Analyse the factors that can support or inhibit effective communication.

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1.2– Analyse the factors that can support or inhibit effective communication.

We all communicate continuously the figure below shows how the communication cycle occurs:


  1. A person has an idea
  2. They code their message
  3. They send their message to someone else
  4. A second person then receives the message
  5. The second person decoded the message
  6. The message is understood

Once the message has been understood the cycle will be repeated if the second person responds. Repetitions of the communication cycle are essential every time we have a conversation (www/

A number of factors can affect a client’s ability to communicate effectively because they prevent or interfere with a person’s ability to send receive or understand a message.

Sensory Deprivation and Disability

Care workers should be alert to the additional communication needs of clients with sensory impairments and disabilities. When communicating with a client who has a visual impairment they may focus on your voice so it is important to use a different tone and pitch when verbally communicating as this aids the client to understand your emotion though the tone of your voice (UK Distance Learning, Page 42).

Physical barriers

Physical barriers are often because of the environment:

  • Staff being located in different buildings or on different sites as facilitating care plans require input from all professionals involved
  • Staff shortages
  •  Background noise, clients using hearing aids will pick up an increased volume in the background noise
  •  Poor lighting or an environment which is too hot or cold can all affect people's morale and concentration
  • Not being able to see the non-verbal cues, gestures, posture and general body language

System Design

“System design faults refer to problems within the structure or system in place within an organization (”. Examples might include an organizational structure which is unclear and therefore makes it confusing to know whom to communicate with. Other examples could be inefficient or inappropriate information systems, a lack of supervision or training, and a lack of clear roles and responsibilities which can lead to staff being uncertain about what is expected of them.

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Attitudinal barriers are a result of problems with staffing. These can occur by poor management, lack of consultation with employees, personality conflicts which can result in people delaying or refusing to communicate, the personal attitudes of individual employees which may be due to lack of motivation or dissatisfaction at work, brought about by insufficient training to enable them to carry out particular tasks, or just resistance to change due to entrenched attitudes and ideas.

People’s attitudes and beliefs can discriminate and breakdown communication.  Discrimination can occur regardless of sex, religion, class, gender, race, marital status, beliefs, disability, sexual ...

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