Health and Social Care Unit 3 Health and Well being

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  • G.C.E. A Level Health and Social Care
  • Unit 3: Promoting good health
  • Jake Boddice



Research Methods

Chapter 1 (A01):

Evidence that candidates understand the principles of health and well-being, including the factors which can affect health and well-being.

Chapter 2 (A02): 

Applying knowledge and showing understanding of the job roles of key workers who promote health including information about two preventative measures.

Chapter 3 (A03):

Evidence of planning and carrying out a health promotion campaign.

Chapter 4 (A04):

Evidence of the impact of your health promotion campaign and your own performance.

Chapter 5:

Conclusions and evaluations




The focus of this portfolio will be to produce a report of the planning of and my participation in a small scale health promotion campaign

The evidence I need to provide is as follows:

  • I will show I understand the principles of health and well-being, including the factors which can affect health and well-being.
  • I will apply knowledge and show understanding of the job roles of key workers who promote health including information about two preventative measures.
  • I will show evidence of planning and carrying out a health promotion campaign.
  • I will show evidence of the impact of my health promotion campaign and your own performance.

Research Methods

This unit will look at the following research methods

Secondary data will come from existing materials such as:

  • Internet
  • Leaflets
  • Books
  • Magazines
  • Hand outs
  • Classroom notes
  • Radio
  • Podcasts
  • Surveys
  • Investigations

Primary data will come from my own personnel research such as:

  • Field notes
  • Covert and Overt observations
  • Interviews
  • Questionnaires

Chapter 1 (AO1):

Evidence that candidates understand the principles of health and well-being, including the factors which can affect health and well-being.

Chapter 1 (AO1):

Evidence that candidates understand the principles of health and well-being, including the factors which can affect health and well-being.


In this chapter I will look at showing and understanding of the principles of health and well-being. It will include the factors affect health and well-being.


A comprehensive description that shows an in depth understanding of health and well-being.


A comprehensive description that shows an in depth understanding of  how two different factors affect health and well being, giving a wide range of appropriate examples.


An in depth understanding of the differences between the medical and social models of health and well being when explaining in detail why individuals often fail to conform to health education advice; clear and accurate conclusions will be drawn about the medical and social models of health and well-being.


A comprehensive description of two ways in which individual’s quality of life is affected by ill health.


A comprehensive description that shows an in depth understanding of health and well-being.

The concepts of ill health

The concepts of ill health differ according to medical and social needs. In 1948 the world health organisation defined health as a “State of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.

However after many complaints and criticisms about the definition in 1948, the world health organisation produced an updated and new definition of health in 1984.

“The extent an individual or group is able, on the one hand, to realise aspirations and satisfy needs, and on the other hand, to change or cope with the environment. Health is therefore seen as a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living: it is a positive concept emphasising social and personnel resources as well as physical capabilities. “

As suggested by both definitions, being healthy is more than just feeling physically well. Healthiness is connected to people’s individual ability to reach their full potential, therefore all aspects of a person’s being must be considered:

Mental health

Strongly linked to emotional health this is the ability to have a clear mind and think coherently. Mental health describes a level of psychological well-being, or an absence of a mental disorder. Mental health may include an individual's ability to enjoy life, and create a balance between life activities and efforts.

Intellectual health

Intellectual health is our ability to think, learn and make decisions and judgements. Our intellectual health is maintained by everyday activities. We are always learning from changes that happen around us and decisions that we make. Everything that we read, watch and listen to has an effect on our intellectual health.

Physical health

How the body functions, this is the easiest aspect to see and measure. They particularly focused on height, weight, blood pressure, pulse rate and lung capacity. Physical and mental health are linked in many ways that people might not realise. This means that taking care of one can often make the other much easier to handle. This section explains why and also offers advice on how best to do this.

Social Health

The ability to make and maintain relationships of all kinds with other people in different environments. We are involved in relationships with other people .Our friends and family often influence the way that we think and feel. We are affected where we live, our education, our job and how much money we have. All of these can have greater or lesser effects on our well-being.

Emotional health

It is the ability to recognise and to express emotions such as joy, anger, fear, etc… Emotional health therefore means being able to cope with depression, stress and anxiety. Emotional health involves our ability to understand and recognise our personal feelings. We then as individuals need to learn to control and show these in different ways, how we feel depends on what is happening around us therefore how we use our emotions.

