"Breaking the Chain of Hospital Associated Infection"
200173340 DOME 1005 Foundations of Clinical Practice "Breaking the Chain of Hospital Associated Infection" 09/01/2006 Breaking the Chain of Hospital Associated Infection With the outbreak of antibiotic resistant infections, infection control is becoming a major concern for health organisations all over the world (DoH, 2003). Generally between 4 and 10 % of patients hospitalized in a more economically developed country, such as the USA, the UK or Australia, develop a hospital associated infection during their time in hospital (DoH, 2003). Currently an estimated one in ten NHS patients will contract a healthcare association infection whilst staying in an NHS hospital thus giving the UK one of the highest rates of healthcare associated infections in the western world (DoH, 2003). As well as significantly raising healthcare costs and lengthening hospital stays, it is estimated that hospital associated infections cause 25,000 patient deaths every year (Borton and McCleave, 2000). The Department of Heath (2003) recognises that the use of invasive medical devices is one of the strongest factors that increase the risk of contracting a Healthcare associated infection. This is supported by figures which suggest that 80% of healthcare associated urinary infections are caused by urinary catheters and 60% of healthcare associated infections of the blood can be traced to intravenous
How does dystonia work in the brain?
Dystonia Primary dystonia is believed to be due to abnormal functioning of the basal ganglia which are deep brain structures involved with the control of movement. The basal ganglia assists in initiating and regulating movement. What goes wrong in the basal ganglia is still unknown. An imbalance of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the basal ganglia, may underlie several different forms of dystonia, but much more research needs to be done for a better understanding of the brain mechanisms involved with dystonia. Secondary forms of dystonia arise from and can be attributed to numerous causes, such as birth injury, trauma, toxins, or stroke. Secondary dystonia can be symptomatic and can also occur in association with other disorders such as Wilson's disease. When dystonia is secondary to certain injuries or small strokes, we often find lesions (areas of damage) in the putamen, one nucleus in the basal ganglia, as well as in certain nearby structures. Even though we can see no microscopic abnormalities of the brain in the great majority of cases of dystonia, including those with generalized dystonia, the evidence is so clear in the secondary dystonias that we believe the same part of the brain is involved in all types. How does dystonia work in the brain? Dystonia is a disorder that has to do with the way we move. The control of our movements is very complicated and involves
increase in the incidence of anorexia nervosa is a direct result of the social pressures on young girls to be thin'
Abnormality Assignment (a) Give two criticisms of the 'deviation from social norms' definition of psychological abnormality. Deviation from social norms does not always indicate psychological abnormality. We tend to make judgements about whether behaviours that deviate from the norm are merely eccentric of whether they are abnormal in a pathological sense. Running naked across a rugby pitch, or taking part in a marathon dressed as a giant rabbit may be regarded as strange or idiosyncratic, but we would not necessarily assume that the person is mentally disturbed. However, if someone is walking down the street talking out loud to an invisible person, or if someone insists Martians have taken over their brain, then we would be more likely to suspect a mental disorder. Thus, only particular kinds of 'abnormal' behaviour tend to be regarded as pathological. Another criticism of the 'deviation from social norms' definition of psychological abnormality is that it implies that the task of a psychotherapist would be to ensure that people conform to social norms, no matter what they are, rather than using treatment as a means of improving the well being of the individual and the group to which he or she belongs. Szaszs argues that societies use the concept of mental illness to control and change people who unusual patterns of functioning threaten the social order. Szasz's view
Risk Health and Safety Management.
Bsc Recreation Management Paul Rock Risk Health and Safety Management 022063614 Aaron Noremeberg Managing Risk From a Managers Perspective Week 12, 2004 Introduction: "As leisure managers we are constantly in the position of having to identify risk factors such as hazard and perils. These factors are not always evident or apparent but have to be understood and identified by the leisure manager. In order to create a safe environment in which the activity has to take place, a balance has to be met." Rock 2004 (cover sheet) This assignment will discuss the risk from a manager's perspective, how each manager determines what risk is and ways to combat risk. The assignment will discuss the roles of legislation and procedures in leisure centres and how they determine how activities are run. The assignment will explain the difficulty with managing both individuals without taking the essence of what the individual requires. This assignment will also show how different individuals require different experiences from activities that they choose. It is important to understand what risk is and understand how it differs to hazard, even though there are similarities. "Risk is the likelihood of something causing harm and its likely severity. In the health and safety sense it relates to harm to persons (either as physical harm or ill health). Risk is something that we encounter in our
Reflexology Case Study
Reflexology Case Studies Introduction Client B is 40 years old, happily married, with two children. She has an active lifestyle looking after her family as well as working part time in two shops in the village where she lives. In her spare time she enjoys taking part in aerobics classes. Medical History At the initial consultation, Client B revealed that she had not suffered any broken bones or been involved in any accidents. She had undergone two operations in 1998 - one for an ingrown toenail on her right big toe and one for varicose veins in her left leg. Furthermore, she had a history of migraine, dermatitis, sinusitis, hay fever and low back pain. Before becoming pregnant with her first child 13 years ago, Ann frequently suffered from migraine headaches. During her pregnancy, the attacks ceased and she was not troubled again until two or three years ago, when the problem recurred on an occasional basis. By the middle of this year, however, she was experiencing increasingly frequent attacks the GP prescribed painkillers in the form of Pizotifen to be taken every night in order to avoid waking with a migraine in the morning. Client B has suffered from sinusitis and hay fever for several years and has lived with low back pain since her school days. (The cause of the back pain is unknown, although she thinks it may have stemmed from playing hockey.) She often
Describe the welfare provided for the people of Britain at the beginning of world war two.
