Clinical Chemistry Revision questions
37. List the lab tests for the following profiles:
38. What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative test results?
Quantitative= a number value
Extra Clinical Chemistry Review Questions # 2
- Define atoms and matter.
Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. The atom Is the basic unit of matter
- What is the difference between atomic mass and atomic number?
Atomic number: number of protons
Atomic Mass: Protons and neutrons
- What is an organ profile? Give two examples.
Tests to check specific organ function. Ex/ Liver profile, cardiac profile
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- Name 6 types of patient samples that would be tested in Clinical Chemistry.
Serum, urine, stool, sweat, plasma, CSF, cardiac profile
- Which shell is the important factor in how an atom will react chemically?
Outer orbital, when it is full (8) it is stable, the less full it is the more reactive the element
- Define molecules.
More than one of the same element; C3
- Describe the difference between an element and a compound.
Element is one atom, where a compound is several different atoms together
- List the three most common elements in the body. Give the percentage concentration of each.
Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen
- Define: Atomic Number
Number of protons
- Define isotope. Explain what a radioactive isotope is.
Same atomic number, different atomic mass (same number of protons, different number of neutrons)
- Describe the difference between ionic and covalent bonding.
Ionic: donating, or accepting
- Describe the 3 states of matter and how conversion from one to another is accomplished in the laboratory.
Solid, liquid, gas
- What is the “Universal Solvent”?
- Define electrolyte and give several examples.
Substance that dissociates into cation and anions
NaCl🡪 Na+ + Cl-
- Define acid, base and salt.
Acid has H+
Base has OH-
Salt has neither
- Define pH and how the pH scale works and what a buffer does.
Power of hydrogen
A buffer maintains the pH of a solution
- Explain the difference between organic and inorganic chemistry.
Organic contains C-C C-H C-O bonds, inorganic chemistry does not contain those bonds
- What are proteins? What are they made of? How are the “building blocks” of protein held together?
Proteins are made of CHON and held together by peptide bonds
- What are amino acids?
Building blocks of proteins
- What are RNA and DNA composed of? What is the difference between them?
A 5-C sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous bases,
DNA contains thymine, RNA contains Uracil
- List four lipids. List the physical properties of lipids. List the functions of lipids.
Steroids, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Triglycerides
- What is the chemical structure of steroids? List examples of steroids
Lipid🡪 cholesterol. Testosterone, GH
- Carbohydrates are composed of what elements? Describe and give examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides: one sugar glucose
Disaccharide: 2 sugar, galactose
Polysaccharide: many sugars, glycogen
- What is cellulose?
- What is glycogen?
Many glucose molecules stored together in the liver
- Describe the two reactions that are used in metabolism. How do they differ?
Anabolic: build up🡪 uses dehydration to build bonds
Catabolic: breakdown🡪 requires addition of water to break bonds
- What are enzymes? What affects enzymatic activity? What are enzymes usually made of?
Functional proteins that catalyze chemical reactions
- What would happen if enzymatic activity stopped?
There would be no metabolism and the cells would eventually die
- What is ATP? What is ADP?
ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
ADP: Adenosine Diphosphate
- What is glycolysis?
Anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid and 2 ATP in the cytoplasm
- Where is ATP made?
In the mitochondria
- Where does the Citric Acid Cycle take place and is it anaerobic or aerobic?
Aerobic in the mitochondria, turns pyruvic acid into 36ATP during Kre