Holistic concept of health

The word holistic comes from “whole” Therefore in terms of holistic health the whole person is considered rather than just the spate individual aspects of health. It recognises and takes into account that each one of the aspects is as important as the other and they are all impacted on each other.  For example if you are emotionally unhappy and feeling upset then your mental and physical health can be impacted. This then can have a knock on effect on your social and spiritual health and well-being. Therefore it is very difficult to separate the aspects of health as they are all integrated together, this is a holistic concept.

Definitions of health

There are two main resources where Health definitions come from and are formed. These are the professional definitions from nurses, doctors and health care professionals, also the lay definitions from ordinary people in the street. Each of the two sources are equally as important as together it enables people to see health in two different perspectives.

Also the professional definition helps people to see how their health is viewed by doctors and other professionals; preventing them from getting confused or not understanding why in some cases they may be viewed as having ill health, or potential health problems. Whereas the lay version encompasses the beliefs that influence ordinary people and how they define their own individual health and categorise illness.

Some professional definitions of health are negative in that they view health as an absence of illness or disease. Positive definitions of health would be more concentrated on an individual’s full health rather than just the absence of ill health.

Negative Definition

 The negative definition is where health is viewed as an absence of illness. In this definition good health or a person being seen as healthy is defined by the absence of symptoms of illness, such as aches and pains. Anyone viewing health in this way would take good health for granted and just seeing everyone as healthy long as they did not have an illness of some form. They would also feel they would not take any measures to stay healthy and would still be seen as a healthy individual even if they say had a hangover or cold for instance. People with this intended mind set are more likely to ignore health advice as they feel they are a healthy individual and it will not make a big difference anyway.

Examples of a negative outlook of health is for instance if a person who binge drinks regularly, or is a heavy smoker not seeing themselves as in danger of ill health as this isn’t a disease or illness, they just see life as everyone has to die one day.

Nagging symptoms that tend to develop in the person but not causing too much trouble tend to be ignored leading to diseases developing, such as cancers. By ignoring the initial warning signs the cancers or other diseases can then advance and spread throughout the person. Once eventually diagnosed this person will play a passive or non participatory role in their treatment. They may feel ready to give in to the disease they may even feel they are being punished or victimised or just their time to go.

Positive definition

The positive concept of health also known as the personal responsibility of health is the model that puts people responsible for looking after themselves and thereby ensuring they are well. Individuals will be careful to eat a sensible diet and intake of nutritious healthy food such as fresh fruit and vegetables; wholegrain cereals lean protein foods and avoid processed and take away meals. Alcohol intake will be limit to the guidelines and regular exercise is always a must.

Such people will feel the pressure on them to keep themselves healthy. They will follow health advice from professionals set out to maintain their own personnel health, for example attending regular screening tests every three to five years as these have a positive action in maintaining a strong good health.

Recently in line with this way of thinking the government realised that people want to have choices when it comes to their own health, they want their voices heard. Therefore in the “white paper choosing health” they make it easier for people to make healthier choices themselves by letting them create their own agenda, not the government.


A comprehensive description that shows an in depth understanding of how two different factors affect health and well-being, giving a wide range of appropriate examples.

There are many different factors that contribute and effects are health and well being, it is not down to chance. Such things as who your parents our and the genes you inherit or even down to where you are born, environmental conditions, financial conditions.

Attitudes and Prejudice

One factor that can majorly affect health and well being is attitudes and prejudice as this is a key reason why sometimes service users will be too afraid or scared to go and see their GP or doctor.

This is not all to do with patients being scared that they will be treated differently due to particular prejudice views that they may feel health professionals may hold against certain people:

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Race
  • Sexuality
  • Religion
  • Class
  • Ethnicity
  • Accents
  • Area/country they are from
  • Clothing/ social groups

In fact it is more to do with the attitudes of the patient, for example they may be scared to seek advice about a problem as they are scared that it may be life threatening or serious. Or it could be that their problem may involve removing clothes which they feel uncomfortable in doing so, possibly involving an “embarrassing place.”

Also another attitude that a lot of patients have, although throughout patients it is more commonly occurring as a reason in the elderly, is that individuals don’t want to create a fuss, and they feel it is probably nothing and if they ignore the symptoms they may disappear. This is a bad idea as in a lot of cases this gives the illness or disease chance to spread or develop making a person’s health and well being deteriorate.  

Also some people may choose not seek health at their local GP as they don’t want to be lectured about their lifestyle choices that our affecting their health and well-being. Although it is the doctor’s job not to judge or force a patient to stop doing something, they are there to offer the facts support and advice. Making sure however that the individual is aware of the consequences if they do not change their lifestyle quickly.

