Issues associated with pest control.
Lisanka Trinidad (1650) Issues associated with pest control Pesticide use is a significant global issue today because almost three million tons of pesticides are currently used worldwide, and wherever there is farming, there is pesticide use. Pesticides, which include bactericides, baits, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, lures, rodenticides, and repellents, are any substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy, suppress or alter the life cycle of any pest. They work by physically, chemically or biologically interfering with a pest's metabolism or normal behavior. Pesticides also have an extensive history with the use of first-generation pesticides, derived from minerals and plants, dating back to 500 BC when sulfur was used to control pests. Second-generation pesticides, developed in laboratories, initiated from the creation of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane i.e. DDT. Helping to prevent malaria, it quickly became the world's most popular pesticide. Entomologist Paul Mueller, its creator, even won a Nobel Prize for its discovery in 1948. Although some agricultural experts oppose implementation of alternative methods of pest control because food production will sharply decrease, alternative means of controlling pests should be implemented because food production will be maintained, drinking water safety will be improved, and overall human and animal health will
How successful was Stalin's Industrial Economic Programme during the 1930's?
How successful was Stalin's Industrial Economic Programme during the 1930's? In the first five year plan the importance was on heavy industries which included coal, oil, iron and steel, electricity, cement, metals, and timber. This accounted for 80% of total investment and 1500 enterprises were opened. I believe that the first five year plan was a failure although there were sectors that were successful. Targets were not reached this was especially apparent for chemical targets. Another problem was the lack of skilled workers which created major problems. In addition to this workers frequently changed their jobs so there was no organisation and this caused instability. Small workshops were squeezed out; this was due to the shortages of materials and fuel and also the drive against the Nepmen. Another big problem with this five year plan was that productivity was very low. There was very little growth and consumer industries faced a decline which included house building, fertilisers, food processing and woollen textiles. But although it was deemed to be a complete failure the first five year plan did bring some success. Growth did occur in some areas such as Electricity where production trebled, coal and iron produce doubled and even steel production increased by one third. The engineering industry developed and increased output of machine-tools, turbines, etc. Huge new
What are the consequences of the different forms of modern agriculture?
Oliver May 28th March 01 What are the consequences of the different forms of modern agriculture? Until about four decades ago, crop yields in agricultural systems depended on internal resources, recycling of organic matter, built-in biological control mechanisms and rainfall patterns. Agricultural yields were modest, but stable. Production was safeguarded by growing more than one crop or variety in space and time in a field as insurance against pest outbreaks or severe weather. Inputs of nitrogen were gained by rotating major field crops with legumes. In turn rotations suppressed insects, weeds and diseases by effectively breaking the life cycles of these pests. A typical Corn Belt farmer grew corn rotated with several crops including soybeans, and small grain production was intrinsic to maintain livestock. In this type of farming systems the link between agriculture and ecology was quite strong and signs of environmental degradation were seldom evident. But as agricultural modernization progressed, the ecology-farming linkage was often broken as ecological principles were ignored. In fact, several agricultural scientists have arrived at a general agreement that modern agriculture confronts an environmental crisis. A growing number of people have become concerned about the long-term sustainability of existing food production systems. Evidence has accumulated
In the old industries, animals or humans were used to power machines.
In the old industries, animals or humans were used to power machines. This all changed in the Industrial Revolution, when they were replaced by water or steam powered machines. The Industrial Revolution started in the midlands and north of England, as they had a good supply of fast flowing water and a good coal supply, which was burnt to form steam. Another change was that in the old industries there were no manufacturing divides, but when the Industrial Revolution occurred, divides happened. Some people were specialists at producing wooden goods. Other people would specialise at making woollen clothes, whilst others would specialise at using metals to make things. Manufacturing consisted of many different subjects, for example manufacturing of wooden items, not just one, that would be classified as manufacturing, which is what it was like in the old industries. In the old industries a 'domestic system' was used, where goods that were made of textiles were made in peoples homes. This all changed and inventions happened, which resulted in no longer a need for the 'domestic system'. Textile goods could be made at a much quicker rate as a result of such inventions as the 'spinning Jenny' or spinning machine, invented by James Hargreaves, in 1770. Other water-powered machines such as the 'water frame', also invented in 1770, led to mass production of cotton, which then resulted
Employment Trends in Edinburgh
Ajay Patel 10G 28th December 2001 Business Studies Project Employment Trends in Edinburgh The current unemployment rate in Scotland is 5.9%. Whilst in Edinburgh the unemployment rate stands at 3.6%. Edinburgh is also concentrating on increasing their growth sector; so that their "3.6%" unemployment rate is reduce. The growth sectors, which they are concentrating on, are, the electronics industry and the retail sector with the increase of out-of-town retail parks. The tourist industry in Edinburgh employees 20,000 employees all year round and generates an income of £350 million. There is also the expected expansion of the hotel and catering sectors, hopefully with an extra 2000 hotel rooms by the year 2000. More brewery chains are also opening up in the city of Edinburgh, producing more jobs and a service for the tourist industry. Even though there is a growth in many Industries, there has been a concern about the amount of employees with the skills to carry out the work in the industries which are experiencing growth. There is also a significant problem with shortages of key skills amongst unemployed young people entering the labour market The government are proposing to create more jobs, and create a more stable and efficient market in Edinburgh. New developments being proposed include: * A £9.5m plan to develop Conference Square in Lothian Road, * A
To what extent did the 'collective' farms of Eastern Europe work?
