barriers to communication
I am going to investigate the difference in social interactions in different care settings, which have service users of different age range.
For my investigation I have decided to go into an educational care setting; this is Redfield edge primary schools reception class which has got children from the age of 5-11 years olds. I thought this was a good choice as in a nursery there might be barriers to communication; as the children may not be able to speak at a good level.
I also plan to also use Capable care which is an elderly residence as a care setting to investigate interaction which are; both group and one to one.
I am going to investigating aspects of the care value base, these are:
- equality in care practise
- peoples rights
- respect for diversity , choice
- Anti discriminatory practice and absence of stereotyping due to disability, health of mind / physical state or Place of origin
- Right to confidentiality and privacy
- Support and help.
Transmission of values also will be demonstrated part of my coursework these are:
- establishing and keeping relationships
- getting to know the service user and showing empathy and sympathy
- Promoting the person to establish and personal unique identity for their selves.
- Indicating awareness of needs (PIES)
- Encouragement to support
- Giving the user choice and preference.
- Respecting the person and respecting their self worth and acknowledging their self esteem needs during the conversation.
I am going to investigate these aspects of the care value base I already knew that these factors will be different in a one to one interaction and a group interaction, as I will be dealing with a lot more people in group situations and it may be hard for me to transmit values to everyone in the group. Also other peoples rights may be compromised as part of another persons rights.
I am working with different age groups as well and they will react differently to the two interactions that I will be doing with them. This is because each of the different age groups have a different levels of understanding and this may become a barrier, age differences between me and the service user.
Before I started my interaction I got some advice on abuse and protection at the two different care setting I got told that the primary school had a document “”, I also took my time out to read a little more about this online. In order for this to happen I would need to make a member of the management aware of the abuse taking place and they will investigate it and see if its serious and if so they will contact social services and they will also record marks of physical abuse and they will also record some of the information that the child has given them. In the elderly home they have a similar type of procedure.
Abuse can be :
- : e.g. Hitting , hurting them on the physical context (*)
- : e.g. screaming and manipulating them with words making(*) them feel bad
- : e.g. stealing money (* but mainly in $)
- : e.g. ,making someone to take part in any sexual activity without his or her consent (*)
- : e.g. not paying them enough attention, not feeding them (*)
- : e.g. denying the civil rights to someone who may be mentally / physically impaired. (*)
- : e.g. the person injuries or has intention of causing their selves harm. Like not eating food (*)
- * - it can happen in a primary school and nursing home
- $ - can only happen in elderly home
- & can happen in primary school only.
One to one interaction
I went into Capable care residence and I reached there around dinner time, I got told to help hand out the trays and check that everyone is happy and eating their meals. As I was walking around I saw a man sitting down and I said “hi”, I also asked about his day and how he was feeling. Later on in the conversation I asked if he would allow me to use our conversation for an assignment I was doing; he agreed. I also made him aware that the conversation was going to be noted. Finally I told him I was looking forward to our conversation. I also kept his name anonymous to respect his privacy. Its part of the Data protection act (1998) to keep clients personal information confidential, although his name is not that relevant to this but the nature of the conversation we might have may meant that he will disclose information to me that may need to be kept confidential. Also Caldecott principles states that there needs to protection of patient identifiable information.
During our brief conversation; he dropped his watch on the floor and looked like he was having trouble picking the watch up, so I approached him and asked if he was okay and our conversation began. I let John pick his own watch up by doing this I was encouraging independence and supporting him to be independent. It could have also become an potential barrier if john had thought that I was trying to insult his ability to do things for himself, he may even see himself being stereotyped which could have affected the nature of the conversation we were having i.e. how pleasant he was to me.
Before I went in to John’s room I made sure that the lighting was at a good level; so his eyes don’t hurt from the bright light or the dim light, it can also be a distraction. Also so he could pick up on non verbal body language, such as facial expressions better.
