Diaphragm is sheet of muscles that lies across the bottom of the chest cavity and helps to pump the carbon dioxide out of the lungs and pull the oxygen into the lungs. The diaphragm contracts when the oxygen is pulled into the lungs and relaxes when the carbon dioxide is pumped out of the lungs.
The oxygen in now in the blood and we now need to get the blood to the cells this is the job of the circulatory system.
Circulatory system actually happened in our heart and its function is to transport oxygen to all over the tissue in our body and removing metabolic waste product from the same tissue.
Our cardiovascular system consists of our:
Heart: it pumps blood containing oxygen from the lungs to the body, and passes blood without oxygen back to the lungs to absorb more oxygen. In a heart there are four chambers they are left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium, and right ventricle. Left atrium lies above the left ventricle and they are separated by the mitral valves. The right atrium lies above the right ventricle and they are separated by the tricuspid valve. The left side of the atrium received oxygenated blood from alveoli of the lungs and it goes through pulmonary vein and the blood push, the atrio- ventricular valves open and the blood enter into the ventricles, after fully enter, the atrio- ventricular shut and the blood pumps it into the aorta. From the aorta the blood is passed to the different parts of the body. In the heart, blood always goes in and out at the same time, at that time it makes noise because a valve is closing. And the right side of the atrium received deoxygenated blood through the veins and this blood passes into the right ventricle, which pumps into the pulmonary artery and back to the lungs in alveoli where diffusion take place and gas exchange took place. Oxygenated blood goes to tissue from lungs to the pulmonary vein and after that it goes to the left side of the heart, then to aorta and then renal artery, to the tissue. From the tissue the blood carry deoxygenated to the interior vena cava and then right side of the heart and pump through pulmonary artery to the lungs. This is how the circulatory keeps on happening in our body.
How Circulatory and Respiratory system work together?
Heart sends deoxygenated blood, which has come from the tissues returns to the right atrium of the heart via the vena cava. It passes into the right ventricle, and gets pumped to the lung through pulmonary artery. And oxygenated blood from the lungs returns to the left atrium of the heart. It passes into the left ventricle. From here, it is pumped to the body in the aorta and then to cell of the body. This is where the cardiovascular and respiratory system interacts. The respiratory and Cardio vascular system work together by supplying oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from the body.
2. Blood vessels: it is intricate networks of hollow tubes that transport blood throughout the entire body. It carries blood from the heart to all areas of the body. The blood travels from the
Heart via arteries to smaller arterioles, then to capillaries or sinusoids, to venules, to veins and back to the heart
* Arteries: these vessels take blood away from the heart. It has a thick wall and it is elastic/ muscles fibres.
* Capillaries: it is one epithelial cell thick. Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide take place through the thin capillary wall. It is very thin and fragile
* Veins: these vessels take blood to the heart. It has a thin wall and less elastic/ muscle fibres. Valves are also located inside the veins.
First stage of cardiac cycle is diastole which means the heart muscle is relaxed and the atria of the heart and then the ventricles are filled with the blood. As the atria fill with blood, the blood pushes the atrio-ventricular valves open and it allows blood to pass through the ventricles. And the next stage is atria systole; in here the muscular walls of the atria contracts. And this pushes the blood from the atria into the ventricles, so that the atria are now emptied. This pushes the atrio- ventricular valves fully open. And the last stage of the cardiac cycle is ventricles systole, in here the ventricle walls contract, forcing the blood out. The pressure of the blood forces the atrio-ventricular valves to shut (sound produce). The pressures of the blood open the semi-lunar valves. The blood in the right ventricle is pumped through semi-lunar into the pulmonary arteries and the blood in the left ventricle is pumped through semi-lunar valves into the aorta. After the ventricular systole, the heart muscle relaxed which is diastole.
This process is keeps on repeating.
Heart rate: it is the number of beats counted in one minute. To calculate this, you need to know the quantity of blood expelled from the left ventricle (known as the stoke volume) in one beat and the number of beats in one minute (or the heart rate).
Blood pressure: Blood pressure is the measurement of speed of the blood that flows in our arteries. It can be measured by using sphygmomanometer and it is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg). 1 and 2 numbers are given to measure the blood pressure. The first number is systolic pressure which is the maximum pressure in an artery at the moment when the heart is beating and pumping blood through the body. And the second number is diastolic pressure which is the lowest pressure in an artery in the moments between beats when the heart is resting. Our normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. If our blood pressure increase and goes higher than 140/90 mmHg then it is consider as high blood pressure and if our blood pressure goes lower than 90/60mmHg then it is consider as low blood pressure. Blood pressure is highest in blood vessels nearer the heart, like the aorta and the large arteries. Blood pressure drops rapidly as blood is forced through the arteries and the arterioles, as these muscular vessels present considerable resistance. Blood pressure in the capillaries is very low and blood in the veins has to be assisted back to the heart by a muscle pump.
ATP/ mitochondria/cellular respiratory
Cellular respiration means the chemical energy of "food" molecules is released and partially captured in the form of ATP. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be used as fuels in cellular respiration, but glucose is most commonly used as an example to examine the reactions and pathways involved. Cellular respiration also refers to the biochemical pathway by which cells release energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules and provide that energy for the essential processes of life. All living cells must carry out cellular respiration. It can be aerobic respiration in the presence of oxygen or anaerobic respiration. Prokaryotic cells carry out cellular respiration within the cytoplasm or on the inner surfaces of the cells. More emphasis here will be placed on eukaryotic cells where the mitochondria are the site of most of the reactions. The energy currency of these cells is ATP, and one way to view the outcome of cellular respiration is as a production process for ATP. Cellular respirations are divided into three parts they are:
* Glycolysis: it is occurs in the cytosol.
* The Krebs cycle takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria.
* Oxidative phosphorylation via the electron transport chain is carried out on the inner mitochondrial membrane.
This is the chemical equation balance of Aerobic respiration
C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP
Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy