Geog Summer Assignment- Essay Question 3 Stella Kwok (7) Plantation agriculture is a kind of commercial arable farming in the world. It is especially important in humid tropics with luxuriant growth of vegetation. Its economic effectiveness is always emphasized, bringing both positive and negative impacts. In recent decades, crop diversification is introduced and the ecological balance of the natural environment is greatly conserved. Plantation agriculture refers to the growing of cash crops on large foreign owned estates in countries of tropical environment. It is usually practiced in a large scale with monoculture, in which only a certain type of plant is dominant. Take Papua New Guinea as an example, in the area, cacao, coffee and rubber are mainly grown in the region for export to other countries. Under this kind of farming, there are positive impacts to the economy. Firstly, due to its large scale of operation and being export-oriented in Papua New Guinea, the supply of products is regular and of uniformly high quality. With high demand for the products, this attracts large amount of investment of capital from the foreign countries, such as Europe and North America, thus allowing the farmers being financially able to provide the expensive machinery capable of turning out a high grade product. Benefiting from economies of scale, this enables both the
The Indutries and Energy Resousces of Brazil.
By Alison Taylor Contents Energy Page three Industry Page four The Future Page six Energy resources in Brazil H.E.P The main energy resource in Brazil is hydroelectric power (H.E.P). There are problems with this cheap efficient energy. H.E.P needs a lot of land and a big river, and a lot of natural vegetation is flooded when a dam is built, which mean that the local people haven't got that land to grow their crops on which means that there will be less food for the community. Flooding this land also means that the local people are forced to move and there don't have a say in this. When there built the Itaupu Dam, which is the largest H.E.P dam in the world they talked to, the local people to decided what to do about their houses and land. There are also thinking about were the people will live after wards and there are also thinking about the environment more, which is a very new thing. In 1997 Brazil was the 3rd largest H.E.P produces in the world. Most of the H.E.P dam's are in the south but there are one or two in the rest of the country. Here is a map of were they are situated. Oil Oil is important in Brazil because the other types of energy only contribute a very little bit. H.E.P is the only one, which has really made a difference. But oil does help a lot like in 1974 a hugh oil field was found about 50 to 130 km offshore but even since that
"Organic farming is all very well, but can it feed the world?"
Introduction: It is necessary for the purpose of this assignment to start by defining what is meant by "Organic Farming". It can simply be defined as "farming without chemicals" which is very much the case. The two articles provide arguments of whether organic farming is sufficient to provide sustainable source of food for the increasing population. Two different points of view are expressed in the articles. "Organic farming is all very well, but can it feed the world?" In his article Lawrence Woodward main argument was the ability of organic farming to feed the world provided that many factors should be considered and probably changed. Factors that has nothing to do with the technical aspect of organic farming, but more to do with the recent global system of handling the agricultural economy, e.g. food distribution system, marketing, finance and even political aspects that affect this matter. He sees that with the current circumstances of industrialization and population largely consuming the limited resources including land being used for trade production, neither organic nor conventional agricultural systems can feed the world. In his opinion, we can feed the world if we: - Write off the third world depts. - Stop subsidizing crops (e.g. tobacco). - Create favorable fiscal environment. - Provide access to land. - Develop global strategy for soil and water
The Future of the British Countryside.
THE FUTURE OF THE BRITISH COUNTRYSIDE Nick Everitt, December 2003 (1475 words) The Future of the British Countryside For centuries the British rural landscape has been dominated by agriculture, beginning with Neolithic man about five thousand years ago. Before then, most of Britain was covered with forest. Prior to the Bronze Age (about 1700 B.C.), what agriculture existed was 'slash and burn', with no permanent settlements. The Bronze Age saw the establishment of a more permanent field pattern. When the Romans arrived, bringing with them new species of flora and fauna such as pheasant and Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut), they began the drainage of the fens and British wetlands began to be lost. The Normans found, upon their arrival, that most large tracts of forest had been lost to agriculture and they set about restoring some forests in order to facilitate their enjoyment of hunting. By the Middle Ages, sheep farming had become extremely important, leading to the creation of large areas of open grassland for grazing and, ultimately, to gradual enclosure, culminating in the parliamentary enclosures of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries which brought heathlands under the plough. People lost land and common rights and workers were displaced from the countryside into towns to find work. It was the two World Wars that revived agriculture. Britain's supply lines
What Factors Made Rapid Industrialisation Possible In England (British Isles) Between 1750 - 1850?
What Factors Made Rapid Industrialisation Possible In England (British Isles) Between 1750 - 1850? Many changes occurred in Britain during the period of 1750 - 1850. Consequences of these changes led to what has come to be known as the 'Industrial Revolution'. Rapid Industrialisation was the engine room for such a revolution. In 1750 much of Britain's population were located in rural areas and were in the most part employed in agriculture, by 1850 much of this had changed, by now, the majority of Britain's population had re-located to the urban areas and were employed in various jobs, either in large factories, shops, offices, the railways and other businesses operating to serve the needs of the industrial sector. This shift can be seen by the figures below:i Patterns of employment, income, expenditure and residence (%). 700 760 800 840 Male Employment in Agriculture 61.2 52.8 40.8 28.6 Male Employment in Industry 8.5 23.8 29.5 47.3 Income from Agriculture 37.4 37.5 36.1 24.9 Income from Industry 20.0 20.0 9.8 31.5 There were many factors which contributed to the shift in population from rural to urban areas, coal, iron, textiles, transport and pottery to name a few, they all had a major effect on Britains economy as a whole and enabled her to exapnd her empire and become a major player in the world market. By 1840, over 200,000 men, women and
The Role and Importance of Agriculture In the Carribean. Organisations involved in its development. The role of soils and plant types.