I also cleared up a few pieces of rubbish off the floor and made some space or me to crouch at his level. So there is no authority figure hanging over him, this also showed that I was showing that we were both in power at the same level in the conversation, so therefore we could have a much more informal interaction but still very professional. I made sure that he had enough space without me invading his interpersonal space, there for she feels relaxed during the conversation. I made sure that before I came to the nursing home that I wasn’t dressed in a way that would make me a victim of prejudice & stereotyping so I dressed and made my personal appearance look as plain as possible. I kept make up to a minimum and I wore a simple pair of jeans with a plan top. I also made my tattoo was covered as I know Muslims see it as a sin to have tattoos done and this may mean that they may not want to talk to me because of this and also to show my understanding of cultural differences and misunderstandings.
I also felt that my age was a barrier during the conversation with John, I found it strange when John said that he wished he was 10 years younger and I felt as though there was not really any words I could say to show my sympathy for John. So I resorted using paralinguistic skills and keeping my facial expression in a way that showed interest so by just smiling and sometimes expanding the size of my smile for a sign of connection between us this was only done when he looked at me and I could not use verbal language to connect with him. Albert Meharain (1960) said that communication is : 7% verbal, 55 come from facial expressions and 38% comes from paralinguistic skills – this is the way that people use verbal communication like the pitch and tone, ect . according to wikipedia, Paralanguage refers to the elements of
I stood about 60 cm apart from John when I approached him as I thought he may feel uncomfortable with me standing too close too him so soon after our first meeting and without me knowing him. I also used a normal tone and pitch of voice at first because John seamed to be very able in his hearing. After the first couple of sentences I realised that john was having difficulty hearing what I wanted to say to him. So I changed my tone of voice and pitch made it higher so that he can hear better, I repeated “My names Kia what about yours?” again for him. Here I made sure that he didn’t misinterpret what I had said so I repeated this in a clearer manner.
Here the communication cycle at this point went like this: I sent a verbal message “My names Kia what about yours” and then John didn’t see and hear – receive the message had to be resent using adapting one of my paralinguistic skills – pitch tone and volume. Then I resent the message and john heard it and understood it and said
“What a lovely name, I never heard of it before, well my names not as good as yours its John”; this is where he sends his own message.
At times in the conversation when John was telling me about his wife and thing that I need to reflect upon I use the aid of silence to think about what he told me and give him time to recover and get his breath back and not get any more upset than he already was by me asking too many questions and invading his right to privacy. I ensured I empathised with him on a level that would not be too much or too little as I had to take in consideration that I did not know him that well to get into a personal conversation with him.
I used Eagan (1986) the SOL ER acronym. I maintained good eye contact by crouching down to John level of eye contact, stayed relaxed and leant slightly towards him with an open posture; there for not crossing my arms. All this meant that John will have a good self worth as he will acknowledge that I am interested in his conversation.
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Maslow, A. (1970) his pyramid of needs goes in the order of importance; these are: physiological Needs – “very basic needs such as air, water, food, sleep, sex”
- These needs would have been meet by the residence providing all of the above needed.
- It would have also been met through me adjusting the lighting and the warmth and making sure that the environment is suitable for us to hold a conversation in without getting disrupted and the nature of the conversation being affected by such barriers as lighting. With these diversity can be respected, individuals rights to choice and also independence can be respected.
Safety needs – “establishing stability and consistency in a chaotic world”
- I think that privacy would be important here as if confidentiality is important and the data protection act can help protect this. This is acknowledging and respecting individuality.
- I have used a fake name for my client so that is rights are protected and she can not be identified.
- A sense of trust started to build up as John started talking about his wife’s death. I am respecting Johns dignity as well.
Need to Belong – “Love and sense of belonging”
- This was not hard as it was a one on one and my full attention was on John. This means that John’s individuality is being respected he was also receiving attention from me .
Esteem Needs – “self-esteem which results from competence or mastery of a task.”
- I try and reassure John that he will improve with his card playing games so I’m giving him praise by saying “am sure you will improve on playing cards”. I also respect his right to independence by saying “I could always give you a few tips” instead of saying to him word by word how to play the game – I even done this during the game by saying “are you sure you want to do that John” instead of making a comment like don’t do that also am giving him choice and a sense of individuality.
