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Analyse how the nervous system and the endocrine system work together to produce a response to a dangerous situation. Evalute the importance of Homeostasis.

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Introduction

D1 ? Analyse how the nervous system and the endocrine system work together to produce a response to a dangerous situation. Introduction When we encounter a stimulus as an aggressive dog, sensory neurones carry messages to the central nervous system, and the brain processes the information and decides whether the dog is a threat. If they go is perceived as dangerous, the hypothalamus is stimulated, and this in turn stimulates the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for action by initiating the ?fight or flight response.? This response is produced by the nervous system and the endocrine (hormonal) system working together. Nerve impulses (called action potentials) are sent to the glands and muscles. Nerve impulses are also sent to the adrenal medulla (the inner parts of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys). The adrenal medulla releases the hormones, adrenaline and noradrenaline into the bloodstream. The hypothalamus also releases corticotropin-releasing factor (a hormone) into the pituitary gland, which then causes the pituitary gland to release adreno-corticotrophic hormone (ACTH). This hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex (the outer part of the adrenal glands) ...read more.

Middle

An example of this could be if you touched a hot sauce pan, the Sensory Receptors would register the pain almost instantaneously. This information will travel through the nerves to reach the Brain. The Brain understands that your hand is in danger of being hurt or injured in the current position that it is in and then the Brain sends more information down to the other nerves which in turn will tell the muscle in the body to jerk or pull the hand away from the hot pan. D2 ? Evaluate the importance of homeostasis in maintaining the healthy functioning of the body. i) Evaluate the importance of homeostasis in maintaining the healthy functioning of the body. Homeostasis is essential for the body to function correctly. We have looked at how the heart rate, breathing rate, temperature and blood glucose levels are controlled. It is essential to control sodium levels within the body. 1) What is sodium used for in the body? Sodium is an electrolyte and used in balancing water in the body, in generating electrical messages necessary for muscle contraction and nerve transmission, and to control heart rhythms. ...read more.

Conclusion

3) How does the body control sodium levels? Sodium helps to maintain fluid balance; regulates your blood pressure; aids muscle contractions and also nerve transmissions. The body continually regulates its handling of Sodium. When a person eats too much or too little sodium, the intestines and kidneys respond to adjust concentrations to normal. During the course of a day, the intestines absorb dietary sodium while the kidneys excrete a nearly equal amount of Sodium into the Urine. The concentration of Sodium in the blood depends on the total amount of Sodium and water in The Circulatory System - Arteries, Veins and Capillaries. The body regulates Sodium and water in different ways, but uses both to help correct Blood Pressure when it is too high or too low. 4) What are the symptoms of too much or too little sodium in the body? If the body has too little Sodium (Hyponatremia), the body can either increase Sodium levels or decrease water in the body. Too high a concentration of Sodium (Hypermatremia), can be corrected either by decreasing Sodium levels or by increasing body water. If you don?t have enough Sodium in the body you may begin to feel some different effects. For example: dizziness, confusion, tiredness and also muscle cramps. ...read more.

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