TABLE OF CONTENTS ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE CARIBBEAN Foreign exchange Contribution to GDP/GNP Food security Employment Environmental management CONSTRAINTS AFFECTING CARIBBEAN AGRICULTURE Climate Topography Appropriate Technology Rural Infrastructure Land Tenure and Fragmentation Credit Facilities Marketing Facilities Extension Services Praedial Larceny CLASSIFICATION OF CARIBBEAN FARMS Distinguishing Features of Farmers (According to Size) Large Farms Medium Sized Farms Small Farms Distinguishing Features of Farms (According to Produce) Crops Farm Livestock Monoculture/Mono-cropping Mixed Cropping Mixed Farming Organic Farming Agro-Forestry Integrated Farm INSTITUTIONS WHICH SUPPORT LOCAL AND REGIONAL AGRICULTURAL Rural Agricultural Development Authority (RADA) Bodles Research Station: Jamaica Livestoc Association (J.L.A.) Jamaica Agricultural Society (J.A. S.): Scientific Research Council (SRC Sugar Industry Research Institute (SIRI) Caribbean Community Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI ) Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI) University of the West Indies (UWI) College of Agriculture, Science and Education (CASE) Inter-American Institute for Cooperation in Agriculture (IICA) Food and Agriculture Organization (F AO) Organization of
Changing Locational Factors of Manufacturing Industry In the 20th century the factors affecting the location of industry within the UK changed
. Changing Locational Factors of Manufacturing Industry In the 20th century the factors affecting the location of industry within the UK changed. This can be seen as a change from an emphasis on physical factors affecting the location of manufacturing industries, such as raw materials, to an emphasis on more human and economic factors, such as labour and transport. The growth of manufacturing in the UK began in the 18th and 19th centuries during the Industrial Revolution, making Great Britain one of the most industrialised countries in the world. However, into the 20th century Britain's greatly developed manufacturing industry steadily declined. There were many reasons for this de-industrialisation and it caused a change of emphasis from secondary industries (those involved in the manufacturing of goods) to quaternary industries (those involved with the manufacture of high-technology goods). These new, light industries used far fewer raw materials, than the old, heavy industries of the Industrial Revolution, and they had a much smaller reliance on bulky, heavy raw materials, such as coal. This meant that a resource-based location was not necessary as it was for the 19th century manufacturing industries, which were located close to their raw materials to prevent difficult and expensive transport. The new quaternary industries are therefore not locationally tied down
Account for the uneven distribution of food supplies in the more developed countries and the less developed countries. What can be done by the MDC to help overcome the problem of famine in LDC? Illustrate your answer with appropriate examples.
Today, despite the existence of sufficient food supplies, the goal of feeding everyone in the world cannot be achieved due to the uneven distribution of food supplies. Over 1 000 million people now live in starvation. Account for the uneven distribution of food supplies in the more developed countries and the less developed countries. What can be done by the MDC to help overcome the problem of famine in LDC? Illustrate your answer with appropriate examples. Overall, the food produced should be sufficient to feed the global population, however in reality this cannot be achieved due to the uneven distribution of resources, thus food supplies. In many less developed countries (LDCs in short), such as Ethiopia in North Africa, western part of China in particular, the problem of famine is still their major problem to cope with; whereas in some more developed countries (MDCs in short), such as USA, they food production are in surplus which are even sufficient for large amount of export. Physical factors are the dominant factors which contribute to the uneven distribution of food supplies in the world. The less developed countries usually locates at latitudes with extreme climate, therefore the soil are usually infertile and agriculture cultivation is hindered. In semi desert area for examples, the annual precipitation is generally lower than 500mm which is not sufficient for
Examine the causes and consequences of the rise of manufacturing in NIC's  NIC's are countries which were formerly classified as less developed, but which is becoming rapidly industrialize
Examine the causes and consequences of the rise of manufacturing in NIC's  NIC's are countries which were formerly classified as less developed, but which is becoming rapidly industrialized. The first wave of countries to be identified as newly industrializing included Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan. These countries underwent rapid industrial growth in the 1970s and 1980s, attracting significant financial investment, and are now associated with high-technology industries. More recently, Thailand, China, and Malaysia have been classified as newly industrializing countries. The main causes of NIC's having a rise in manufacturing industries are that companies situate in the NIC because the ground rent is much lower than in their original location and also the national wage is much lower in an NIC so they can afford more workers therefore they can produce more stock and faster rates and greatly improve their profits. There are a high number of workers in an NIC who would migrate if there were a new job opportunity in the country because they maybe poor and need the extra income the transnational companies can offer to support their families. Also there is fewer safely regulations in these countries so the companies can save money and time where it would be essential in there original locations that detailed checks were completed before they can operate.
Examine the changing importance of transport costs on the location of industry
Examine the changing importance of transport costs on the location of industry. (20) You only need to open up a newspaper to realise that the location of industry is changing. Just this week it was announced that Cadbury-Schweppes are closing their Bristol factory, initially cutting 700 British jobs, but with plans to make 8000 redundancies across the group. They are relocating the factory in Poland, despite having very few sales there - the largest profit is made from UK sales (20% of its total profit excluding the Adams merger). Transport costs are becoming less and less important in today's market. For an average product transport usually makes up less than 5%1of its wholesale price, this is minuscule compared to labour cost, and the importance of having the right kind of labour. A cause for this dramatic decrease in cost of transport is an increase in transport volume and a strong transport network. The increase in volume means that a vast container ship can carry hundreds of containers instead of a few tens, thus decreasing the cost-per-container. The strong transport network is manifested as a network of well-maintained roads in both MEDCs and to a lesser extent, LEDCs. Thus, companies tend to site their manufacturing facilities near motorways, airports, which contributes to agglomeration of industries of similar type. In 1907 Weber theorised a model explaining