Self-Actualisation – “the desire to become more and more what one is or can achieve”
- I think that at the end of the conversation we had one to one we came to the point were the maximum potential of the conversation was reached. John seemed to learn more at the end of the conversation he seemed to have accomplished his need for someone to improve his self esteem by improving his self worth, self image and self concept. He invites me to join his friends and him by saying “It’s like my friends were playing cards again after dinner maybe you should join” showing that his needs are completed from the conversation we had and that a bond between us is established. At this point Johns Dignity, independence, diversity and right to choice is all is respected so his self esteem is better as his self worth will be better.
During the conversation I showed that I was listening (active listening) by doing minimal prompts such as “ uhumm” and nodding, this was only during times where there was a lot of information was given to me and its important for the speaker to know that you are interested. During the start of the conversation I asked a open question to give some structure to the conversation, by asking “What have you done today John?” , this meant that John could answer in a varieties of ways and let more of his opinions and interests out so that the conversation can be perused further. I also was giving him choice to go were ever he wanted with a conversation so it would be more relaxed.
After I had spoken to John in a one to one conversation he said that he would talk to his friends and let them know that I needed to do a group interaction with a few of them in the group, he asked their permission for me to record the conversation; just like I did with his conversation, so then this is respecting their rights to privacy and am also promoting good communication. John’s friends agreed to be as a part of a group and play cards. I thought that it would be better for John to ask his friends to come over and play and be a part of my group interaction as he was planning to introduce me to his friends anyway. Throughout the conversation I made sure that I seamed very enthusiastic about the conversation, so that the nature of the conversation did not get affected by the members of the group thinking that I was only talking to them because I needed to complete my coursework. I made sure that my interaction was easier by making sure that all the people in the group interaction can see each other so that there is less blocking and that everyone can be heard. I also made sure that the radio was turned off so we could all hear each other. I also turned down the lighting in the room so that there was no light going into their eyes to affect the eye contact. Whilst setting out the room for the interaction I made sure that the grouped members were sat in a way that the proximity would be comfortable. I also closed the door in the room we were so that the interaction was not interrupted.
The group that I was having the interaction would be identified as a primary group as it involved a face to face situation where I had to know the other group members. This has been recognised by a theorist called Philip Burnard (1992). I use the aid of a group activity to get the group together and talking, this is called; facilitating. I also made the group into an open group so that it would be best. I made sure that other people knew about the group and where we was I made an announcement to everyone there to come and join us play cards.
R.F Bales (1970) made observations regarding patterns of communication. The Proposing of the conversation is the introduction of the conversation. John had done this by saying “this is the nice young lady I was telling you about”. He is there introducing me and when I asked “John you guys ready to play now”, am getting ready to start the group interaction.
Building of the conversation is when the is forming into a group by the idea and opinions “so what do you want to do….” like when I asked Gerald what he wanted to instead of playing cards which he didn’t want to do. Gerald was starting to show signs of dominating by saying “do we have to play cards again?” he was trying to gain power of the group. Gerald was also disagreeing about playing cards. The dominating of the group seamed to be in the hands of John, this is a reasonable conclusion as throughout the conversation he made most of the decisions about the group like “let’s play cards then”. Edmond and John seamed to be pairing against Gerald, they also seamed to be verbally attacking him by saying things “lets play cards then, you don’t have to play if you don’t want to Gerald”. I was the one trying inclusive behaviour as I felt as though Gerald was getting attacked. An example of this would have been when Edmond said “don’t de-motivate the young girl” and I said “Gerald it’s quite easy once you pick up the” I was trying to talking to him more politely and answer his questions and not let him just be attacked so that he doesn’t feel isolated. I was also showing empathy for him. I was acknowledging respect and diversity, respecting individuality of Gerald and also enabling Gerald’s rights and choices.
Information giving was giving by me mainly like when I was answering questions that were being asked like; “so what do you do at college Kia?” and I answered “I do Maths, Biology ,Chemistry and Health & social”. Some of R.F Bales behaviour of communication did not occur such as blocking which obstacles and difficulties affecting the communication.