To what extent did the 'collective' farms of Eastern Europe work? The ideology of collectivisation 1st became a viable policy in Stalinist Russia. The primary thinking behind this revolutionary initiative was to improve agricultural production to a level that could sustain the ever-increasing urban masses. Furthermore the decision makers in Eastern Europe wished to ensure an abundant supply of cheap food was available so that they could control, and keep real wage rates at a manageable level. The collectivisation of agriculture was envisaged by the socialist regimes as the "Ideal vehicle to achieve this objective." (1) The large-scale cultivation necessitated by collectivisation was seen by the socialist regime as a fundament strategy to improve the total productivity of the agricultural sector. Within a short space of time its origins and principles had began to spread rapidly throughout the Eastern European states, until the widespread adoption of the policy became an essential tool for the majority of socialist regimes. As one looks at collectivisation throughout Eastern Europe, it becomes apparent early on that no 2 nation states had identical results from the adoption of this policy. Each State has to be judged on its own merits and individual socio-economic results. Hungary, Poland and Czechoslovakia were 3 infant states that had collectivisation enforced upon them
How are Africa's problems of poverty, hunger, debt and environmental deterioration inter-related?
How are Africa's problems of poverty, hunger, debt and environmental deterioration inter-related? Poverty, hunger, Third World debt and environmental deterioration are four factors that are regarded by the international community as being intrinsically linked with Africa, more specifically sub-Saharan Africa1. For years, the world community were either ignorant to or unaware of the plight of the African population, until such events as Band Aid (I & II) and recently Jubilee 2000 / Net Aid brought the situation to the forefront of public attention. Africa has since become very closely associated in public mind with the crisis of development, noted in a report for the Africa Review Group as "a crisis of government and people seemingly trapped in poverty and debt and in danger of being left behind as other nations become richer and stronger"2. Years of economic crisis have produced disaster with reference to the exports and balance of payments of African nations. Africa is regularly described as being in 'crisis', yet, some dispute the use of the word when looking at the history and contemporary situation of Africa, as a whole. 'Crisis' seems to denote a problem or problems that are prevailing, which are short term and seemingly solvable. This cannot be the case with reference to Africa. Firstly, it is difficult to generalise when speaking of Africa because of the sheer size
Explain why there is a need for world development
Robert Haines Explain why there is a need for world development Is there a need for world development? Often when 'development' is brought to uncivilised tribes, greed and corruption often come with it. People are living happily without want but when Western culture invades them they suddenly want everything. Development destroys local culture when people are too willing to become 'modern'. But on the other hand development also brings medical aid, food and peace, as well as shelters as a defence against things like floods and tornados. Less developed countries (LDC) are normally on the receiving end of disasters, this is often due to the fact that they have not have had the chance to develop in the first place because of such disasters. The disasters that happen in the world today can be categorised into four. Natural disasters like floods, earthquakes, droughts and hurricanes. In less developed areas this is lethal as it often destroys their livelihood. Debt, countries borrow money thinking they can pay it back soon but in the end pay many times the money they'd borrowed. War, which causes not only those fighting but innocent people to die as well, the loss of livelihood, many refugees and the loss of homes. And cash crops, in which countries sell their crops rather than consuming them, resulting in starvation. War has badly effected many LDC's. In many LDCs there are
The need for world development.
The need for world development A lot of people across the world will agree that there is a definate need for world development. A great deal of people live in poverty, but how did this happen, and what can be done? There are many problems which have lead to a need for world development, one of these is debt.Many L.D.Cs have to borrow money from banks to begin to develop. Many countries who do not have money are forced to borrow large sums. This means that eventually they will be forced to pay them back. And some countries simply do not have enough money to pay these bills. Another great problem with being in debt is that the people, or countries who have lent the money, can charge a great deal of intrest, meaning that even if some countries can pay they will struggle with finding money afterwards, finding enough money to start again, without loans, is very difficult. Richer countries find it very easy to exploit the poorer countries. This often leads to a massive economic crisis inside an L.D.C. e.g; Chile borrowed 3.9 billion dollars, within a few years she had paid 12 million, but still owed money. Another large problem is war, often if a country that is an L.D.C gets involved in a war, then they will feel the pressure, more so than countries that aren't L.D.C's. Also the worst kinds of wars are civil wars, as they completely destroy the country in which these people
The Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution In this assignment I will be explaining why, by the 19th century, Britain was known as the 'workshop of the world'. This was clearly defined by the Great Exhibition of the Work of Industry opened in May 1851, held in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London. This exhibition put on show to the world Britain's wealth and inventiveness, displaying consumer goods and machinery from its great manufacturing cities. It showed that she was a forerunner of industry and going through, what we now call, the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution was revolutionary not in its speed, but in its consequences. The century between 1750 and 1850 brought about the age of machines, in factories mass production and the assembly line, industrial towns and the industrial working class. Even though the greatest changes took place between 1750 and 1850 these dates cannot be used to tie down the beginning and the end of the industrial revolution, it was a slow process that took centuries not decades. Why it happened in Britain is still debateable, but the country had ample resources of coal and iron, navigable rivers and canals, an increasing population as well as a growing empire overseas, which provided a captive market for British made products. Each of these reasons reacted with each other to encourage growth and make Britain a world leader in