Describe the cause of infection- infection prevention and control

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P1- Describe the cause of infection
Infection is caused by micro-organisms which are everywhere i.e. skin, air, dust, water. They normally occur when body tissues are invaded by an infectious agent, such as micro-organisms (organisms that can only be seen through a microscope)for example, bacteria, viruses and fungi) and parasitic organisms (such as lice and mites). Pathogens are also a kind of infectious agent that are capable of causing disease and the toxins that they produce cause the signs and symptoms that we associate with and infectious illness for example headache, vomiting, feeling faint. (Michie.V, Baker.L, 2008).

Pathogenic organisms are a type of organisms that can cause human diseases. They vary in size and type. They types that I am going to be talking about are; bacterial, viral, fungi and parasitic organisms.

Non- pathogenic organisms are also called normal floras. They are a type of micro-organisms offer protection for the body and they do not cause any harm. The main role of the normal floras is to prevent pathogens (organisms that cause disease) from reproducing or multiplying in certain areas of the body, therefore helping the body to stay healthy and fight infection. (Ayling.P, 2007)

A single bacterium is about one-thousandth of a millimetre long. They have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Due to the structure and properties of bacteria, they can survive and multiply. Nutrients are absorbed through the cell wall and waste products are excreted in the same way. These waste products of bacteria can be referred to as toxins in some cases, and it is these which cause people to feel ill, such as causing them to vomit. In order to stop these bacteria spreading in certain places, such as care homes and hospitals, safe hygiene has to practiced and maintained at all times. (Ayling.P, 2007)

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an example of a disease which is caused by pathogenic bacteria. It is a condition which affects the lungs and it is cause by a bacterium called mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB Most commonly affects the lungs, however it has also been known to affects other parts of the body, such as lymph nodes, bones, joints and kidneys. In some cases it can also cause meningitis (a disease (caused by the organism Neisseria meningitides) which causes an inflammation of the lining of brain). With effective treatment of 3-4 antibiotics for a period of six months (or more depending on ...

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