It was quite hard to respond in the group as the group had a lot to say even when there were comments or questions directed at me it was hard to respond before someone else shared their opinion the matter. Like when Gerald said “Maths? That must be hard!” and Edmond said “don’t de-motivate the young girl” and it was after that when I had the chance to respond. So there was a lot of active listening involved.
The conversation was not personal and it was more about general ideas and not about personal matters as, this may have been due to trust issues in the group. There was no great need for open questions to be asked as much as there were a lot of people in the group and they all had something to say.
Eagan’s(1986) SOL ER model also related to my interaction.
The room was set out so I was facing the person squarely. I was relaxed and my face showed this by my facial expressions being friendly so I made sure that I looked interested and my facial muscles were not tense and that I seemed interested by using the aid of nodding and smiling (using minimal prompts).I kept and open posture throughout the conversation and it was quite hard to lean towards the group as we was all sat at different angles, so I slightly leant forward and turned my head towards the person talking. Eye contact was shared between the people in the group.
Tuckman (1965) also predicted a pattern of communication that I also think relates to my interaction.
Forming is the introducing of the group and I did this by saying “– Hey I am Kia and you must be Gerald and you must be Edmond.” I also made shook their hands. I also found being respectful to his age.
Storming – this is when there is disagreement about leadership, this happened when Gerald said “Do we have to play cards again?” And he suggesting going out but then John confirmed that we were playing cards by saying “let’s play cards then, you don’t have to play if you don’t want to Gerald.”
Norming – this when a group identity of the group is found. This happened for this group when we all went to watch the TV. Gerald started to fit in more and he started discussing thing on TV, “I remember these 30 years ago…”
Performing- was reached at the as everyone was talking and interacting without any barriers or difficulties.
Schultz’s (1958) the formation of “emotional” stages in a group interaction.
These are the:
inclusion – which is building relationship between members in the group. This was done by me introducing myself.
Control- this is the leadership of the group. This was done when John decided that we were all playing cards.
Affection – this is binding of the group and it’s a positive ending, when all barriers and difficulties are overcome. This was reached when we all watched TV and talked without disagreement.
Primary school interaction
I went into Redfield edge primary school to do another group and one to one interaction. I realised that before I started interacting there are factors that can effect communication. These are: appearance of me, this is so that I am protected against stereotype by the children and to also increase the chance of me having an interaction. I cleared up a section of the “playing Corner” so I could have enough physical space to move around and express ourselves using different postures ,gestures and also body language . I made sure the lighting was toned up a bit so that eye contact would not be a problem. I also shut a few doors to make sure that the noise from the background wouldn’t interrupt the interaction. I also took account of the cultural differences in the school so I decided not to wear any bright colours or anything too revealing and I was careful with use of prompts I used.
I met a little girl called Lucy, (I have given her a code name of Lucy so that her rights to privacy (1992) are kept, this is so just in case any personal Information is revealed by her to me or as a part of this coursework then she will not be traced back- this can be a part of data protection 1988 and the freedom of Information Act affecting protecting peoples safety.) I knew Lucy previously as I was her babysitter. This made the interaction a lot easier as I am aware that young children find it harder to talk to complete strangers as they might have been told by their parents not to talk to strangers. Maslows (1943) Hierarchy Needs starts at physiological; this is means breathing, safety, eating and sleeping. So this means that feeling safe in your surrounding is important.
I approached Lucy and greeted her while bending down to her level. “Hey you okay Lucy? “. I asked her how she was. After doing this I made sure that’s she could remember me, so that she would be more relaxed around me. Lucy was sat in the reading corner reading a book. I asked her an open question, like: “what are you going to do now that you have finished reading at that book.” I hoped that asking an open question like this it would trigger a conversation. This did trigger a conversation as we started talking more specifically and informally about when I use to baby-sit her. It seamed as though Lucy felt really comfortable around me and she felt as though she could retain a very close proximity. She retained eye contact almost all the way through the conversation but occasionally she did get distracted with other things around the room such as posters. I kept her attention by asking her a question. I kept a steady slow pace to the conversation as I was aware that Lucys language skills may not be the best. I used a lot of minimal prompts and signs and gestures to make sure she understood me. I was respecting her right to knowledge by listening to her.