Lifestyle choices

One of the biggest factors affecting an individual’s health and well-being is how they choose to live. Such as their diet-the food they eat, substance abuse- smoking and drinking, recreational activities- getting regular exercise and fresh air.

A balanced diet is important to maintain health and a sensible body weight. No single food will provide all the essential nutrients that the body needs to be healthy and function efficiently. A balanced diet should contain protein, fats, carbohydrates and fibre in the form of fresh vegetables and fresh fruit, all in the right amounts, providing you with a good supply of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and of course fresh drinking water. 

However as healthier food is more expensive, As the Acheson report noted that people in lower socio-economic groups are more likely to buy foods rich in fat and carbohydrates which have a high satiety level, also people in socio-economic groups:

  • Were more likely to be obese which would give them higher risk of poor health
  • Had lower birth weights in the higher groups which is linked to cardiovascular disease in later life
  • Were less likely to breast feed their babies therefore denying them protection
  • Tended to eat more processed foods containing more salt and fat which would again increase the chance of cardiovascular disease
  • Also they eat less fruit and vegetables and less food rich in dietary fibre therefore having a lower intake of anti-oxidants and vitamins

Therefore perhaps people would eat a more balanced diet if healthier foods were more affordable and cheaper in general, instead of buying cheap pre cooked micro-meals.


An in depth understanding of the differences between the medical and social models of health and well-being when explaining in detail why individuals often fail to conform to health education advice; clear and accurate conclusions will be drawn about the medical and social models of health and well-being.

The medical model of health

This Model of health looks at people as if they were machines. Think of each part of your body as an individual part, these parts make up systems which can be repaired, replaced or in a sense tinkered with rather like a mechanical piece of equipment.

For instance if someone feels ill they will go to their doctor who will diagnose the problem then provide some medication or recommend a minor operation or general overhaul depending on the severity of the symptoms. This is also known as a negative model as well as health is defined as the absence of disease.

Key features of the medical model

  • Disease is caused by bacteria, virus or genetic factors. Looks for biological process rather than social or emotional process.
  • A person is seen as a machine, other personnel aspects of life are not seen as a contributing factor to ill health under this model. For example money worries or work related stress.
  • Only deals with illness and ill heath rather than promotion of good health, for example balanced diet.
  • Health professionals can deal with ill health using a range of different medical advancements such as surgery, medicines and transplants.

The Social model of health

The main difference in-between the social model of health and the biomedical model of health is the social model recognises important factors such as education, poverty, lifestyle and housing on an individual’s health. This model doesn’t determine a single physical cause for someone to have poor health, but however does demonstrate how several factors will affect an individual’s health, taking into account such things as lifestyle choices and environmental factors.. The social model of health will recognise that ill health issues could be addressed to by resolving social issues, such as damp accommodation potentially causing bronchitis and repeated chest infections for an older person. By moving them to a more dry and comfortable environment, their poor physical symptoms can be dramatically improved and will make them feel better.

The Public Health Acts in 1848 and 1875 helped to ensure that the Local Board of Health monitored the sewerage, drainage and water supply to cities. Such health improvements like this in the UK at the time were due to social policies which reformed the provision of public health.

Key features of the Social model

  • It recognises that lots of complex factors present in society can contribute to ill health in an individual or a group of people
  • It shows that the origins of a person’s ill health must be addressed in order to help improve it
  • It shows that people can make simple lifestyle changes to help to improve their physical health


A comprehensive description of two ways in which individual’s quality of life is affected by ill health.

A person’s quality of life can have an effect on PIES; physical, intellectual, emotional and social health. Physical health is about growing and the affects something can have on your body. Intellectual is to do with your brain and how it might be used. Emotional health is all about your feelings and how you understand other people’s feelings. This can include whether you feel happy, sad, depressed etc. Social health is about how much time you socialise with your friends, family and other people, it is based on building successful relationships such as friendships. It can also include how easy you find it to talk to someone and build a new relationship with them.

Smoking and drinking can affect a person’s PIES. Smoking has very serious effects on a person’s physical well-being and their body. It does this by: raising blood pressure, reducing the oxygen level of the body, blood circulation is impaired, , increase in risk of heart attack, turn teeth yellow, increase in risk of strokes and leaving a person with bad breath.

Substance abuse such as smoking is again prevalent in the lower socio-economic groups. According to the Acheson report the poorer the person the more likely they are to smoke. A reason for may be that smoking can help to prevent hunger, so due to this smoking a load of fags may contribute to food, saving them a bit of money. According to the Acheson report the poorer the person the more likely they are to smoke. In 1996 Acheson found that 26% of men and 28% of women smoked. However, only 2% of professional men and 11% of professional women compared to 41% of unskilled men and 36% of unskilled women smoked. Richer people also smoked fewer cigarettes and were less likely to be addicted. This could be because richer people may not have a great need for an escape from their problems. Sometimes, people in the lower socio-economic groups find that smoking relieves stress and helps people to cope with their lifestyles. They feel smoking is all they have. Due to lower socio-economic groups smoking more this means they are at higher risk of developing lung cancer, having a heart attack, mouth cancer etc.

Drinking, too, can help people to forget about how they feel and make them feel happier for a while. This is one of the main attractions for drinking alcohol. This reason also overcomes the problems and illnesses that come with over drinking alcohol. This is why some homeless people drink, ‘as it helps you to forget your sleeping on the streets.’ Substance abuse such as glue sniffing can also help people to forget. However, any substance abuse is dangerous and can lead to bigger problems within a short period of time; ill health certainly and lack of food and money as people struggle to find their next fix.

Smoking also affects a person’s intellectual development according to researchers from the universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh. The researchers suggest a "small but significant" negative effect of 4% linked to the combined effects of smoking and impaired lung function - itself linked to smoking. It has been suggested in previous studies that there could be a link between impaired lung function and a negative effect on the thinking processes, but it is not clear what the mechanism for that might be.

Smoking can have both positive and negative effects for the way a smoker feels. At first the cigarettes may produce a feeling of rush and excitement. However, after a while this feeling will wear off. One of the negative effects to a person’s emotional development is by making them experience fear. Most smokers understand the long-term effects of smoking, especially when they notice shortness of breath, coughing and other health hazards caused by their habit. They realize it can lead to lung disorders, cancer and heart disease. Smokers might become more worried when they think of the consequences of smoking. In some cases, they might smoke more because of this worry.

Smoking affects a person’s social development by making them feel excluded from social events and activities because of the increasing concern about the dangers of both them smoking (how their body may react to some activities e.g. shortness of breath if it includes running) and the second-hand smoke. Adults have also been made aware, due to public health campaigns about how their smoking may influence their children in later life decisions and the affects it may have on their health (second-hand smoke). This means they cannot smoke in certain areas like homes, which may make them feel isolated and left out at times. Smoking has also been banned from indoor areas e.g. pubs, which means they might feel left out from what may be happening indoors while they are smoking outside.

Alcohol affects the body in a variety of different ways. It affects the body physically by the following. Alcohol acts like a sedative and slows down muscle coordination, reflexes, movement, and speech. If an individual drinks too much alcohol, his or her breathing or heart rate can reach dangerously low levels or even stop. It can cause cancer of the liver, throat, mouth, stomach, intestines, kidneys, and brain. If an individual drink alcohol too much on the go then these effects cannot be reversed but can only worsen.

Alcohol affects a person’s intellectual development and their mind. Alcohol depresses the brain and slows down its ability to control the body and mind. It has also been researched that alcohol can damage brain cells. Even though it does not kill the brain cells completely, if an individual drinks too much this may lead to problems with their mind, this may include problems with remembering things, not being able to complete a task properly. 

Alcohol affects a person emotionally by magnifying existing emotions. This means that if a person is depressed when they are drinking they will become more depressed after they have drunk. Other examples of this is when an angry person drinks they become more angry which may lead to violence.

Alcohol can also affect a person’s social development. Alcoholics like all addicts rearrange their lives to protect their sources of supply and do not hesitate to lie to loved ones or violate the law. This can then lead to a person being isolated from the people that care about them due to them pushing them away. Also by violating the law, a person can isolate themselves from the outside world. By breaking the law this may lead to people rejecting them due to disappointment and friendships being lost.  Drinking can risk someone social relationships and harm their performance in work and school

Primary research

For my Primary research, I interviewed Sue Pickering, a registered general nurse, also Holly Davis a student who is currently training to become a fully qualified health professional on the 9th of February.


A comprehensive description that shows an in depth understanding of health and well-being.

Can you give a definition of health and well-being?

