Describe physical, intellectual, emotional and social development throughout life stages.

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Describe physical, intellectual, emotional and social development throughout life stages (P1)

Describe the potential influences of five factors on the development of individuals. (P2)

The five factors that have a potential influence on the development of individuals are:-

  • Genetic factors
  • Biological factors  
  • Environmental factors
  • Socio-economic factors
  • Lifestyle

Genetic factors is what an individual will in inherit form both parents and form the individuals set of genes and characteristics. This factor is also responsible for genetically inherited traits and condition such as Down’s syndrome and Sickle-Cell Anemia.

Down’s syndrome is a genetically inherited syndrome which is a chromosomal disorder caused by having an extra chromosome. The effect of Down’s syndrome can develop at birth or sometimes not until adulthood and can vary widely depending on each individual. Small ears, broad hands, small eyes short fingers and poor muscle tones are some of the signs and characteristics that the individual might have from birth which indicates they have Down’s syndrome. Common Down syndrome effects can include:

  • Thyroid problems
  • Hearing disabilities
  • Congenital problems
  • Sight difficulties
  • Seizure disorders
  • Bone, muscle, nerve or joint issues
  • Cancers such as leukemia
  • Problems with the immune system
  • Delay of development
  • Mental retardation
  • Alzheimer’s disease

Also Varying degrees of intellectual impairment may result from Down syndrome. This may affect attention, memory, abstract thinking, problem solving and generalisation skills and the ability to grasp concepts, or processes that can not be directly experienced through the senses. Also generalisation - the ability to apply what has been learned to new situations – is areas that present the greatest learning difficulties.

Because of the communication problems discussed above, people with Down syndrome may have difficulty taking about things that make them sad or angry and frustrated and can develop depression. Major life changes such as loss or separation may prompt decreases in appropriate behavior at school or work.

People with Down syndrome may have many barriers to effective communication. The receptive language skills of children with Down syndrome - how well they understand what is being said - are often much stronger that their expressive language skills - how well they can say it. In tern this can effect their social development as they find it difficult to interact with others. Also their emotional problems can lead then in becoming unconfident in interacting with other and their for stay social isolated.

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Sickle-Cell Anemia is genetically inherited lifelong diseases were the individual has taken the sickle-cell gene from both parents. A person with sickle-cell C shaped red blood cells witch because of this have abnormal hemoglobin and are unable to move easily through the blood vessels. This causes serious pain to the individual and also can lead to serious infection and organ damage.  Some of the symptoms include:-

Pain: The sickle-shaped red blood cells are sticky and have trouble passing through small blood vessels in the body. The cells get stuck, clump together, and block ...

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

This is essentially a child development essay that focuses on the nature nurture debate. The writer has fallen into the common trap of discussing but not always applying the discussion to development. There are some errors - particularly in the Nature/Nurture section but they could be easily rectified with a little more research. It could be enhanced by more application and a case study. ****