I leaned towards Lucy whilst speaking to her and I was down at her level so there no feeling of power between us, so that the nature of the conversation was not affected by this. I was respected her rights to respect. I thought as I was a lot older than her she may feel intimidated by me starting a conversation with her if I was not at the height as her as she may see it as a formal conversation and me being in power as I would be looking down on her.
I was quite patient and used a lot of active listening as Lucy had a lot of opinions about the different topics we were talking about. She even sometimes cut in to my conversation as she had so much to say. She was not aware of the use of silence in a conversation. This is like when I was going to ask her what happened to her shoes and she walked off and started to look through books.
I kept my facial expression so that it showed I was interested in the conversation, I also thought it would be a good idea not to wear light/ pale foundation to make my skin look paler than it is. Through the conversation my skin tone was at its normal tone so it didn’t go any colour like red; to show that I was feeling shy or hot, or even signs of that I was uncomfortable in this conversation, although I couldn’t really keep this under control, I just made sure it wasn’t too hot in the room. I kept smiling at her so she didn’t feel intimidated. My facial muscles were relaxed and there were no tense spots. I expressed a lot non-verbally to her; like when I opened my mouth up wide to show how shocked I was at how good she had drawn her picture.
I used some silence to think about what she said and give her more time to make a conversation with me, this is promoting communication and thinking about her as an individual and she may not be able to respond as fast as most people but that does not mean that I should take over the conversation.
I noticed that the conversation that I had with Lucy was fairly short and she was in control of the conversation
There were 3 children involved in this is
all of which their names have been changed due to confidentiality reasons. These were Lucy, Frankie and Pat. This took place by the swings with the children where they were playing by the round about.
As they was all sitting on the roundabout I thought it would be a good idea to talk to them all whilst they were sitting there in a circle and they were all facing each other. They all said it was okay for me to talk to them and use it for my coursework but I thought it would be a good idea to also ask the school teacher to ask their parents permission in the morning when they were dropping them off in the morning. This is because they may have not understood what I said to them.
Frankie was from Pakistan and wearing her cultural wear, I made myself aware of her cultural differences she may have as a Muslim, like any topics would be unsuitable to talk to her about ie: eating pork. So then this will make her feel isolated in the conversation as she could not relate and she may feel though as she’s not being respected. I was respecting her right to individuality and respect; I was also acknowledging beliefs and identity.
I also at different points in the conversation as the children was getting things wrong I made no effort to correct these. As I thought this would lower their self esteem in front of the other children. Like when Frankie said “I wanna swings“, which in this case she was using the wrong use of grammar but I just let her carry on. This was transmitting values by respects her right to dignity.
During the conversation Schultz (1958) model of patterns of group communication emerged. The Inclusion is the making of the group this happened when I called everyone and said lets play a game and I respected their right to choice by not suggesting to play a game instead they all did, this was the use of a open question “ what do you want to play guys “. Frankie Pat and Lucy gathered and we started to throw a ball between us. To create interest I varied the speed of throwing. The control was maintained by me telling everyone what to do. There was some affection at the end where they all said what bit they enjoyed the most, but really I didn’t feel affection would have been reached if I wasn’t there as there were some disputes. Like when pat didn’t want to throw the ball at Frankie as he said he didn’t like her. I didn’t think that Tuckmans (1956) communication theory relates to the group situation as well, as its basically the same but the norming – a culture appearing and performing – when they all work together as part of a group, these didn’t really happen in my group situation, as there was many arguments at the end of the conversation. Although I had to be careful as there could have been a debate between autonomy of choice and respect among peers.
The group I was in seemed more like a primary group Philip Bunard (1992), as we met and interacted informally. The group was pretty much open anyone could come in and play catch but the rest of the children were busy playing catch and as Pat had fallen over he didn’t want to play catch and by respecting his right to choice and independence I came up with another game that he could play and the other two children decided that they wanted to play as well this was promoting and enabling choice.
