) was experimenting with chemical compounds like organophosphate, trying to discover a new pesticide, in the hope to fight famine in austere times. He discovered the compound organophosphates, was known to kill insects by interrupting their nervous system.

    • Word count: 1869
  13. Major innovations in agriculture have always proved to be controversial. With reference to recent changes in agriculture evaluate the validity of this statement.

    This earned admiration for India in the comity of nations, especially in the Third World. However this has put many farmers in debt because they had to purchase HYVs seeds for every growing season, this increases the cost of production. The transition from traditional agriculture in which inputs were generated on-farm to Green Revolution agriculture, which required the purchase of inputs, lead to the widespread establishment of rural credit institutions. Smaller farmers often went into debt, which in many cases result in a loss of rights to their farmland. The increased level of mechanization on larger farms made possible by the Green Revolution removed an important source of employment from the rural economy.

    • Word count: 1524
  14. Using an example of an industry you have studied. Describe and explain its growth and decline. Evaluate the success of government policy in regenerating the area.

    The collapse of the colonial system meant that the market for British's coal was minimized. Britain was also faced with cheap imports from overseas and this led to closure of many coal mines. The coal mines in South Wales were not modernized because the valley floor was too narrow for large machinery to access. Without mechanization, mines were forced to close down due to high competitions from overseas such as Wyoming and Australia. By the 1970s there were only two steelworks left in South Wales, but they were located on the coast at Port Talbot and Llawern.

    • Word count: 822
  15. Describe the Changes In Farming in the 18th Century and the 19th Century. Explain why these changes were needed and how they improved the lives of people in this period?

    These men were seen as having triumphed over a conservative mass of country Bumpkins. They are thought to have single-handedly, in a few years, transformed English agriculture from a peasant subsistence economy to a thriving capitalist agricultural system, capable of feeding the explosion of people in the new industrial cities. People started using Selective Breeding, like getting two of the biggest animals of the same species and breeding them to get a huge baby of the animal, and by doing so creating more meat for the industrial cities as well as for them selves.

    • Word count: 825
  16. Improvements made to arable farming in the latter half of the 18th century were the new crops and new rotations and the new methods of improving the land. Charles Townshend introduced a new crop rotation called the Norfolk four-course rotation

    New crops such as turnips, which was introduced by Charles Townshend, r**e, clover, swedes and manglewurzels were good fodder for the animals, other new crops which were introduced were trefoil, lucerne and sanfoin which enriched the soil with nitrogen. These improved the quality of the soil so it was better to grow other crops on such as wheat and barley etc. There were many methods of improving the land such as the use of dung or animal manure to fertilize the land or crushed bones which Thomas Coke used from 1770. This would help to produce bigger and better crops.

    • Word count: 661
  17. Explain why there is a need for world development There is a need for world development because the gap between the rich and poor is getting wider and many lives are lost needlessly.

    There are many deaths that are easily treatable but cause so many deaths in the 'third world'. The less developed countries are poor because they may have corrupt government officials that spend money on less important things such as civil wars and the production of weapons. The money isn't equally distributed throughout the world, some people have luxuries that are unnecessary such as pointless electronics e.g. hair dryers when others starve to death and struggle to survive. Some people argue that we do help the less developed countries by giving them food but this only comes not so often.

    • Word count: 533

    The purpose was to agree on the Doha Development Agenda, and from there negotiate opening agricultural and manufacturing markets. The intent of the round was to make trade rules fairer for developing countries. Negotiations on agriculture began in early 2000, under Article 20 of the WTO Agriculture Agreement. By November 2001 and the Doha Ministerial Conference, 121 governments had submitted a large number of negotiating proposals. The declaration reconfirms the long-term objective already agreed in the present WTO Agreement: to establish a fair and market-oriented trading system through a programme of fundamental reform2. Also, the programme encompasses strengthened rules, and specific commitments on government support and protection for agriculture.

    • Word count: 4181
  19. Evaluate the factors that influence the decision-making process when locating a modern industrial plant.

    Ultimately to any industry, its sales income from the retailing of its products illustrates how successful it is, meaning that a location close to markets is a prominent attraction, with its capital coming into play also here. August Losch's market area approach claims that industries will locate in the place that gives them the largest market and the biggest profit, meaning that it would be better to locate where most of the consumers are likely to be. A specific product's life cycle also influences the decision of where to locate an industrial plant according to a recently devised new location model by Vernon.

    • Word count: 857
  20. Economic Systems

    (b) Examine the causes of the decline in manufacturing employment in most MEDCs in recent years. Manufacturing in MEDCs such as England, U.S and France, has declined hugely in the past half century. There has been a major move toward the tertiary industry in the UK and other MEDCs. Other countries that are recently developed, such as China and Taiwan, are becoming the major forces in manufacturing. Most MEDCs are now post industrial economies, this means that the majority of employment in the country is now within the tertiary or quaternary industries. This is showed with the decline of secondary industries in the UK from nearly 40% in 1951 to a significantly smaller 27% in 1997.