Health and well-being as being holistic health; Holistic health and the Social model of health our very similar. They described how each patient would normally talk about a physical problem however in most of the cases the physical problem was linked very closely to their intellectual, social and emotional health. A great many of the clients they saw were suffering with mental health illnesses like depression and anxiety. Some patients present a form of bipolar disease which is an illness where the patient shows extreme hyper anxiety and low depression. They explained that this was an unbalance between the serotonin and cortisone. Finally Sue and Holly said that they were both trained to offer the social model and the holistic model of health.


How would you describe physical health?

 Sue and Holly spoke about physical health being largely the functions of the body. They particular focused on height, weight, blood pressure, Pulse rate, Lung capacity. They talked about Derby having highest obesity rate in the Country and much of their work was with trying to put preventative measures in place and support people who were obese making them aware of the risks and dangers to their health, focusing on their diet, general life style, exercise to improve their health. Contributing to high obesity rates was the fact there was much social deprivation.  They also said that fast food retail outlets were easily accessible in local areas.


How would you describe intellectual health?

Intellectual health refers to your ability to think and learn from life experience, being open to new ideas, and the ability of one to question and evaluate information. It is the utilization of human resources and learning resources to expand knowledge and improve skills.

 How would you describe mental health?

Mental Health and well- being is not just about being free from mental illness, but refers to a state of feeling well and confident to tackle life’s challenges. We all know that healthy eating and being active are essential for physical health. In the same ways it is just as vital to look after the health of our minds. Everyone has mental health and we all go through periods of ups and downs. Sometimes we find it more difficult to cope with things that at other times wouldn’t bother us.

There are many ways in which we can strengthen our mental resilience to overcome the low periods and get the most out of life.

There are several ways to improve your mental health such as:

  • Keep physically active
  • Eat well
  • Drink in moderation
  • Value yourself and others
  • Talk about your feelings
  • Keep in touch with friends and loved ones
  • Care for others
  • Get involved and make a contribution by Volunteering
  • Learn new skills
  • Do something creative
  • Take a break
  • Ask for help

How would you describe emotional health?

Emotions are an important part of being human. They help us to protect what’s important to us. If something or someone threatens our happiness or wellbeing, we feel uncomfortable emotions such as anger, sadness or fear. When we experience something that enhances our situation, we feel emotions such as joy, satisfaction or a sense of achievement. The way we’re brought up and our culture have a great influence on how we feel. They help us to form ideas and decide what we care about.

 How would you describe social health?

Social health often deals with how people relate to each other, and how an individual is able to socialize with other people and form relationships. This can deal with friendships, in terms of how well the person can form and keep friendships, and other types of relationships as well. There are a number of ways in which the different aspects of health are interrelated and have an impact on each other. For example, the study of human sexuality often deals with physical, mental, and social health in understanding how people relate to each other and how sexuality manifests for an individual and affects the relationships that individual has with others.

There is also evidence to indicate that isolation is not only a potential result of mental or physical illness, but may also cause or aggravate such an illness. This is why social health has become of increasing importance within the greater overall concept of human health and well-being. Many mental and physical health professionals have begun to recognize the importance of social interaction in a person’s ability to overcome illness.

How would you describe the holistic definition of health?

The definition of holistic health is simple and inclusive. It is your overall state of wellness on all levels of your being: physical, emotional, mental and spiritual. It covers the health of your entire being and extends to your resources, environment and relationships. 

Although we've become accustomed to examining and treating each of these areas separately, holistic health or wellness implies the health of the whole. In reality, your body, mind and spirit are completely intertwined and cannot be separated. They are aspects of the whole, not separate entities. To affect one level, either positively or negatively, influences your entire being.


A comprehensive description that shows an in depth understanding of how two different factors affect health and well-being, giving a wide range of appropriate examples.

Describe two different factors that affect health and well-being?

Sue spoke Allot about Lifestyle choices and how they affect health and well being. Whereas Holly seemed extremely knowledgeable about environmental factors, and covered a wide range of different examples, some which I was unaware off.

The way individuals choose to live their life impacts massively on their health and well being. People live different lifestyles and have a range of health related habits which can have a major impact on a person’s health.

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Weight Issues

Such as being overweight can contribute or lead to a range of health conditions, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, indigestion and some cancers. Adult and child obesity levels are becoming an increasing issue for the health service, as greater numbers of people put on extra weight, through poor diet or insufficient exercise. Obesity is measured using the Body Mass Index (BMI) formula, which is based on an individual’s height and weight. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight; a score of 30 or above is considered obese. As obesity is rising ...

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