During the conversation I found it hard using the aid of proximity, minimal prompts as the conversation was very fast pace, the children often interrupted each other which then caused a dispute among them. I found that active listening was key skill as I didn’t talk a lot during the conversation. I didn’t think that the children used silence to give another time to understand what was being said, so therefore they seamed to follow each other opinions more without having opinions of their own. Like when pat suggested that we should play catch and the other two followed his idea. The rhythm of the conversation wasn’t really in my hands although I did have the power in the group as I was older then them.
I also couldn’t use the SOL ER Egan (1986) communication theory affectively. This is facing the person squarely was hard as there were more than one of them and also in a game situation it wasn’t that easy. The leaning towards the person came naturally if I was throwing the ball at them. But if I wasn’t it would have meant that I wasn’t facing the person or even having eye contact with them as I was talking to them but they would know that I was talking to them as I would refer to them by their name and looked at them every time I wasn’t throwing the ball. It was not possible for me to reach down to the children’s level as I was playing the game which meant that I had the power and I was looked up on which gave me the natural leadership; like when I told pat off for saying that he didn’t like Frankie. I was relaxed through the conversation and my posture was open. I did think that the nature of the conversation might have been affected by this, slightly but I found it hard to have a conversation with the children as their eyes would wonder and they did seam a bit uncomfortable with face to face and looking into the eyes so I think it was better this way.
So the communication cycle went like so; the message was sent and the person heard and saw it but the message was not understood properly like what it meant they would be doing. But although the message was not understood like when pat said that he wanted to play catch, the other girls said yes without a having time to think. I could tell this by after the game started them saying they didn’t like the game. I think though pat understood properly as he was the one thinking and not following any one else’s idea.
I also think that the children found it hard to play as social players. It seamed to follow Parten’s (1932) patterns of play theory.
This was because all the children at first were unoccupied and then I called them out and said gather around to play a game, then the children who seamed interested gathered around and played games but the other children stayed and did what they were doing. Lucy and Frankie were playing on their own this is the solitary phase. They started to join in and they wanted to play as part of a co operative play but I think this failed as their language skills and other factors such as emotional needs. The children somewhat followed Patern’s view but he suggested that children will also be co operative playing successfully but it seamed that the children I was working with did not show this pattern but according to Smith (1978) he said that not all children will show this pattern and it very much carries from individual. But all children will be able to solo play, they will also try to start a conversation group or one to one interactions. But they will not necessary play co operatively. At the end of the group conversation although the children seamed to be talking and bonding well it seemed that they was some hope in them co – operate playing soon as when they were talking they seamed to be giving their idea of the time they have had and talking in a co – operative manner.
- I think that the general nature of the conversation between the groups to one to one was different. At the residents home on a one to one interaction with John was more specific to him and his emotional and social needs, and he also felt more comfortable in expressing himself and me. Talking about his wife and her death, its seamed if there was some one there it meant that maybe he would have felt embarrassed.
- I had to be careful with proximity and eye contact and my paralinguistic skills (Lyons 1972) as in a one to one interaction, with John; more of a personal interaction and the person in the conversation needs to feel comfortable in order for him to achieve his physical needs in the communication; Maslow (1943) hereditary needs. It meant that with Johns one to one interaction I was more closer to him and leant towards him more but with the one to one with Lucy I was not as to her and I think that it would of made her feel uncomfortable if I was too close to her.
- As part of a group it was much more difficult to have an interaction amongst the group and sometimes not all of your social needs would be met. You couldn’t transmit values to all of the people in the group as it got hard as debates and disputes took place and one person right of speech and right to individuality and right to express them selves would get in the way of someone else’s right to respect. Like when Pat said that he didn’t like Frankie although it was his right to say that he was disrespecting Frankie so therefore I could not respect his right to choice fully. I didn’t praise Pat anymore and did not offer him my attention and I made him feel as though what he done was wrong by telling him off but I still kept him as part as the group as I didn’t want his self of esteem to drop.