    • Word count: 658
  21. Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages of the use of Fertilisers and Pesticides in Agriculture

    They are also clean and lack the smell of organic fertilisers; and are easier to handle and apply. Organic fertilisers add organic matter to the soil. This can reduce the soil erosion and improve water-holding properties. Also as it is often used as a waste product on mixed farms, applying farm manure to a plant crop is a useful way of disposing of this waste. The most commonly used fertilisers are the soluble inorganic (chemical) fertilisers. They are products of natural rocks; and contain cations and anions in a concentrated form. These cations and anions are the same as those that occur naturally in fertile soil3.

    • Word count: 2844
  22. Critically examine the value of classical location theory (Weber) when applied to modern manufacturing industry.

    He tested the model under the assumption that production and distribution are indivisible and independent of other industries. He then rejects this hypothesis with attentions to more real-world conditions in which factors of location may bring together or draw apart various aspects of industry, for example, the relation of raw materials to labour sources. Anyhow, Weber's model was mostly based upon transport costs, but however it did also take into account labour costs and agglomeration economics (the savings that could be made through sharing). He predicted that industries which experienced significant weight loss during manufacturing, such as the coal and steel industries, would locate as close as they could to the source of the raw material, thus saving money on the transport costs.

    • Word count: 707
  23. In what ways are banks in developing countries different from banks in financially developed economies?IntroductionThe recognition that our world is firmly segregated alongside lines of disparate economic development has been the starting poin

    Here, generally speaking, a different banking sector prevails; implying different rules and modalities for conducting savings and investment. Development banks have been of special importance when analysing the banking sector in LDCs. While pointing at the historical role development banks have played throughout the industrialisation in today's rich countries, this paper will contrast the historical experience with development banks today. Special light will be shed on agricultural land banks, state-owned development banks, and multilateral development banks. By providing some case-studies and examples of these 'different', mostly non-commercial banks, this paper will also try to show their limitations.

    • Word count: 2879
  24. Describe and explain the distribution of farming across the UK

    The farmers have a income all year round as the temperature does not normally go below 5c. The soil needs to be fertile enough for good pasture growth, but not for arable crops. The ground can be Gently sloping. Cattle can not cope with land that is too steep Market Farming: this is the growing and selling of food and flowers for the public. They can often be exported to other countries. The temperature and water is usually controlled carefully by being in huge greenhouses.

    • Word count: 834
  25. How successful was Labour's programme of nationalisation? Labour's programme of nationalisation was based on the concept of state ownership

    However, if Labour had waited many industries may have collapsed before they had the chance to introduce their plans and therefore I feel the immediate nationalisation was the right thing to do. Taking into account the problems the Labour government faced, I believe its achievements couldn't have been greater. Labour's attempts at planning the economy surpassed all efforts previously seen in Britain and brought considerable success. By 1950 there was full employment, with exports increasing and inflation under control. Labour's nationalisation programme bought about improved working conditions in many industries (with money being available whenever the government needed to invest

    • Word count: 860

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of pest control

    "In conclusion, it is fair to say that both types of pest control; pesticides and biological control have their advantages and disadvantages and it may depend on the type of crop or plant that the individual farmer grows that may decipher upon which system is most beneficial to that farmer. Pesticides have the disadvantage of their potentially dangerous and harmful chemical properties which are easily spread, however they are relatively cheap and effective. Biological control is advantageous for its lack of harmfulness to the environment and it's preserving of nature, however the process needs more research and is more time consuming and more difficult to fine tune."

  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of pest control In the world today there is an ever increasing desire to increase agricultural efficiency in terms of producing

    "In conclusion, it is fair to say that both types of pest control; pesticides and biological control have their advantages and disadvantages and it may depend on the type of crop or plant that the individual farmer grows that may decipher upon which system is most beneficial to that farmer. Pesticides have the disadvantage of their potentially dangerous and harmful chemical properties which are easily spread, however they are relatively cheap and effective. Biological control is advantageous for its lack of harmfulness to the environment and it's preserving of nature, however the process needs more research and is more time consuming and more difficult to fine tune."

  • To what extent do the sources agree that Russian government policy on agriculture consistently failed and that peasants resisted it under both Tsarist and Communist rule?

    "In Conclusion it can be argued that Stalin's policies on forced collectivisation resulted in fierce peasant's resistance and led to a disruption in agricultural productivity and famine similarly to late tsarist Russia. The end result was that peasant's households had been collectivised and private land ownership eliminated but it had helped Stalin's goal of rapid industrialisation. This bares strong similarities to Tsarist policies on agriculture examined in the sources. The Tsars, by using serfdom, prevented a large empire from breaking up. However, social and political unrest and the many unpopular policies introduced by the government that did not benefit the peasants eventually led to large scale peasant's resistance and ultimately ended tsarist rule."

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