History coursework question one Describe the welfare provided for the people of Britain at the beginning of world war two. . The welfare at the beginning of world war two covers many areas such as health insurance, unemployment insurance, pensions and childcare. The first subject I'm going to discuss is health insurance. Health care or health insurance started early on in the century. In 1907 a school medical service was provided which tested children's health and recommended treatment when needed. In 1912 this was improved and children could now be treated for free in their school clinics. During the 1900's there was a growing fear that people of Britain were becoming degenerate. So in 1907 the notification of births act was brought out and it said whenever a baby was born the local medical officer was to be informed to provide a health visitor and provide a health check and advise treatment when needed. Also between the world wars maternity bags where provided to pregnant mothers to make sure the mothers and the babies survive. TB was a massive killer and in 1929 the ministry of health ordered all milk to be pasteurized so that it could not be passed from cattle to humans. From the 1930's free vaccinations for whooping cough, smallpox, scarlet fever, measles and polio. In 1910 a German scientist developed a drug called salvarsan. It
VALERIE ABONE National diploma in health studies Life span development Tutor: Trish Gregory TASK ONE Human development first begins at conception. Though there is physical development there is not much social, intellectual and emotional development involved. CONCEPTION During conception the fertile egg is being fertilised by the male sperm. Then within 0n to one and a half day the fertilised egg begins to divide in to cells. The cells then develop to form an embryo. By eight weeks the embryo grows to about 3-4 cm and now has a heartbeat, starts growing ears, eyes, mouth, legs and arms and this is now known as a foetus. The foetus then continues to develop with all the organs till 32 weeks when it is ready to be born. INFANCY 0-2 YEARS: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: After the baby is born and continues to develop physically. Firstly when the baby Is born they have to learn how to take easily digestible foods such as breast milk and baby milk to grow. Their body organs and brains continue to develop but not so very fast. All babies are born with reflexes such as the rooting reflex which is the babies ability to turn their heads towards any touch on their cheeks, the grasp reflex which is when the baby is able to grasp to a finger placed in their palm and the walking reflex which is when a baby moves their legs and arms as if they were trying to
Research Methods In this section I will be talking about the different data collection methods there are in health and social care settings. I will then talk about how I will be using and carrying out these methods Data collection methods There are two types of way to collect data, one is primary and one is secondary. Primary data- This is technique is used by an individual or a group of people who try to find out information on a specific issue relating to their study. This is a technique that an individual has to do themselves. They do this by carrying out research methods such as questionnaire, observations, interviews and case study. This allows them to find out information from the public which relates to their course. Secondary data- This technique is information which you have not produced yourself. It is used to find out information on a variety of different issues. This is information that anyone can access whereas primary research you have to create yourself and carry out yourself. This data is often found through technology such as internet and news but can also be found in the library and books. Data collection that I will use My research will involve both primary and secondary data collections methods, below I will explain how I will use these research methods in my assignment. Secondary data collection method I have already collected my secondary data
Eating Disorders Eating disorders can change a person's life and affect the people around he or she. People engaged in eating disorders are usually referred to as victims, because of the horrible and dangerous effects of these diseases. Eating disorders are serious, sometimes life threatening illnesses. There are three different types of common eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge eating. There are also two not as common disorders recognized by most people today; they are pica, anorexia and bulimia in combination. One must first know how to recognize them in order to help one's self or others battle. Eating disorders are very common and people should know what they are, what causes them, how to detect them, and most importantly how to help. Anorexia nervosa is one type of eating disorder in which a person starves them self in order to gain and maintain their idea of "perfection." This condition happens when a person is constantly dieting to an extreme because of a mental image they have of their body that is incorrect. It usually strikes women around the time when they are beginning puberty and has also been known to happen in the late teens and early twenties. This state of starvation leads to a loss of 150elow normal body weight. Of the 7 million women between the ages 15 and 35 who have anorexia, 65 percent will die due to the complications of the
p6- Describe ways of reflecting on and challenging discriminatory issues in health & social care
P6 Describe ways of reflecting on and challenging discriminatory issues in health & social care. One way a social care setting can challenge anti discriminatory is through staff development and training this may be done formally through supervision sessions or more informally in the course of day to day working. The manager should supervise the work of their staff, offer advice and guidance in difficult situations and help the workers identify training opportunities to improve their practice. Organisational polices also play a big factor when trying to reflect on and challenge discriminatory issues in health and social care. Organization polices will regulate workers day to day relations with their service users .There should be policies for vulnerable service users, as well as service standards to inform workers and service users about expected standards and equal opportunities. Many service users are reluctant to ask for support and will try to deal with issues themselves. Therefore providing active support requires a sensitive approach. Support can take many forms and it is important to recognize both the forms and the amounts of support that may be required. All of our service users are individuals and therefore need vary amounts of support, in some cases on daily basis. Individuals needs to be protected from harm and allowed access to information. They also need