- I found it much more challenging interacting with a group of children as their attention span seemed to be very low and as soon as something did happen their minds seem to wonder off and the topics that came up during the conversation were very random and almost unexpected. Like when Frankie randomly asked “why can’t sand be eaten?” This normally would be okay if there it was a one to one interaction but then as there were 3 of them it meant that I couldn’t really move off the topic we were talking about in detail and persue the new topic more. It just meant that the children interaction was a lot harder for me as it felt that my rights in the conversation about what to talk about were being abused. At some point I found it hard to bring myself down to the children’s level and respect them for what they were doing and saying as sometimes the things they talked about did not sema to make ence and they kept changing their minds; like when Frankie was saying she wanted to play Monster then she said swings and then slides and then catch, the children were influenced by the primary socialisation, .i.e. friends.
- In a group situation there is a lot of opinions and idea that everyone wants to let out so it may mean that there will be a lot of active listening and there may even be debates over the people who don’t want to listen so it causes more disputes, and also not everyone in the group may have the same ideas and opinions about different topics so having a interaction with a group can be difficult, as a common ground needs to be found with all the people in the group and sometimes that common ground is not there and people in the group can get isolated and left out as the group might not be for them this may cause withdrawal.
- With the young children it was important that they had a person watching over them in a group. I don’t think that the children would have been able to play nicely catch if they was playing alone although in the group I was in pat seemed to make the decisions I seemed more in power of the group then pat I was looked upon and respected highly. I think this is because children are more egocentric and they seam to think about their selves more than what they think about the others around them. The children required activities that were “fun” and very physical in order to keep them in a group and sometimes like in the group conversation I had in the nursery when the children did not want to play together they didn’t see any reason to communicate casually, although they did seam to communicate when they needed something or wanted to make a remark ( in this case it meant they was talking to everyone not just one person)
- Throughout both of the group interactions; eye contact, the pitch and tone of my voice had to be adjusted depending on who I am talking to, this was just respecting their rights to individuality. With the children sometimes I had to use a lot of hand signs and gestures to make them understand what I was talking about. In the group interaction with the elderly I had to be more aware of what I was saying as they seam to be more selective in what they talked about and not just random as the children, I also had to talk much more formally to the older people as I didn’t want to come across as rude or disrespectful.
Secondary and primary sources of information have been used to complete my assignment. The primary sources of information came from the care settings and secondary was fromrists and other people work.
I felt as though I didn’t really want an observer taking notes and watching over the interaction as that would affect the interaction. I also didn’t want to make use of electrical devices such as the tape recorder or note taking myself. I thought all of this would affect the conversations I was having, so I decided to stop after each interaction and write everything up. During the interaction if I felt as though I was going to forget bits I did take a few bullet points of notes. This may have meant some detail would be lost but this is only specific detail and the story line of the conversation will still remain. The witness statements will confirm the outlines of the conversation too.
Four different interactions in a 2 different settings of clients which were of two different age group where assessed and analysed by me. The two groups were children and older age people.
The different age groups made me use different skills that I have such as changing the pitch and tone of my voice is a skill that I could have only showed with older aged people as children’s hearing will be good anyway. I had to also avoid trying to sound patronising to the older people. As this may of meant that may of thought I was prejudicing them.
Signing, Braille and electronic communication technology I.e. phones where not used in these interactions as it wasn’t the purpose of the interactions, it was more of an interpersonal interaction. There was no significant barrier to care just that it was hard to communicate with children due to their level of understating and language skills.
I have shown great understating of the care value base and use of secondary information and translating it to the best of my ability to make it relate to my work. I felt as though I didn’t put anyone of risk throughout this assessment as their confidentiality was respected fully throughout the assessment.
A wider range of sources could have been used if there was more time to pursue this communication assessment. I could have done more in depth research about the places I was going to so I could have predicted the barriers that cam up. I could have also done more research on theorist to gain understanding and knowledge to why the communication went the way it did so I could increase my knowledge of communication behaviour.
Before the communication I had discussed any barriers that could of occurred at both of the settings at the school I had been told that one of the children had ADAH so he was very hyperactive so I should be careful if I was to get into an conversation with him, so that his rights will not be abused just because of an misunderstanding.
It’s important to use the care value base whilst communicating with the young children and the elderly people, as in elderly people they will feel abused and children might regress and feel unwanted if their needs are not considered carefully.
