Anatomy and Physiology

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Unit 5 – Anatomy and Physiology for Health and Social Care              Sharon Thomas


This whole assignment is based on two important point of science, the functions of systems and the administration of medicine. I will need to have a very good knowledge about the human body, its functioning, systems relating with energy metabolism, homeostatic mechanisms in order to complete this assignment.

A human body is made up of millions of tiny cells which cannot be seen by a naked eye and has to be seen through a microscope. In a cell there are various liquids, different shaped structures, responsible for different functions. They do not have to have a particular shape, size or function, but they all have three things in common, cell membrane, a nucleus, and cytoplasm. The cell membrane keeps the cell in control of its own shape. The nucleus is the main part of the cell and controls what to do. Most of the chemical liquids are taking place in the cytoplasm. Lots of cells make up tissues. Lots of tissues make organs and many organs build up the organ system.

Some of the different types of cell in a human body are:

  • Red blood cells
  • White blood cells
  • Reproductive cells (egg cells and sperm cells)
  • Nerve cells
  • Muscle cells
  • Gland cells
  • Bone cell        

P1 – Describe the functions of the main cell components

In this part of my assignment I will be describing the functions of the main cell components and what is consists of. It will be in very detail so it will very clear and understandable. There are three main components in a cell. In these components various things happen.  A cell differs in its shape, size and function. Some cells move freely and some stay firm. For e.g. red blood cells move around in your blood, but muscle cells stay attached to one another. All cells divide, but cells like skin cells reproduce fast, others such as nerve cells do not reproduce or divide except in abnormal situations. The functional unit of life are in fact cells. They form the basic unit of all organs in the body and the body systems

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The functions of the main cell components are:

Cell/plasma Membrane: This is the outer sheath of the cell. Its “sandwich’s” the whole cell. As it is keeps it all together. This is mainly in charge of what goes in and out of the cell. It is often described as moderately permeable. In the cell membrane, contains phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates. In the cell membrane substances can travel in and out through liquid diffusion, osmosis, passive transport, active transport and vesicles.

Liquid diffusion


Passive transport

Active transport

Nucleus: This part of cell in ...

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