If the service users rights that are being communicated, to are not shown the care value bases and the transmitting of them.
Throughout my conversation I have considered:
- personal space
- pitch, tone, pace , and rhythm
- body language
- active listening skills including minimal prompts
- the appropriate volume
- enough touch
- the language and vocabulary depending on the users level of understanding
All of these will help me build a good relationship with my service user and also to transmit some of the care value base by respecting their rights to individuality and this is done by me not treating all the service users the same and amending the way I talk when talking to different people.
I found that when I was talking to John and the elderly people it meant I may had to talk a little louder as there were quite a lot of noise to overcome in the background there was also the people who were in the halls shouting and talking quite loudly that I found interfered with the conversation. It was even worse the fact that they were old and some of them had hearing and vision impairments which meant that I couldn’t communicate with them efficiently. Sometimes I was worried that things I said in the conversation were not understood and that maybe they were getting the wrong impression, which could end up in a debate or maybe misunderstanding which could end up in hurt feelings.
I also felt that there were some barriers when I went to the playground and there was a little girl called Sam who was socially excluded when I was doing my activity as she was not happy about something but as she was Indian and she couldn’t talk English it meant that she could not get her point across, she started being abusive to the teachers. The teachers just left her in one corner as she was being a risk to herself and other people by throwing toys around. They rang her mother and she picked her up. This was an example of a language barrier that could not be solved in any way she was upset as people couldn’t understand her point and she felt as her rights were being abused. The teachers and people around her didn’t want to help her as she was physically and verbally being abusive by throwing things and screaming. It related to (Boazman 1999 ) “ my identity had been snatched away and in its place was a person I no longer recognised “.
I found the age difference between me and the children meant that in the group conversation I could not hold a conversation as there will be debate between them. The children were full of energy and were constantly running around for no reason and there was no order into the conversation. The children also seamed to want to play different games but they did all agree to play “monster” at one point but they couldn’t play “monster” as they kept falling over as the play ground was wet. This is where the physical barriers started to arise and the problem with a safe space for the children to play and express their selves without getting hurt aroused. The children couldn’t even go into the halls and play as there was not sufficient staff to watch and supervise the children on that particular day. It just meant that we could not carry the conversation for that long and the length of the conversation was very short. The children couldn’t find a common ground to start a good communication with and they found it hard to compromise.
There was also a time barrier it just meant that I wasn’t there to bond with them for a long and coming into the care setting I may seam as though I am invading their space. Although I gave myself enough time to listen but I had to be in and out of the placement by a certain time, due the closing and opening times. I had to stop the conversation with Gerald and John in the nursing home and it meant that it didn’t have a natural ending to it, which may leave them feeling as though I wasn’t making time for them.
In both of the communications that involved a group I felt that the problem with time to negotiate aroused as every time I wanted to say something there was a chance for me to get interrupted and therefore forget what I was saying.
The care value base will mean that the care value bases can be promoted in a positive way.
I also felt it was important to get myself familiar with the service user but I didn’t think talking to one of the carers about the child I was talking to I felt it was important to get familiarise myself with the users as much as they allowed me to get to know them, so this way there would be no misunderstanding during the conversation about invading the users privacy. This is also part of the care value base and I was transmitting values by doing this.
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION (community) EXERCISE 8th February Jerry L. Hampton 1994-2005
Health and social care Mark Walsh London 2005
on 9th of February home office, UK.
10 February alan chapman 2004-2006; Businessballs 1995-2006
10th of February
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Child Development, Vol. 51, No. 3 (Sep., 1980), pp. 873-878 The Strategic Use of Parallel Play: A Sequential Analysis
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Boazman.s (1999) “ inside aphasia, in M corker and S French (eds)Disablity discourse Buckingham: open university press.
Here's what a teacher thought of this essay
This is a good essay but I do not feel that it meets the title, which is about the care value base and promoting it within a workplace. The writer discusses some interaction and has included some excellent theory. However, it focuses around communication, which is not what the care value base always is. There are lots of places where the essay could be extended with further explanation. To discuss the care value base, I think that the writer would have to consider the wider environment and not just a conversation. ****